M Lo

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (48)150.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the persistent antihypertensive effect observed after withdrawal of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition was specific and whether it was associated with durable improvement of renal function. Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats were treated from 3 and 12 weeks of age with perindopril at the dose of 0.4 (P0.4) or 1.5 (P1.5) mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), with double (hydralazine 75 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) and hydrochlorothiazide 15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), or triple antihypertensive therapy (reserpine 0.75 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) was added). Blood pressure (BP) was recorded by telemetry, and renal functions were evaluated in freely moving rats. Despite similar BP reduction after perindopril withdrawal in P0.4 and P1.5 groups, greater decrease in proteinuria was observed in P1.5 group. Double or triple therapy prevented the hypertension of LH rats, but without any persistent antihypertensive or antiproteinuric effect after its withdrawal. Salt load elicited an increase in BP that was similar in untreated LH and both perindopril-pretreated groups (+30 mm Hg), but more pronounced in double therapy–pretreated or triple therapy–pretreated groups (+50 mm Hg). The pressure–natriuresis curve shifted to lower BP levels in P0.4 and P1.5 groups, whereas it was blunted in double and triple therapy groups. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition has a durable renoprotection after treatment withdrawal that is independent of BP lowing.
    Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 11/2010; 57(2):240-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A region with a major effect on blood pressure (BP) is located on rat chromosome 1. We have previously isolated this region in reciprocal congenic strains (WKY.SHR-Sa and SHR.WKY-Sa) derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and shown that there are 2 distinct BP quantitative trait loci, BP1 and BP2, in this region. Sisa1, a congenic substrain from the SHR.WKY-Sa animals carrying an introgressed segment of 4.3Mb, contains BP1. Here, we report further dissection of BP1 by the creation of 2 new mutually exclusive congenic substrains (Sisa1a and Sisa1b) and interrogation of candidate genes by expression profiling and targeted transcript sequencing. Only 1 of the substrains (Sisa1a) continued to demonstrate a BP difference but with a reduced introgressed segment of 3Mb. Exonic sequencing of the 20 genes located in the Sisa1a region did not identify any major differences between SHR and WKY. However, microarray expression profiling of whole kidney samples and subsequent quantitative RT-PCR identified a single gene, Spon1 that exhibited significant differential expression between the WKY and SHR genotypes at both 6 and 24 weeks of age. Western blot analysis confirmed an increased level of the Spon1 gene product in SHR kidneys. Spon1 belongs to a family of genes with antiangiogenic properties. These findings justify further investigation of this novel positional candidate gene in BP control in hypertensive rat models and humans.
    Circulation Research 05/2007; 100(7):992-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early and chronic angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition prevents hypertension and improves the pressure natriuresis in Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats. The effect of this treatment on the responses of renal medullary blood flow (MBF) to angiotensin II (Ang II) was studied. In chronic experiments, Ang II (7.5 to 480 ng/kg, intravenous) was injected in 15-week-old anesthetized LH and normotensive (LL) control rats treated orally since weaning with perindopril (0.4 or 1.5 mg/kg/day) with or without pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg/kg intravenous). In acute experiment, Ang II (30 to 480 ng/kg intravenous) was given in LH rats treated acutely with perindopril (1.5 mg/kg, intravenous bolus). Administration of Ang II induced dose-dependent decreases in MBF, which were greater in LH than in LL rats. In LL rats, the initial and short-lasting (<1 min) medullary vasoconstriction evoked by Ang II was followed by a long-lasting (>2 min) and dose-dependent medullary vasodilation, which was blunted in LH rats. Chronic perindopril treatment normalized the blood pressure level in LH rats and corrected their blunted medullary vasodilation, whereas the same treatment had no significant effect in LL rats. In chronically perindopril-treated LH rats, indomethacin decreased by 90% the medullary vasodilation induced by Ang II. Acute perindopril treatment did not modify the medullary responses to Ang II in LH rats. Chronic ACE inhibition restores the vasodilator response of MBF to Ang II in LH rats. This effect, which is not observed after acute inhibition, is mainly mediated through the release of prostaglandins.
