Christopher S Parshuram

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (49)173.86 Total impact

  • Vijay Anand, Damon C Scales, Christopher S Parshuram, Brian P Kavanagh
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005 the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors issued a requirement that all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) be registered primarily to prevent selective reporting (publication bias). However, registries allow for alterations in study protocol. Changes occurring before (or after) study completion could invalidate the original study intent, leading to publication of misleading conclusions. In RCTs involving critically ill patients, these concerns may be particularly acute because mortality is high and conditions investigated are usually syndromes rather than specific diseases. This study was conducted to estimate the registration rate of RCTs in critical care; and, among registered RCTs, to determine timing of registration and whether sample size or primary outcome were altered. We searched the MEDLINE database for RCTs that began after or continued through July 2005. We determined whether each trial had been registered and, for registered trials, compared registry data to data in the published manuscript. Approximately two-thirds (66 %) of trials were registered. Of these, 66 % of registrations occurred after enrolment had commenced. Overall, 6 % (5/90) of trials appropriately registered a sample size which was unchanged from the interval between registration and publication, and only 12 % (11/90) reported primary outcomes that were both appropriately registered and unchanged. Non-registration, or registration after trial initiation, are common in RCTs of critically ill patients. Among registered trials important protocol changes are often made between trial commencement and publication. This study identifies and quantifies the extent of this serious-but correctable-problem for RCTs in critically ill patients.
    European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 04/2014; · 5.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine dose and eligibility criteria for once-daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin in critically ill pediatric patients. Retrospective chart review of patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit or Cardiac Critical Care Unit at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) who received traditionally dosed intravenous (IV) gentamicin (January 2008 to June 2010). Statistically significant patient characteristics associated with gentamicin pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were determined by multiple linear regression. Binary partitioning was used to set critical values for these characteristics to derive dose for ODD of gentamicin. Feasibility of implementing ODD of gentamicin in critically ill children was assessed using individualized PK parameters to simulate area under the concentration-time curves and drug-free intervals while targeting a maximum concentration (Cmax) of 16-20 mg/L. Eligibility criteria were determined by patient characteristics that had a statistically significant impact on gentamicin PK. Volume of distribution (Vd) and elimination rate constant (ke) were calculated for 140 patients. Weight and admission unit were significantly associated with weight-normalized Vd (Vd/kg), whereas age and serum creatinine (SCr) were significantly associated with ke. Weight <5 kg and SCr ≥20% over age-specific upper normal limit before gentamicin initiation were associated with prolonged gentamicin elimination. Gentamicin 6 mg/kg IV every 24 hours, the dose at which the highest percentage of patients achieved Cmax, area under the curve, and drug-free interval within target ranges simultaneously, was selected as the proposed ODD regimen. A regimen of gentamicin 6 mg/kg IV every 24 hours for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit/Cardiac Critical Care Unit patients at SickKids weighing ≥5 kg with SCr <20% above age-specific upper normal limit before initiation of gentamicin is proposed.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring 04/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Melissa J. Parker, Christopher S. Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the preferences and self-reported practices of pediatric acute care physicians with respect to sodium bicarbonate administration to infants and children in shock or cardiac arrest.
