[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used rapid-mix flow cytometry to analyze the early subsecond dynamics of the disassembly of ternary complexes of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) immobilized on beads to examine individual steps associated with guanine nucleotide activation. Our earlier studies suggested that the slow dissociation of Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits was unlikely to be an essential component of cell activation. However, these studies did not have adequate time resolution to define precisely the disassembly kinetics. Ternary complexes were assembled using three formyl peptide receptor constructs (wild type, formyl peptide receptor-Galpha(i2) fusion, and formyl peptide receptor-green fluorescent protein fusion) and two isotypes of the alpha subunit (alpha(i2) and alpha(i3)) and betagamma dimer (beta(1)gamma(2) and beta(4)gamma(2)). At saturating nucleotide levels, the disassembly of a significant fraction of ternary complexes occurred on a subsecond time frame for alpha(i2) complexes and tau(1/2)< or =4s for alpha(i3) complexes, time scales that are compatible with cell activation. beta(1)gamma(2) isotype complexes were generally more stable than beta(4)gamma(2)-associated complexes. The comparison of the three constructs, however, proved that the fast step was associated with the separation of receptor and G protein and that the dissociation of the ligand or of the alpha and betagamma subunits was slower. These results are compatible with a cell activation model involving G protein conformational changes rather than disassembly of Galphabetagamma heterotrimer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ggamma11 is an unusual guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein) subunit. To study the effect of different Gbeta-binding partners on gamma11 function, four recombinant betagamma dimers, beta1gamma2, beta4gamma2, beta1gamma11, and beta4gamma11, were characterized in a receptor reconstitution assay with the G(q)-linked M1 muscarinic and the G(i1)-linked A1 adenosine receptors. The beta4gamma11 dimer was up to 30-fold less efficient than beta4gamma2 at promoting agonist-dependent binding of [35S]GTPgammaS to either alpha(q) or alpha(i1). Using a competition assay to measure relative affinities of purified betagamma dimers for alpha, the beta4gamma11 dimer had a 15-fold lower affinity for G(i1) alpha than beta4gamma2. Chromatographic characterization of the beta4gamma11 dimer revealed that the betagamma is stable in a heterotrimeric complex with G(i1) alpha; however, upon activation of alpha with MgCl2 and GTPgammaS under nondenaturing conditions, the beta4 and gamma11 subunits dissociate. Activation of purified G(i1) alpha:beta4gamma11 with Mg+2/GTPgammaS following reconstitution into lipid vesicles and incubation with phospholipase C (PLC)-beta resulted in stimulation of PLC-beta activity; however, when this activation preceded reconstitution into vesicles, PLC-beta activity was markedly diminished. In a membrane coupling assay designed to measure the ability of G protein to promote a high-affinity agonist-binding conformation of the A1 adenosine receptor, beta4gamma11 was as effective as beta4gamma2 when coexpressed with G(i1) alpha and receptor. However, G(i1) alpha:beta4gamma11-induced high-affinity binding was up to 20-fold more sensitive to GTPgammaS than G(i1) alpha:beta4gamma2-induced high-affinity binding. These results suggest that the stability of the beta4gamma11 dimer can modulate G protein activity at the receptor and effector.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gbetagamma, a ubiquitous second messenger, relays external signals from G protein-coupled receptors to networks of intracellular effectors, including voltage-dependent calcium channels. Unlike high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, the inhibition of low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels is subtype-dependent and mediated selectively by Gbeta(2)-containing dimers. Yet, the molecular basis for this exquisite selectivity remains unknown. Here, we used pure recombinant Gbetagamma subunits to establish that the Gbeta(2)gamma(2) dimer can selectively reconstitute the inhibition of alpha(1H) channels in isolated membrane patches. This inhibition is the result of a reduction in channel open probability that is not accompanied by a change in channel expression or an alteration in active-channel gating. By exchanging residues between the active Gbeta(2) subunit and the inactive Gbeta(1) subunit, we identified a cluster of amino acids that functionally distinguish Gbeta(2) from other Gbeta subunits. These amino acids on the beta-torus identify a region that is distinct from those regions that contact the Galpha subunit or other effectors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2006; 103(39):14590-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G betagamma dimers containing the gamma11 or gamma1 subunits are often less potent and effective in their ability to regulate effectors compared with dimers containing the gamma2 subunit. To explore the regions of the gamma subunit that affect the activity of the betagamma dimer, we constructed eight chimeric