    American Journal of Hypertension 06/2006; 19(6):617-22. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) growth plays a key role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling gene transcription in VSMC remain poorly understood. We previously identified, by differential display, a new gene (6A3-5) overexpressed in proliferating rat VSMC. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA by screening a rat foetal brain cDNA library and investigated its functions. The 6A3-5 protein shows 4 putative conserved functional motifs: a DNA binding domain called ARID (AT-rich interaction domain), two recently described motifs (Osa Homology Domain), and a nuclear localization signal. The deduced protein sequence was observed to be 85% identical to the recently described human Osa2 gene. Immunolabelling, using an anti-6A3-5/Osa2 monoclonal antibody, showed a nuclear localization of the 6A3-5/Osa2 protein. In addition, PDGF upregulated 6A3-5/Osa2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The pattern of upregulation by PDGF was reminiscent of the early responsive gene c-fos. The PDGF-induced upregulation of 6A3-5/Osa2 and proliferation of VSMC were significantly inhibited in a dose and sequence-dependent fashion by an antisense, but not by sense, scrambled or mismatched oligonucleotides directed against 6A3-5/Osa2. In VSMC of aortas derived from hypertensive (LH) rats, 6A3-5/Osa2 is overexpressed as compared to that in normotensive (LL) rats. The 6A3-5/Osa2-gene expression is downregulated by an ACE inhibitor and upregulated by exogenous AngiotensinII in LH rats. In summary, these results indicate that 6A3-5/Osa2 is an early activated gene that belongs to a new family of proteins involved in the control of VSMC growth.
    BioMed Research International 02/2006; 2006(5):97287. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present work were to determine whether a brief renin-angiotensin system blockade with AT1 receptor antagonist or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may provide long-lasting protection against hypertension and proteinuria in both young and adult Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats. Young pre-hypertensive Lyon hypertensive rats were orally treated with 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/d of losartan, or with 0.4 mg/kg/d of perindopril from 3 to 12 weeks of age. Adult Lyon hypertensive rats were treated with 10 mg/kg/d of losartan, 0.4 mg/kg/d of perindopril, or a combination of both from 12 to 20 weeks of age. Telemetric blood pressure (BP) and urinary protein excretion were evaluated during and after treatment cessation. In young prehypertensive Lyon hypertensive rats, losartan fully prevented the hypertension and proteinuria; these effects were dose dependent and persisted long after treatment withdrawal. When renin-angiotensin system blockade was initiated in adult Lyon hypertensive rats with established hypertension, 10 mg/kg/d of losartan or 0.4 mg/kg/d of perindopril induced a significant regression in both blood pressure (15%-20%) and proteinuria (40%-50%) as did in young Lyon hypertensive rats; the combination treatment produced an additional effect only on blood pressure. After treatment cessation, a reduction in blood pressure persisted in all the pretreated adult Lyon hypertensive rats whereas the effect on proteinuria was less marked. In conclusion, whatever the blocker used, an early renin-angiotensin system blockade in prehypertensive Lyon hypertensive rats induces a durable prevention of hypertension and associated renal alterations. The similar renin-angiotensin system blockade in adult Lyon hypertensive rats provides a regression of hypertension and proteinuria, but the persistence of these beneficial effects is less pronounced than in young Lyon hypertensive rats, thus suggesting that the treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockers should be initiated as early as possible before the full expression of hypertension, to achieve the maximal long-lasting effects in mature stage.