    Critical Care Medicine. 11/2013; 41(9):2188-2195.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe sleep quantity, sleep patterns, fatigue, and sleepiness for parents of critically ill hospitalized children. Prospective observational study. Quaternary academic PICU. One hundred eighteen parents of 91 children recruited during their child's PICU stay. None. For 5 days and nights, parents wore an actigraph to determine objective sleep-wake times and reported sleep location, level of fatigue (Fatigue Visual Analogue Scale), and sleepiness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale). Mean amounts of nocturnal sleep were less than recommended for optimal health (398 min, fathers vs 422 min, mothers; p = 0.04). Parents woke frequently (7.8 wakes, fathers; 7.2 wakes, mothers) and spent over an hour awake at night (65 min, fathers; 60 min, mothers). On 130 nights (26%), parents slept less than 6 hours and 209 nights (44%) were evaluated as "worse" sleep than usual. Fifty-four parents (53%) experienced more than 30% difference in minutes of sleep between consecutive nights. Mean morning fatigue levels (41 mm, fathers vs 46 mm, mothers; p = 0.03) indicated clinically significant fatigue. Sleeping in a hotel, parent room, or residence was associated with 3.2 more wakes per night (95% CI, 0.61-5.78; p = 0.015) than sleeping in a hospital lounge or waiting room. We performed a prospective observational study of 118 parents of critically ill children using objective measures of sleep and validated scales to assess fatigue and sleepiness. We found that more than a quarter of nights met criteria for acute sleep deprivation, there was considerable variability in the amount of nocturnal sleep that individual participants slept on different nights, and sleep was fragmented with a large portion of the night spent awake. Future research should focus on interventions that improve parents' ability to return to sleep upon awakening and maintain regular sleep-wake schedules.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 11/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Shanil Ebrahim, Christopher Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: Indirect and direct health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are intended to assess the same underlying constructs. There is evidence that the two types of assessments can show important differences. We assessed the agreement between the utilities of direct and indirect HRQoL measurements in children following pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. We collected Health Utilities Index 3 (HUI-3) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) ratings of children who were urgently admitted to the PICU of a university-affiliated pediatric hospital at ICU admission (baseline) and one month post-ICU admission. The mean (SD) VAS converted standard gamble and HUI-3 utilities were 0.82 (±0.19) and 0.70 (±0.39), respectively, at baseline (n = 51), and 0.81 (±0.15) and 0.58 (±0.39) at one month (n = 36). The VAS utilities were significantly greater than the HUI-3 utilities (p = 0.009). At baseline, the intraclass coefficient (95% confidence interval) was 0.49 (0.25-0.68), representing moderate agreement, and at one month, was 0.18 (-0.87 to 0.45), representing negligible agreement. There were significant differences between indirect and direct measures, and inconsistent agreement between utilities derived from the two measures. These data illustrate the potential impact of HRQoL assessment techniques on economic analyses used to inform health policy decision-making for pediatric critical care.
    Journal of Child Health Care 08/2013; · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the rate of documented infections and prevalence of antimicrobial use among pediatric patients admitted to the PICU. To assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing according to clinical and microbiological findings, Infectious Disease Consult recommendations, and formulary guidelines. Prospective point prevalence study. Cardiac and medical-surgical critical care units (CCCU-PICU) in a tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada. All patients admitted to the CCCU-PICU during the week of October 27, 2008 (period A) and February 9, 2009 (period B) were followed until completion of their antimicrobial course(s). Data were collected on infection types and indications, frequency, and types of antimicrobials used. Appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing was assessed according to predefined criteria by four blinded clinician assessors. Forty-two of 60 patients (70%) received antimicrobials in period A and 42 of 53 patients (79%) received antimicrobials in period B. Of the patients on antimicrobials, 45% in period A and 52% in period B had a definitive diagnosis of infection. Pneumonia and sepsis were the most common infections in period A, whereas pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections were the most common in period B. Antimicrobials were commonly prescribed for documented infection (38%) during period A and empiric therapy (47%) during period B. Cefazolin, cefuroxime, vancomycin, and gentamicin were the commonly used antimicrobials during both periods. Inappropriate antimicrobial use ranged from 16.7% to 61.9%, depending on assessors and surveillance period. The most common reasons for inappropriate use were overly broad spectrum, wrong dosage, and unwarranted overlap of spectrum. There was a high prevalence of antimicrobial use in CCCU-PICU patients. Because a significant proportion of antimicrobial use was deemed inappropriate, interventions are required to optimize antimicrobial use in critically ill children.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 07/2013; 14(6):e280-e288. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate whether variability in milrinone blood levels (MBL) occurs during administration to critically ill children after surgical repair of congenital heart disease, and the clinical relevance of this variability. METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching and referral hospital. MBL were measured at three time periods after starting milrinone infusion (9-12, 18-24, 40-48 h) and at the end of the infusion. MBL were categorized as within (100-300 ng/ml) or outside the therapeutic range. Low cardiac output syndrome was defined by elevation of either lactate (>2 mmol/l) or arteriovenous oxygen difference (>30 %). Five other clinical outcomes were evaluated. Regression analyses evaluated the relationships between MBL and outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included with a total of 220 MBL. Quantification of MBL was by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, 114 (52 %) MBL were outside the therapeutic range: 78 (36 %) subtherapeutic, and 36 (16 %) supratherapeutic. Repeated-measures analysis found a significant association between supratherapeutic MBL and low cardiac output syndrome (p = 0.02), and supratherapeutic MBL were associated with arterial-central venous oxygen saturation difference >30 % at time 3 (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, nontherapeutic MBL were common. Further investigation of milrinone dosing recommendations may improve the postoperative outcomes of children.