gamma subunits from the gamma1 and gamma2 subunits. Two chimeras were made in which the N-terminal regions of gamma1 and gamma2 were exchanged and two in which the C-terminal regions were transposed. Another set of chimeras was made in which the CAAX motifs of the chimeras were altered to direct modification with different prenyl groups. All eight gamma chimeras were expressed in Sf9 cells with the beta1 subunit, G betagamma dimers were purified, and then they were assayed in vitro for their ability to bind to the G alpha(i1) subunit, to couple G alpha(i1) to the A1 adenosine receptor, to stimulate phospholipase C-beta, and to regulate type I or type II adenyl cyclases. Dimers containing the C-terminal sequence of the gamma2 subunit modified with the geranylgeranyl lipid had the highest affinity for G(i1)alpha (range, 0.5-1.2 nM) and were most effective at coupling the G(i1)alpha subunit to receptor. These dimers were most effective at stimulating the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-beta isoform and inhibiting type I adenyl cyclase. In contrast, betagamma dimers containing the N-terminal sequence of the gamma2 subunit and a geranylgeranyl group are most effective at activating type II adenyl cyclase. The results indicate that both the N- and C-terminal regions of the gamma subunit impart specificity to receptor and effector interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two-pore-domain K(+) channels provide neuronal background currents that establish resting membrane potential and input resistance; their modulation provides a prevalent mechanism for regulating cellular excitability. The so-called TASK channel subunits (TASK-1 and TASK-3) are widely expressed, and they are robustly inhibited by receptors that signal through Galphaq family proteins. Here, we manipulated G protein expression and membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) levels in intact and cell-free systems to provide electrophysiological and biochemical evidence that inhibition of TASK channels by Galphaq-linked receptors proceeds unabated in the absence of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, and instead involves association of activated Galphaq subunits with the channels. Receptor-mediated inhibition of TASK channels was faster and less sensitive to a PLCbeta1-ct minigene construct than inhibition of PIP(2)-sensitive Kir3.4(S143T) homomeric channels that is known to be dependent on PLC. TASK channels were strongly inhibited by constitutively active Galphaq, even by a mutated version that is deficient in PLC activation. Receptor-mediated TASK channel inhibition required exogenous Galphaq expression in fibroblasts derived from Galphaq/11 knockout mice, but proceeded unabated in a cell line in which PIP(2) levels were reduced by regulated overexpression of a lipid phosphatase. Direct application of activated Galphaq, but not other G protein subunits, inhibited TASK channels in excised patches, and constitutively active Galphaq subunits were selectively coimmunoprecipitated with TASK channels. These data indicate that receptor-mediated TASK channel inhibition is independent of PIP(2) depletion, and they suggest a mechanism whereby channel modulation by Galphaq occurs through direct interaction with the ion channel or a closely associated intermediary.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2006; 103(9):3422-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-Rex1 is a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, which is present in high abundance in brain and hematopoietic cells. P-Rex1 is dually regulated by phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. We examined which of the multiple G protein alpha and betagamma subunits activate P-Rex1-mediated Rac guanine nucleotide exchange using pure, recombinant proteins reconstituted into synthetic lipid vesicles. AlF(-)(4) activated G(s),G(i),G(q),G(12), or G(13) alpha subunits were unable to activate P-Rex1. Gbetagamma dimers containing Gbeta(1-4) complexed with gamma(2) stimulated P-Rex1 activity with EC(50) values ranging from 10 to 20 nm. Gbeta(5)gamma(2) was not able to stimulate P-Rex1 GEF activity. Dimers containing the beta(1) subunit complexed with a panel of different Ggamma subunits varied in their ability to stimulate P-Rex1. The beta(1)gamma(3), beta(1)gamma(7), beta(1)gamma(10), and beta(1)gamma(13HA) dimers all activated P-Rex1 with EC(50) values ranging from 20 to 38 nm. Dimers composed of beta(1)gamma(12) had lower EC(50) values (approximately 112 nm). The farnesylated gamma(11) subunit is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells; surprisingly, dimers containing this subunit (beta(1)gamma(11)) were also less effective at activating P-Rex1. These findings suggest that the composition of the Gbetagamma dimer released by receptor activation may differentially activate P-Rex1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(4):1913-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rac activation is a key step in chemotaxis of hematopoietic cells, which is both positively and negatively regulated by receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. P-Rex1, a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is dually activated by phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) and the Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. This study explored the regulation of P-Rex1 by phosphorylation with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) in vitro and by G(i)- and G(s)-coupled receptors in HEK293T cells. P-Rex1 isolated from Sf9 and HEK293T cells migrates as two distinct bands that are partially phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of P-Rex1 with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibits the PIP(3)- and Gbetagamma-stimulated P-Rex1 guanine nucleotide exchange activity on Rac. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity of three different forms of P-Rex1 (native Sf9, de-phosphorylated, and phosphorylated) was examined in the presence of PIP(3) and varying concentrations of Gbeta(1)gamma(2). Gbeta(1)gamma(2) was 47-fold less potent in activating the phosphorylated form of P-Rex1 compared with the de-phosphorylated form. HEK293T cells expressing P-Rex1 were labeled with (32)P and stimulated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to release Gbetagamma or isoproterenol to activate PKA. Treatment with isoproterenol or S(p)-cAMPS, a potent activator of PKA, increased the incorporation of (32)P into P-Rex1. LPA increased the amount of GTP-bound Rac in the cells and isoproterenol reduced basal levels of GTP-bound Rac and blunted the effect of LPA. Treatment of the cells with S(p)-cAMPS also reduced the levels of GTP-bound Rac. These results outline a novel mechanism for G(s)-linked receptors to regulate the function of P-Rex1 and inhibit its function in cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(4):1921-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of G protein alpha and betagamma subunits to activate the p110gamma isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase) was examined using pure, recombinant G proteins and the p101/p110gamma form of PtdIns 3-kinase reconstituted into synthetic lipid vesicles. GTP-activated Gs, Gi, Gq, or Go alpha subunits were unable to activate PtdIns 3-kinase. Dimers containing Gbeta(1-4) complexed with gamma2-stimulated PtdIns 3-kinase activity about 26-fold with EC50 values ranging from 4 to 7 nm. Gbeta5gamma2 was not able to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase despite producing a 10-fold activation of avian phospholipase Cbeta. A series of dimers with beta subunits containing point mutations in the amino acids that undergo a conformational change upon interaction of betagamma with phosducin (beta1H311Agamma2, beta1R314Agamma2, and beta1W332Agamma2) was tested, and only beta1W332Agamma2 inhibited the ability of the dimer to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase. Dimers containing the beta1 subunit complexed with a panel of different Ggamma subunits displayed variation in their ability to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase. The beta1gamma2, beta1gamma10, beta1gamma12, and beta1gamma13 dimers all activated PtdIns 3-kinase about 26-fold with 4-25 nm EC50 values. The beta1gamma11 dimer, which contains the farnesyl isoprenoid group and is highly expressed in tissues containing the p101/p110gamma form of PtdIns 3-kinase, was ineffective. The role of the prenyl group on the gamma subunit in determining the activation of PtdIns 3-kinase was examined using gamma subunits with altered CAAX boxes directing the addition of farnesyl to the gamma2 subunit and geranylgeranyl to the gamma1 and gamma11 subunits. Replacement of the geranylgeranyl group of the gamma2 subunit with farnesyl inhibited the activity of beta1gamma2 on PtdIns 3-kinase. Conversely, replacement of the farnesyl group on the gamma1 and gamma11 subunit with geranylgeranyl restored almost full activity. These findings suggest that all beta subunits, with the exception of beta5, interact equally well with PtdIns 3-kinase. In contrast, the composition of the gamma subunit and its prenyl group markedly affects the ability of the betagamma dimer to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2004; 279(43):44554-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of G protein α and βγ subunits to activate the p110γ isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase)
was examined using pure, recombinant G proteins and the p101/p110γ form of PtdIns 3-kinase reconstituted into synthetic lipid
vesicles. GTP-activated Gs, Gi, Gq, or Go α subunits were unable to activate PtdIns 3-kinase. Dimers containing Gβ1–4 complexed with γ2-stimulated PtdIns 3-kinase activity about 26-fold with EC50 values ranging from 4 to 7 nm. Gβ5γ2 was not able to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase despite producing a 10-fold activation of avian phospholipase Cβ. A series of dimers
with β subunits containing point mutations in the amino acids that undergo a conformational change upon interaction of βγ
with phosducin (β1H311Aγ2, β1R314Aγ2, and β1W332Aγ2) was tested, and only β1W332Aγ2 inhibited the ability of the dimer to
stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase. Dimers containing the β1 subunit complexed with a panel of different Gγ subunits displayed variation in their ability to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase.