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 01/2006; 46(6):740-5. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH) rats, an early and long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with perindopril prevents their hypertension and renal alterations. The present work aimed to determine whether: 1) these effects persist after treatment withdrawal; 2) a short-term additional angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade with losartan potentiates these effects; and 3) an early combination of low doses of perindopril and losartan produces the same prolonged effects as monotherapy with a higher dose of perindopril. Perindopril (0.4 or 3 mg/kg/day orally) was given from 3 to 12 weeks of age to male LH rats. In other perindopril-treated LH rats, losartan (10 mg/kg/day orally) was added 1 week before perindopril withdrawal and during a 3-week period. In another group of LH rats, perindopril (0.1 mg/kg/day) and losartan (2.5 mg/kg/day) were given together from 3 to 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were monitored using radio-telemetry and renal function studied in anesthetized rats. Eight weeks after perindopril withdrawal, a significant reduction (P < .05) in SBP and DBP was observed with the both doses (SBP: 135 +/- 3, 139 +/- 5 v 157 +/- 4; DBP: 89 +/- 4, 93 +/- 5 v 111 +/- 3 mm Hg for 0.4 and 3 mg/kg/day v untreated LH rats). This was accompanied by a persistent decrease in urinary protein excretion and a long-lasting improvement in pressure natriuresis. The persistent antihypertensive effect was not improved by short-term addition of losartan. Interestingly, the early combination of perindopril with losartan at fourfold lower doses produced similar persistent antihypertensive and renoprotective effects. The blood pressure reduction produced by an early ACE inhibition in LH rats persists long after treatment withdrawal and is associated with an improvement in renal function. The combination of low doses of perindopril and losartan reveals a long-term effect similar to that of a monotherapy with a higher dose of perindopril.
    American Journal of Hypertension 06/2005; 18(5 Pt 1):699-706. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, a model of low-renin genetic hypertension, we investigated adrenal sensitivity to angiotensin II in terms of angiotensin II receptor (AT1 and AT2 receptors) regulation, morphological changes, and aldosterone and corticosterone secretion. Twelve-week-old LH rats, compared with normotensive LN and LL rats, were either untreated or treated for 4 weeks with AT1 receptor antagonist irbesartan (50 mg/kg/d), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril (3 mg/kg/d), or perindopril (3 mg/kg/d) plus angiotensin II infusion (200 ng/kg/min). At 16 weeks, untreated LH rats had high systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), low aldosterone (P<0.05), and increased corticosterone (P<0.05) plasma levels. AT1-receptor binding density in the zona glomerulosa was similar in the three strains. In LH rats, angiotensin II infusion increased the relative adrenal weight from 10.5+/-0.3 to 16.7+/-0.7 mg/100g (P<0.05), whereas this change was very modest in normotensive rats. Zona glomerulosa enlarged and plasma aldosterone increased after angiotensin II infusion in the 3 strains, but more markedly in LH versus normotensive rats (2.4- versus 1.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively; 20- versus 10-fold in normotensive rats, P<0.05). Surprisingly, after angiotensin II infusion, despite the absence of angiotensin II receptors in the three strains, the zona fasciculata-reticularis enlarged 1.5-fold and plasma corticosterone increased 1.7-fold only in LH rats (P<0.05), suggesting an indirect control of this compartment by angiotensin II. The hypertrophy and hypersecretory activity of both zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata-reticularis in LH rats in response to angiotensin II point to the adrenal cortex as a pivotal tissue in the pathophysiology of hypertension in LH rats.