    European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 02/2013; · 5.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To describe the adaptive behavior and functional outcomes, and health-related quality of life of children who were urgently admitted to the intensive care unit. DESIGN:: Prospective observational study. SETTING:: Critical Care Medicine program at a University-affiliated pediatric institution. PATIENTS:: Urgently admitted patients, aged 1 month to 18 yrs. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: We evaluated children's adaptive behavior functioning with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2, functional outcomes with the pediatric cerebral performance category and pediatric overall performance category, and health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 and Visual Analogue Scale. We enrolled 91 children and 65 (71%) completed the 1-month assessment. Patients had a mean (SD) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2 rating of 83.2 (±24.8), considered to be moderate-low adaptive behavior functioning. From baseline to 1 month, pediatric cerebral performance category ratings did not significantly change (p ;= .59) and pediatric overall performance category ratings significantly improved (p = .03). Visual Analogue Scale ratings significantly worsened from baseline to 1 wk (p < 0.0001) and significantly improved from 1 wk to 1 month (p = 0.002). At 1 month, patients had a mean (SD) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 rating of 52.8 (±27.9) of 100, a poor quality of life rating. Circulatory admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, worse transcutaneous oxygen saturation, and longer cardiac compression duration were independently associated with worse adaptive behavior functioning. Neurological admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer intensive care unit stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse functional outcome. Worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer intensive care unit stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS:: Children surviving pediatric intensive care unit have significant adaptive behavior functioning and functional morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. Although neurologic morbidity following intensive care unit was associated with baseline state, we found that resuscitation intensity and illness severity factors were independently associated with the development of acquired brain injury and reduced quality of life.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 11/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Shanil Ebrahim, Simran Singh, Christopher S Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe satisfaction, involvement, presence, and preferences of parents following their child's admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A survey, administered 1 month after their child's ICU admission, described perceptions of parental satisfaction with their interaction with healthcare providers, their presence during resuscitation, involvement in treatment decision-making, and preferences if events were to be re-enacted. RESULTS: One hundred three parents of 91 patients were enrolled; 64 primary parents (70%) completed the survey at 1 month. The mean (SD) satisfaction rating was 87.6 (±14.8) and involvement rating was 70.2 (±34.4) on a scale from 0 (not satisfied/involved) to 100 (completely satisfied/involved). There were no differences in satisfaction (P = .46), involvement (P = .69) and change in preferences (P = .97) between parents who were present and not present. After adjusting for child's baseline illness, receipt of more ICU therapies was associated with worse parental satisfaction (P = .03). Twenty-four (38%) parents reported that if events were repeated, they would have changed their preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, parental satisfaction ratings were high, lower in parents of children receiving more ICU therapies, and not associated with presence during resuscitation. These data contrast the American Heart Association's recommendation and suggestion of benefit from parental presence during periods of intensive therapies.
    Journal of critical care 07/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    Morgan B Slater, Vijay Anand, Elizabeth M Uleryk, Christopher S Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: The RIFLE criteria were developed to improve consistency in the assessment of acute kidney injury. The high face validity, collaborative development method, and validation against mortality have supported the widespread adoption of the RIFLE to evaluate adult patients; however, its inconsistent application in adult studies is associated with significant effects on the estimated incidence of acute kidney injury. As the RIFLE criteria are now being used to determine acute kidney injury in children, we conducted a systematic review to describe its application and assess associations between the RIFLE and measures of mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. In 12 studies we found wide variation in the application of the RIFLE, including the range of assessed RIFLE categories, omission of urine output criteria, varying definitions of baseline renal function, and methods for handling missing baseline measurements. Limited and conflicting associations between the RIFLE and mortality, length of stay, illness severity, and measures of kidney function were found. Thus, although the RIFLE was developed to improve the consistency of defining acute kidney injury, there are still major discrepancies in its use in pediatric patients that may undermine its potential utility as a standardized measure of acute kidney injury in children.