The β1γ2, β1γ10, β1γ12, and β1γ13 dimers all activated PtdIns 3-kinase about 26-fold with 4–25 nm EC50 values. The β1γ11 dimer, which contains the farnesyl isoprenoid group and is highly expressed in tissues containing the p101/p110γ form of
PtdIns 3-kinase, was ineffective. The role of the prenyl group on the γ subunit in determining the activation of PtdIns 3-kinase
was examined using γ subunits with altered CAAX boxes directing the addition of farnesyl to the γ2 subunit and geranylgeranyl to the γ1 and γ11 subunits. Replacement of the geranylgeranyl group of the γ2 subunit with farnesyl inhibited the activity of β1γ2 on PtdIns 3-kinase. Conversely, replacement of the farnesyl group on the γ1 and γ11 subunit with geranylgeranyl restored almost full activity. These findings suggest that all β subunits, with the exception
of β5, interact equally well with PtdIns 3-kinase. In contrast, the composition of the γ subunit and its prenyl group markedly
affects the ability of the βγ dimer to stimulate PtdIns 3-kinase.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2004; 279(43):44554-44562. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosducin (Pdc) and phosducin-like protein (PhLP) regulate G protein-mediated signaling by binding to the betagamma subunit complex of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gbetagamma) and removing the dimer from cell membranes. The binding of Pdc induces a conformational change in the beta-propeller structure of Gbetagamma, creating a pocket between blades 6 and 7. It has been proposed that the isoprenyl group of Gbetagamma inserts into this pocket, stabilizing the Pdc.Gbetagamma structure and decreasing the affinity of the complex for the lipid bilayer. To test this hypothesis, the binding of Pdc and PhLP to several Gbetagamma dimers containing variants of the beta or gamma subunit was measured. These variants included modifications of the isoprenyl group (gamma), residues involved in the conformational change (beta), and residues lining the proposed prenyl pocket (beta). Switching prenyl groups from farnesyl to geranylgeranyl or vice versa had little effect on binding. However, alanine substitution of one residue in the beta subunit involved in the conformational change (W332) decreased binding 5-fold. Alanine substitution of certain residues within the prenyl pocket caused only minor decreases in binding, while a lysine substitution of T329 within the pocket inhibited binding 10-fold. Molecular modeling of the binding energy of the Pdc.Gbeta(1)gamma(2) complex required insertion of the geranylgeranyl group into the prenyl pocket in order to accurately predict the effects of prenyl pocket amino acid substitutions. Finally, a dimer containing a gamma subunit with no prenyl group (gamma(2)-C68S) decreased binding by nearly 20-fold. These results support the structural model in which the prenyl group escapes contact with the aqueous milieu by inserting into the prenyl pocket and stabilizing the Pdc-binding conformation of Gbetagamma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors form a ternary complex of ligand, receptor, and G protein heterotrimer (LRG) during signal transduction from the outside to the inside of a cell. Our goal was to develop a homogeneous, small-volume, bead-based approach compatible with high-throughput flow cytometry that would allow evaluation of G protein coupled receptor molecular assemblies. Dextran beads were derivatized to carry chelated nickel to bind hexahistidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) and hexahistidine-tagged G proteins. Ternary complexes were assembled on these beads using fluorescent ligand with wild-type receptor or a receptor-Gialpha2 fusion protein, and with a nonfluorescent ligand and receptor-GFP fusion protein. Streptavidin-coated polystyrene beads used biotinylated anti-FLAG antibodies to bind FLAG-tagged G proteins for ternary complex assembly. Validation was achieved by showing time and concentration dependence of ternary complex formation. Affinity measurements of ligand for receptor on particles, of the ligand-receptor complex for G protein on the particles, and receptor-Gialpha2 fusion protein for Gbetagamma, were consistent with comparable assemblies in detergent suspension. Performance was assessed in applications representing the potential of these assemblies for ternary complex mechanisms. We showed the relationship for a family of ligands between LR and LRG affinity and characterized the affinity of both the wild-type and GFP fusion receptors with G protein. We also showed the potential of kinetic measurements to allow observation of individual steps of GTP-induced ternary complex disassembly and discriminated a fast step caused by RG disassembly compared with the slower step of Galphabetagamma disassembly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local anesthetics inhibit several G protein-coupled receptors by interaction with the Galphaq protein subunit. It is not known whether this effect on G protein function can be extrapolated to other classes of G proteins. The authors investigated interactions of lidocaine with the human adenosine 1 receptor (hA1R)-coupled signaling pathway. Activated A1Rs couple to adenylate cyclase via the pertussis toxin sensitive Galphai protein, thereby decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. A1Rs are widely expressed and abundant in the spinal cord, brain, and heart. Interactions of LAs with the hA1R-coupled transduction cascade therefore might produce a broad range of clinically relevant effects.