    Hypertension 01/2004; 43(1):87-93. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the acute effects of ANG II (5-480 ng/kg iv) and phenylephrine (PE; 0.2-146 microg/kg iv) on total renal (RBF) and medullary blood flow (MBF) in anesthetized Lyon hypertensive (LH) and low-blood-pressure (LL) rats. ANG II and PE induced dose-dependent decreases in both RBF and MBF, which were greater in LH than in LL rats. Interestingly, after ANG II, but not after PE, the initial medullary vasoconstriction was followed by a long-lasting and dose-dependent vasodilation that was significantly blunted in LH compared with LL rats. The mechanisms of the MBF effects of ANG II were studied in LL rats only. Blockade of AT(1) receptors with losartan (10 mg/kg) abolished all the effects of ANG II, whereas AT(2) receptor blockade with PD-123319 (50 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) iv) did not change these effects. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg) decreased by approximately 90% the medullary vasodilation induced by the lowest doses of ANG II (from 15 ng/kg). In contrast, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg and 0.1 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) iv) and the bradykinin B(2)-receptor antagonist HOE-140 (20 microg/kg and 10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) iv) markedly lowered the medullary vasodilation at the highest doses of ANG II only. In conclusion, this study shows that LH rats exhibit an altered MBF response to ANG II compared with LL rats and indicates that the AT(1) receptor-mediated medullary vasodilator response to low doses of ANG II is mainly due to the release of PGs, whereas the dilator response to high doses of ANG II has additional nitric oxide- and kinin-dependent components.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 03/2003; 284(2):F365-72. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the data which demonstrate that Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH) rats exhibit a low renin form of hypertension. Since when compared to normotensive controls, LH rats exhibit a low renin release and are salt-sensitive. Despite this, the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system normalizes the blood pressure level and the regional blood flows in LH rats. Such a discrepancy between the compulsory presence of angiotensin II for the hypertension to develop and the low level of renin release seen in LH rats led to two hypotheses: 1) the existence of an early, short lasting increase of renin release which would be sufficient for the occurrence of a stable hypertension; 2) an hypersensitivity to the effects of angiotensin II. The study of the long-term effects of early short lasting blockades of the renin-angiotensin system allowed to exclude the first hypothesis. Concerning a hypersensitivity to the effects of angiotensin II, it was found to exist in the preglomerular vessels of LH rats. This increased response of renal vessels to angiotensin II may well explain the low renin form of hypertension of our model and therefore represents an important field for further research.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 02/2003; 24(1):1-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Because we previously observed that angiotensin AT2 receptor stimulation decreased pressure-natriuresis, in the present study we examined the possible involvement of these receptors in altered sodium excretion shown by Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats. 2. In 9-week-old male anaesthetized LH rats and normotensive (LL) controls pretreated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (quinapril; 10 mg/kg) and an AT1 receptor antagonist (losartan; 10 mg/kg), angiotensin (Ang) II was infused (30 ng/kg per min) to stimulate AT2 receptors. In other groups of rats, an AT2 receptor antagonist (PD123319; 50 micro g/kg per min) was added before AngII infusion. 3. During AT2 receptor stimulation, LH differed from LL rats by significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate and pressure diuresis and natriuresis. The addition of PD123319 did not change total RBF, whereas it did increase pressure diuresis and natriuresis in both strains. However, the effects of PD123319 were less marked in LH rats than in LL rats. 4. These findings confirm that, under the present experimental conditions, AT2 receptors are antinatriuretic and are not of greater functional importance in hypertensive animals of the Lyon strain.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2003; 30(5-6):413-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to assess, in Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, whether an early and prolonged inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could result in a blood pressure (BP) lowering and nephroprotection that persist after its withdrawal. Male LH rats received orally from 3 to 12 wk of age either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril at the doses of 0.4 and 3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) or an AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan at the dose of 10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1). BP, histological changes in the kidney, and urinary protein excretion were examined during and 10 wk after cessation of the treatments. Both perindopril and losartan decreased BP, prevented renal lesions, and limited urinary protein excretion. After cessation of the treatment, BP returned to the level of never-treated LH rats in rats having received 3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) of perindopril while it remained slightly lower in those treated with 0.4 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) of perindopril or with losartan. This lack of marked persistent antihypertensive effect contrasted with a durable decrease in urinary protein excretion and improvement of the renal histological lesions. In conclusion, it is possible to separate the BP-lowering effects of RAS blockade from those on glomerulosclerosis and urinary protein excretion.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 12/2002; 283(5):R1041-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One or more quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure (BP) exists on rat chromosome 1, in the vicinity of the Sa gene. The present work examined whether this QTL region: 1) alters pressure-natriuresis relationship and 2) affects the BP response to salt load. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, and rats from an SHR congenic strain that contains a WKY chromosome 1 segment spanning the BP QTL region (SHR. WKY-Sa) were used. In an acute study in anesthetized animals, renal function was measured at several levels of renal perfusion pressure. In a chronic study, BP was measured in freely moving rats using telemetry during normal and high sodium intake (2% NaCl as drinking water for 2 wk). WKY rats showed a significantly higher glomerular filtration rate and increased pressure-natriuresis compared with SHR. SHR.WKY-Sa also demonstrated an increased glomerular filtration rate and enhanced pressure-natriuresis, associated with a lower tubular sodium reabsorption, compared with SHR. These modifications were accompanied by a lower basal BP in SHR.WKY-Sa compared with SHR and a markedly reduced BP response to salt load. These findings suggest that the BP QTL(s) present in this region of chromosome 1 influences BP and salt sensitivity, at least partly, by modulating pressure-natriuresis.