    Kidney International 01/2012; 81(8):791-8. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The timely provision of critical care to hospitalised patients at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest is contingent upon identification and referral by frontline providers. Current approaches require improvement. In a single-centre study, we developed the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (Bedside PEWS) score to identify patients at risk. The objective of this study was to validate the Bedside PEWS score in a large patient population at multiple hospitals. We performed an international, multicentre, case-control study of children admitted to hospital inpatient units with no limitations on care. Case patients had experienced a clinical deterioration event involving either an immediate call to a resuscitation team or urgent admission to a paediatric intensive care unit. Control patients had no events. The scores ranged from 0 to 26 and were assessed in the 24 hours prior to the clinical deterioration event. Score performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUCROC) curve by comparison with the retrospective rating of nurses and the temporal progression of scores in case patients. A total of 2,074 patients were evaluated at 4 participating hospitals. The median (interquartile range) maximum Bedside PEWS scores for the 12 hours ending 1 hour before the clinical deterioration event were 8 (5 to 12) in case patients and 2 (1 to 4) in control patients (P < 0.0001). The AUCROC curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.87 (0.85 to 0.89). In case patients, mean scores were 5.3 at 20 to 24 hours and 8.4 at 0 to 4 hours before the event (P < 0.0001). The AUCROC curve (95% CI) of the retrospective nurse ratings was 0.83 (0.81 to 0.86). This was significantly lower than that of the Bedside PEWS score (P < 0.0001). The Bedside PEWS score identified children at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest. Scores were elevated and continued to increase in the 24 hours before the clinical deterioration event. Prospective clinical evaluation is needed to determine whether this score will improve the quality of care and patient outcomes.
    Critical care (London, England) 08/2011; 15(4):R184. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health care video recording has demonstrated value in education, performance assessment, quality improvement and clinical care. A survey was administered to paediatric hospitals in Great Britain, Canada and the United States. Heads of departments or delegates from six areas (emergency departments [EDs], operating rooms, paediatric intensive care units [PICUs], neonatal intensive care units [NICUs], simulation centres and neuroepilepsy units) were asked 10 questions about the prevalence, indications and process issues of video recording. Seventy hospitals were surveyed, totalling 307 clinical areas. The hospital response rate was 100%; the rate for clinical departments was 65%. Sixty-six hospitals (94%) currently use video recording. Video recording was used in 62 of 68 (91%) operating rooms; 36 of 69 (52%) PICUs; 35 of 67 (52%) NICUs; 12 of 65 (19%) EDs; seven of eight (88%) neuroepilepsy units and 13 of 14 (93%) simulation centres. Education was the most common indication (112 of 204 [55%]). Most sites obtained written consent. Since the introduction of more strict privacy legislation, 11 of 65 (17%) EDs have discontinued video recording. The present study describes video recording practices in paediatric hospitals in North America and Great Britain. Video recording is primarily used for education and most areas have a consent process.
    Paediatrics & child health 08/2011; 16(7):e57-60. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first large multicenter study to examine the effectiveness of a pediatric rapid response system (PRRS). The primary objective was to determine the effect of a PRRS using a physician-led team on the rate of actual cardiopulmonary arrests, defined as an event requiring chest compressions, epinephrine, or positive pressure ventilation. The secondary objectives were to determine the effect of PRRSs on the rate of PICU readmission within 48 hours of discharge and PICU mortality after readmission and urgent PICU admission. A PRRS was developed, implemented, and evaluated in a standardized manner across 4 pediatric academic centers in Ontario, Canada. The team responded to activations for inpatients and followed patients discharged from the PICU for 48 hours. A 2-year, prospective, observational study was conducted after implementation, and outcomes were compared with data collected 2 years before implementation. After PRRS implementation, there were 55 963 hospital admissions and a team activation rate of 44 per 1000 hospital admissions. There were 7302 patients followed after PICU discharge. Implementation of the PRRS was not associated with a reduction in the rate of actual cardiopulmonary arrests (1.9 vs 1.8 per 1000 hospital admissions; P=.68) or PICU mortality after urgent admission (1.3 vs 1.1 per 1000 hospital admissions; P=.25). There was a reduction in the PICU mortality rate after readmission (0.3 vs 0.1 death per 1000 hospital admissions; P=.05). The standardized implementation of a multicenter PRRS was associated with a decrease in the rate of PICU mortality after readmission but not actual cardiopulmonary arrests.