The function of hA1Rs stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was determined with assays of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, receptor binding, and guanosine diphosphate/guanosine triphosphate gamma35S exchange by using reconstituted defined G protein subunits. Involvement of phosphodiesterase and Galphai was characterized by using the phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram and pertussis toxin, respectively.
Lidocaine (10-9-10-1 M) had no significant effects on agonist or antagonist binding to the hA1R or on receptor-G protein interactions. However, cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels were reduced significantly to 50% by the LAs, even in the absence of an A1R agonist or presence of an A1R antagonist. This effect was unaffected by rolipram (10 mum), but abolished completely by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which inactivates the Galphai protein. Therefore, the main target site for LAs in this pathway is located upstream from adenylate cyclase.
Lidocaine potentiates Galphai-coupled A1R signaling by reducing cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. The study suggests an interaction site for LAs in a Galphai-coupled signaling pathway, with the Galphai protein representing the prime candidate. Taken together with previous results showing inhibitory LA interactions on the Galphaq protein subunit, the data in the current study support the hypothesis that specific G protein subunits represent alternative sites of LA action.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Local anesthetics inhibit several G protein–coupled receptors by interaction with the Gαq protein subunit. It is not known whether this effect on G protein function can be extrapolated to other classes of G proteins. The authors investigated interactions of lidocaine with the human adenosine 1 receptor (hA1R)–coupled signaling pathway. Activated A1Rs couple to adenylate cyclase via the pertussis toxin sensitive Gαi protein, thereby decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. A1Rs are widely expressed and abundant in the spinal cord, brain, and heart. Interactions of LAs with the hA1R-coupled transduction cascade therefore might produce a broad range of clinically relevant effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels have a wide tissue distribution and have well-documented roles in the control of action potential burst generation and hormone secretion. In neurons of the central nervous system and secretory cells of the adrenal and pituitary, LVA channels are inhibited by activation of G-protein-coupled receptors that generate membrane-delimited signals, yet these signals have not been identified. Here we show that the inhibition of alpha1H (Ca(v)3.2), but not alpha(1G) (Ca(v)3.1) LVA Ca2+ channels is mediated selectively by beta2gamma2 subunits that bind to the intracellular loop connecting channel transmembrane domains II and III. This region of the alpha1H channel is crucial for inhibition, because its replacement abrogates inhibition and its transfer to non-modulated alpha1G channels confers beta2gamma2-dependent inhibition. betagamma reduces channel activity independent of voltage, a mechanism distinct from the established betagamma-dependent inhibition of non-L-type high-voltage-activated channels of the Ca(v)2 family. These studies identify the alpha1H channel as a new effector for G-protein betagamma subunits, and highlight the selective signalling roles available for particular betagamma combinations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs, Kir3.x) can be activated or inhibited by distinct classes of receptors (Galphai/o and Galphaq/11-coupled, respectively), providing dynamic regulation of neuronal excitability. In this mini-review, we highlight findings from our laboratory in which we used a mammalian heterologous expression system to address mechanisms of GIRK channel regulation by Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits. We found that, like beta1- and beta2-containing Gbetagamma dimers, GIRK channels are also activated by G protein betagamma dimers containing beta3 and beta4 subunits. By contrast, GIRK currents are inhibited by beta5-containing Gbetagamma dimers and/or by Galpha proteins of the Galphaq/11 family. The properties of Gbeta5-mediated inhibition suggest that beta5-containing Gbetagamma dimers act as competitive antagonists of other activating Gbetagamma pairs on GIRK channels. Inhibition of GIRK channels by Galpha subunits is specific to members of the Galphaq/11 family and appears to result, at least in part, from activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and the resultant decrease in membrane levels of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), an endogenous co-factor necessary for GIRK channel activity; this Galphaq/11 activated mechanism is largely responsible for receptor-mediated GIRK channel inhibition.