    Physiological Genomics 03/2002; 8(1):15-21. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work studied renal medullary blood flow (MBF) and its response to salt load in Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats to understand the mechanisms underlying the abnormal renal sodium excretion exhibited by LH rats. Experiments were conducted in uninephrectomized, anesthetized, and volume-expanded 15-week-old male LH and their normotensive (LL) controls. Under standard diet, LH rats exhibited a blunted pressure diuresis and natriuresis associated with an absence of pressure-induced increase in MBF compared to LL rats. One week of salt load (2% NaCl as drinking water) induced a significant increase in blood pressure (BP) in LH (+11 mm Hg) than in LL (+6 mm Hg) rats associated with a decrease in MBF in LH rats only (from 182 +/- 25 to 122 +/- 20 perfusion units, P < .001). Finally, despite the salt load-induced increase in pressure natriuresis, it remained significantly lower in LH than in LL rats. The results show an alteration in MBF regulation in LH rats and suggest that this abnormality may be involved in their blunted pressure natriuresis and their enhanced salt sensitivity.
    American Journal of Hypertension 03/2002; 15(3):212-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetically hypertensive (LH) rats of the Lyon strain exhibit a blunted pressure-natriuresis function when compared, in acute conditions, with their normotensive (LN) and low blood pressure (LL) controls. The present work was aimed to determine whether LH rats were salt sensitive in chronic conditions. In addition, a protocol was developed to determine the renal function curve in freely moving rats. Fourteen-week-old rats either untreated or orally treated since weaning with perindopril (3 mg/kg/24 h), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or with valsartan (15 mg/kg/24 h), an angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor antagonist, so as to eliminate the influence of endogenous changes in angiotensin formation were used. Blood pressure (BP) and urinary sodium excretion were measured before, during an oral salt load (2% NaCl in drinking water), and during a two-week aldosterone infusion (50 microg/kg/24 h subcutaneously). NaCl induced a greater BP increase in untreated LH rats than in LN and LL controls. Perindopril normalized the BP of LH rats but not its elevation during a salt load. Aldosterone slightly increased BP in LH and LL rats either untreated or treated with valsartan. Finally, the combination of telemetric BP measurement with 24-hour urine collection when salt was added to drinking water allowed accurate determination of the slope of the chronic renal function curve in freely moving rats. The present work demonstrates that LH rats are salt sensitive. This characteristic manifests despite the lack of an active renin-angiotensin system and is not explained by a hypersensitivity to aldosterone.