    PEDIATRICS 06/2011; 128(1):72-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On July 1, 2009, in Ontario the maximum period of continuous duty that residents were permitted to work was reduced from 28 to 24 hours. We evaluated the effect of regulation on residents in 3 eras: 2 before (2005 and early 2009) and 1 after (late 2009) the duty-hour reduction. On-call pediatric residents on pediatric medicine rotations prospectively recorded the numbers of patients (assigned and admitted) and the durations of direct patient care, documentation, staff supervision, and education attended. Sleep was measured with actigraphy. The 51 residents worked 180 duty periods, were assigned a median of 6 (interquartile range: 4 -12) daytime patients and 24 (interquartile range: 19-30) overnight patients. Residents reported spending means of 239 minutes providing direct patient care, 235 minutes documenting, and 243 minutes sleeping and receiving 73 minutes of staff supervision and 52 minutes of education. From early 2009 to after duty-hour reduction, residents provided 47 fewer (19.6%) minutes of direct patient care (P = .056) and received 44 fewer minutes (60.3%) of supervision (P = .0005) but spent similar times documenting, receiving education, and sleeping. In early 2009, residents provided 73 more minutes (30.5%) of direct patient care (P = .0016), spent 63 more minutes (26.8%) documenting, and slept 105 fewer minutes (43.0%) (P = .0062) than in 2005. After duty-hour reduction in 2009, we found reduced supervision and direct patient care. Comparison of the 2 periods before duty-hour reduction showed less sleep and longer patient contact in early 2009, which suggests that changes occurred without regulation.
    PEDIATRICS 06/2011; 127(6):1080-7. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Digital recording is ubiquitous in the community. Its objectivity, permanence and utility in medical education have led to increasing use in health-care settings. As participants in this process, the perspectives of families are important to inform practice. We surveyed family members of hospitalized children to evaluate their opinions. A survey was administered to adults in emergency, operating room or ICU waiting areas at a university-affiliated paediatric hospital in Toronto. Respondents rated the frequency of digital recording in the community and hospital environments, the acceptability of five clinical indications and of consent discussions. Participants completed 154 surveys (response rate 83%) with median (interquartile range) of 2 (1-2) children. Community use of recording >4 times in the week prior was reported by 47 (31%); 42 (28%) reported no recording. The respondents rated the following indications for digital recording acceptable in the health care research 142 (94%), medical education 140 (93%), quality improvement 140 (92%), patient safety 147 (97%), and clinical care (96%). Within healthcare, consent discussions at different times were rated as acceptable before recording by 99%; after recording by 41%; and with no consent by 17%. We performed the first post-privacy legislation survey of digital recording in Canadian health care. There is widespread acceptance of digital recording in public spaces and health care; however, respondents preferred to provide consent before recording. Balancing these preferences with the demonstrated advantages of video recording in health care presents challenges for optimal health policy creation. This study provides contemporary data to inform discussions.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 06/2011; 47(6):335-9. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late transfer of children with critical illness from community hospitals undermines the advantages of community-based care. It was hypothesized that implementation of the Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (Bedside PEWS) would reduce late transfers. A prospective before-and-after study was performed in a community hospital 22-bed inpatient paediatric ward. The primary outcome, significant clinical deterioration, was a composite measure of circulatory and respiratory support before transfer. Secondary outcomes were stat calls and resuscitation team calls, paediatrician workload and perceptions of frontline staff. Care was evaluated for 842 patient-days before and 2350 patient-days after implementation. The median inpatient census was 13. Implementation of the Bedside PEWS was associated with fewer stat calls to paediatricians (22.6 versus 5.1 per 1000 patient-days; P<0.0001), fewer significant clinical deterioration events (2.4 versus 0.43 per 1000 patient-days; P=0.013), reduced apprehension when calling the physician and no change in paediatrician workload. Implementation of the Bedside PEWS is feasible and safe, and may improve clinical outcomes.
    Paediatrics & child health 03/2011; 16(3):e18-22. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Navjeet Uppal, Baseer Yasseen, Winnie Seto, Christopher S Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous doses of medications require formulations that permit accurate preparation and administration. Current equipment does not permit accurate measurement of volumes less than 0.1 mL. In a study of four hypothetical standard pediatric patients, we found that 28 common medications required less than 0.1 mL of available formulation to prepare the dose. In a clinical study of actual use in a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), 5245 (7.4%) of 71 218 intravenous doses required preparation from less than 0.1 mL of stock solution. For 28.5% of the 1531 ICU admissions, at least one dose was prepared from a volume of less than 0.1 mL. Our findings identify a substantial source of dosing error. Correction will require revision of preparation methods, regulatory requirements and manufacturing practices.
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 02/2011; 183(4):E246-8. · 6.47 Impact Factor
  • Robyn Stremler, Zahida Dhukai, Lily Wong, Christopher Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe factors affecting the sleep of parents of critically ill children and to determine strategies used to improve their sleep. One hundred and eighteen parents of 91 children recruited during their child's paediatric intensive care unit stay responded in writing to open-ended questions assessing their experiences with sleep and eliciting ideas for strategies to promote sleep to be used by parents and provided by hospital staff. Patterns and concepts were coded and organised into themes using a qualitative descriptive approach. Seven themes emerged related to influences on and strategies to improve sleep: (1) the child's condition; (2) being at the bedside or not; (3) difficult thoughts and feelings; (4) changes to usual sleep; (5) caring for self and family; (6) the hospital environment and (7) access to sleep locations. Parents described multiple, often competing, demands that affected their ability to achieve sleep, regardless of location. Many more factors that influenced sleep were described than strategies to improve sleep, highlighting the need for nurses to explore with parents the unique barriers and facilitators to sleep they encounter and to develop and rigorously test interventions to improve sleep.