Molecules and Cells 03/2003; 15(1):1-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local anesthetics have been shown to selectively inhibit functioning of Xenopus laevis Gq proteins. It is not known whether a similar interaction exists with mammalian G proteins. The goal of this study was to determine whether mammalian Gq protein is inhibited by local anesthetics.
In Xenopus oocytes, the authors replaced endogenous Gq protein with mouse Gq (expressed in Sf9 cells using baculovirus vectors). Cells endogenously expressing lysophosphatidic acid or recombinantly expressing muscarinic m3 receptors were injected with phosphorothioate DNA antisense (or sense as control) oligonucleotides against Xenopus Gq. Forty-eight hours later, oocytes were injected with purified mouse Gq (5 x 10(-8) M) or solvent as control. Two hours later, the authors injected either lidocaine, its permanently charged analog QX314 (at IC50, 50 nl), or solvent (KCl 150 mM) as control and measured Ca-activated Cl currents in response to lysophosphatidic acid or methylcholine (one tenth of EC50).
Injection of anti-Gq reduced the mean response size elicited by lysophosphatidic acid to 33 +/- 7% of the corresponding control response. In contrast, responses were unchanged (131 +/- 29% of control) in cells in addition injected with mouse Gq protein. Injection of mouse Gq protein "rescued" the inhibitory effect of intracellularly injected QX314: whereas QX314 was without effect on Gq-depleted oocytes, responses to lysophosphatidic acid after QX314 injection were inhibited to 44 +/- 10% of control response in cells in addition injected with mouse Gq protein (5 x 10(-8) M). Similar results were obtained for m3 signaling and intracellularly injected lidocaine.
Inhibition of Gq function by local anesthetics is not restricted to Xenopus G proteins. Therefore, Gq should be considered as one additional intracellular target site for local anesthetics, especially relevant for those effects not explainable by sodium channel blockade (e.g., antiinflammatory effects).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methods outlined in this article describe experiments that can probe the first steps in receptor:G protein interaction using defined, recombinant receptors and G proteins. The protocols have the advantages that the receptors are inserted properly in a cell membrane and that the investigator has complete control of the proteins reconstituted with the receptor. Specific mutations in the receptors or G proteins are studied easily and the protocols allow precise examination of the stoichiometry of the receptor:alpha:beta gamma interaction.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2002; 343:372-93. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein coupled receptors activate signal transducing guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which consist of an alpha subunit and a betagamma dimer. Whole cell studies have reported that receptors signal through specific betagamma subtypes. Membrane reconstitution studies with the adenosine A(1) and alpha(2A) adrenergic receptors have reached a similar conclusion. We aimed to test the generality of this finding by comparing the gamma subtype specificity for four G(i)-coupled receptors: alpha(2A) adrenergic; A1 adenosine (A(1)-R); 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)-R); mu opioid. Membranes were reconstituted with Galpha(i)(1) and five gamma subtypes (dimerized to beta1). Using a sensitive alpha-betagamma binding assay, we show that all recombinant betagamma (except beta1gamma1) had comparable affinity for alpha(i)(1). Using high affinity agonist binding as a measure of receptor-G protein coupling, betagamma-containing gamma11 was the most potent for A(1)-R and 5-HT(1A)-R (p < 0.05, one way ANOVA) while gamma7 was most potent for the other two receptors. gamma11 was 3-8-fold more potent for the A(1)-R than were the other gamma subtypes. Also, gamma11 was 2-8-fold more potent for A(1)-R than at the other receptors, suggesting a unique coupling specificity of the A(1)-R for gamma11. In contrast, the discrimination by receptors for the other betagamma subtypes (beta1 and gamma1, gamma2, gamma7, and gamma10) was limited (2-3-fold). Thus the exquisite betagamma specificity of individual receptors reported in whole cell studies may depend on in vivo mechanisms beyond direct receptor recognition of betagamma subtypes.