    Kidney International 06/2001; 59(5):1865-72. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to the Lyon normotensive (LN) controls, adult Lyon hypertensive rats (LH) exhibit a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) dependent hypertension despite a low renin secretion. This discrepancy could be explained by the elevated slow pressor response to angiotensin II (AII) found in LH rats compared to LN controls. To evaluate more precisely the pathophysiological importance of this increased response, the present work aimed at determining whether the characteristics of the RAS were identical in LN and low blood pressure (LL) rats, the other normotensive control strain simultaneously selected with LH rats. Plasma and kidney renin and prorenin were measured in 11-week-old LN and LL rats. Aortic blood pressure (BP) was recorded at 15 weeks of age in freely moving rats of both strains either untreated or having received an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, perindopril (3 mg/kg/day orally) since the age of 3 weeks. Acute dose-response curves were constructed for AII and norepinephrine (NE). The long-term pressor effects of AII (200 ng/kg/ min) and NE (1000 ng/kg/min) were measured after chronic infusions in perindopril-treated LN and LL rats. LN and LL rats exhibited similar mean BP level before (114 +/- 2 and 117 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively) and after perindopril treatment (91 +/-3 and 93 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively). Plasma and kidney renin and prorenin were decreased in LL rats. In acute conditions, LL rats exhibited an unspecific hypersensitivity to AII and NE. Chronically given AII exerted a greater pressor effect in LL than in LN rats after 4 weeks (113 +/- 3 v 97 +/- 5 mm Hg in LL and LN rats respectively, P < .05) and, even more, after 8 weeks of infusion (144 +/- 9 v 124 +/- 4 mm Hg in LL and LN rats respectively, P < .05). The NE was devoid of chronic pressor effects. In conclusion, 1) the increased slow pressor response to AII may not be a critical pathogenetic factor in the development of hypertension, as it also exists in normotensive LL rats; 2) LN and LL rats have the same normal BP despite marked differences in their RAS, thus suggesting that there could be several forms of normotension as known for hypertension; and 3) the simple comparison between one genetically hypertensive strain and one single normotensive control strain does not allow one to conclude that a phenotypic difference is of pathophysiological significance.
    American Journal of Hypertension 03/2000; 13(3):283-9. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticosteroid activity in Lyon hypertensive (LH) and low blood pressure (LL) rat strains differ in several respects. Abnormal activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2), which interconvert corticosterone and inactive 11-dehydrocorticosterone, might contribute to the LH phenotype by regulating corticosteroid hormone access to receptors. 11beta-HSD2 (expressed in kidney but not liver) prevents endogenous glucocorticoids from binding to mineralocorticoid receptors. 11beta-HSD1 (expressed in liver and kidney) favors active glucocorticoid formation from 11-dehydrocorticosterone. 11beta-HSD properties in LH and LL have been compared by several approaches: (1) 11betaHSD activities have been measured in vitro as corticosterone dehydrogenation and in vivo as interconversion of injected cortisol and cortisone; (2) the effects of cortisol and cortisone on urine electrolytes and volume have been measured; and (3) 11beta-HSD mRNA expression has been measured by in situ hybridization. 11beta-HSD2 enzyme activities in LH and LL rats were similar and urinary cortisone:cortisol ratios were not different after cortisol injection. Cortisol caused a natriuresis and kaliuresis in both strains, with a slightly reduced response in LH rats. Renal 11beta-HSD2 mRNA expression was slightly lower in LH rats. 11beta-HSD1 was less active in LH than LL rats: enzyme activities were lower in tissue extracts; urinary cortisone:cortisol was lower in LL rats after cortisone injections; cortisone increased urine volume in LL but not LH rats; and mRNA levels tended to be lower in LH tissues. We conclude that 11beta-HSD1 is impaired in LH rats. The LH phenotype of heavier adrenals, raised corticosterone, and reduced thymus weight is similar to that described for 11beta-HSD1 knockout mice.
    Hypertension 12/1999; 34(5):1123-8. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that a brief period of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in growing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) induces long-term decrease of the blood pressure (BP) level. This study assessed whether persistent effects of ACE inhibition could be disclosed in Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH) rats treated from conception to age 3 weeks. ACE inhibition was obtained with captopril (100 mg/kg/24 h in the drinking water of the breeders) because this compound crosses the placental barrier. For each of the six treated pairs, the first litter was discarded, the second served as control, whereas the third and the fourth were obtained during captopril treatment. Six other pairs remained untreated. Aortic BP was beat-to-beat recorded in freely moving 14-week-old rats. It was observed that captopril reduced the number of newborns (42 in the second vs. 17 rats in the third litter of six LH pairs). BP and left ventricle weight did not differ between control and treated animals. It is concluded that, unlike SHRs, in LH rats, ACE inhibition is devoid of persistent effects on BP after cessation of the treatment.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/1999; 33(4):549-53. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work examined the effects of the subtype 2 of angiotensin II (AT2) receptors on the pressure-natriuresis using a new peptide agonist, and the possible involvement of cyclic guanosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in these effects. In adult anaesthetized rats (Inactin, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) deprived of endogenous angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (quinapril, 10 mg kg(-1), i.v.), T2-(Ang II 4-8)2 (TA), a highly specific AT2 receptor agonist (5, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.) or its solvent was infused in four groups. Renal functions were studied at renal perfusion pressures (RPP) of 90, 110 and 130 mmHg and urinary cyclic GMP excretion when RPP was at 130 mmHg. The effects of TA (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were reassessed in animals pretreated with PD 123319 (PD, 50 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), an AT2 receptor antagonist and the action of the same dose of PD alone was also determined. Increases in RPP from 90 to 130 mmHg did not change renal blood flow (RBF) but induced 8 and 15 fold increases in urinary flow and sodium excretion respectively. The 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) dose of TA was devoid of action. The 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1) doses did not alter total RBF and glomerular filtration rate, but blunted pressure-diuresis and natriuresis relationships. These effects were abolished by PD. TA decreased urinary cyclic GMP excretion. After pretreatment with PD, this decrease was reversed to an increase which was also observed in animals receiving PD alone. In conclusion, renal AT2 receptors oppose the sodium and water excretion induced by acute increases in blood pressure and this action cannot be directly explained by changes in cyclic GMP.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 03/1999; 126(3):826-32. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed at 1) comparing the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (SBRS) in Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH), normotensive (LN), and low blood pressure (LL) rats and 2) assessing some aspects of the mechanisms of its impairment in LH rats. Baroreflex was studied in control animals after an early chronic converting enzyme inhibition with perindopril and after a 4-wk infusion of ANG II in perindopril-treated rats. The SBRS was determined with a previously validated method, using statistical dependence between blood pressure (BP) and heart rate values recorded in freely moving animals. LH rats exhibited high BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and decreased SBRS (LH, 1.3 +/- 0.2; LN, 2.5 +/- 0.4; LL, 2.2 +/- 0.4 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1). Perindopril prevented the development of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy and normalized SBRS. BP rose in LH and LL rats after ANG II infusion, but only LH rats, which developed a cardiac hypertrophy, had an impaired SBRS (LH, 1.1 +/- 0.2; LN, 2.5 +/- 0.2; LL, 2.8 +/- 0.3 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1). This impairment was partially reversed by an acute ANG II blockade with losartan. These results demonstrate that high BP does not account for the decreased SBRS in LH rats. SBRS impairment could result either from cardiac hypertrophy or from the direct effect of ANG II on the baroreflex loop.
    The American journal of physiology 10/1998; 275(3 Pt 2):R920-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH) and normotensive (LN) rats by measuring 1) kidney renin and prorenin contents; 2) effects of early, prolonged angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on blood pressure (BP) and regional hemodynamics; and 3) acute and chronic responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) and norepinephrine (NE). At the adult age, LH rats differed from LN rats by elevated BP, left ventricle weight, and vascular resistances, especially in the kidneys, associated with lower kidney renin and prorenin contents. ACE inhibition (perindopril, 3 mg.kg-1.24 h-1 orally from 3 to 15 wk of age) suppressed the development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and the increase in renal vascular resistances. No specific hypersensitivity to ANG II could be disclosed in acute conditions. In perindopril-treated LH rats, a 4-wk infusion of ANG II (200 ng.kg-1.min-1) but not of NE (1,000 ng.kg-1.min-1) restored hypertension, mimicked the hemodynamic alterations seen in untreated LH rats, and produced a brief sodium retention. It is concluded that in LH rats, despite a low basal renin secretion, hypertension and hemodynamic abnormalities 1) are fully dependent on an active RAS and 2) may involve an enhanced sensitivity to the chronic effects of ANG II.
    The American journal of physiology 12/1997; 273(5 Pt 2):R1793-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

468 Citations
150.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • University of Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1999–2006
    • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
      • Département pédagogique de pharmacologie, physiologie et toxicologie
      Villeurbanne, Rhone-Alpes, France