    Intensive & critical care nursing: the official journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses 02/2011; 27(1):37-45.
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    Teresa Bishara, Winnie T W Seto, Angela Trope, Christopher S Parshuram
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal dose adjustment of milrinone in critically ill children is challenging because of conflicting information about the association between dose and outcomes in this age group. To describe the use of milrinone in critically ill children and to explore associations between milrinone dosing and clinical outcomes, specifically effectiveness and adverse events. This retrospective cohort study was performed in a consecutive sample of children admitted to a university-affiliated critical care unit (January to June 2004). The relations between milrinone dosing and its effectiveness (based on prevention of low cardiac output syndrome, defined as a difference in oxygen saturation between arterial and mixed venous blood of at least 30% or an increase in serum lactate > 2 mmol/L) and its adverse effects (thrombocytopenia, arrhythmia) were evaluated by logistic regression. A total of 197 children from 213 admissions (ranging in age from newborn to 18 years) were included in the study. Milrinone was initiated with a median loading dose of 99.2 μg/kg (range 22.1-162.2 μg/kg). The initial loading dose was higher if given in the operating room rather than the Critical Care Unit (median 99.7 versus 51.0 μg/kg; p < 0.001). Subsequent loading doses, for patients who received them, were lower (median 49 μg/kg). Milrinone was infused at a median rate of 0.64 μg/kg per minute (range 0.13-2.08 μg/kg per minute) for a median of 43.1 h. There was no relation between serum creatinine level and the maintenance dose of milrinone (r2 ≤ 0.0335). Low cardiac output syndrome was relatively frequent (166 [77.9%] of the 213 admissions). There was a trend for occurrence of this syndrome in patients with greater average milrinone dose rate (odds ratio [OR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-69.15, p = 0.053) and with longer duration of milrinone therapy (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p < 0.05). Adverse events were relatively frequent (thrombocytopenia for 27 admissions [12.7%], arrhythmia for 82 admissions [38.5%]) but were not significantly associated with milrinone dosing. A retrospective evaluation of milrinone use in critically ill children revealed variable utilization and frequent occurrence of both low cardiac output syndrome and adverse events. Further prospective research is needed to understand the impact of individual pharmacokinetic differences on pharmacodynamic responses, to guide optimal dose adjustment, improve outcomes, and minimize toxic effects.
    The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy 11/2010; 63(6):420-8.
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    Christopher S Parshuram, James Hutchison, Kristen Middaugh
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse outcomes following clinical deterioration in children admitted to hospital wards is frequently preventable. Identification of children for referral to critical care experts remains problematic. Our objective was to develop and validate a simple bedside score to quantify severity of illness in hospitalized children. A case-control design was used to evaluate 11 candidate items and identify a pragmatic score for routine bedside use. Case-patients were urgently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Control-patients had no 'code blue', ICU admission or care restrictions. Validation was performed using two prospectively collected datasets. Data from 60 case and 120 control-patients was obtained. Four out of eleven candidate-items were removed. The seven-item Bedside Paediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score ranges from 0-26. The mean maximum scores were 10.1 in case-patients and 3.4 in control-patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.91, compared with 0.84 for the retrospective nurse-rating of patient risk for near or actual cardiopulmonary arrest. At a score of 8 the sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 93%, respectively. The score increased over 24 hours preceding urgent paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission (P < 0.0001). In 436 urgent consultations, the Bedside PEWS score was higher in patients admitted to the ICU than patients who were not admitted (P < 0.0001). We developed and performed the initial validation of the Bedside PEWS score. This 7-item score can quantify severity of illness in hospitalized children and identify critically ill children with at least one hours notice. Prospective validation in other populations is required before clinical application.
    Critical care (London, England) 09/2009; 13(4):R135. · 4.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

530 Citations
173.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2013
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Toronto
      • • Division of Critical Care Medicine
      • • Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003–2012
    • SickKids
      • Department of Critical Care Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • North York General Hospital
      North York, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands