Giorgio Baldereschi

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (23)100.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effect : of thrombus aspiration on mortality is still controversial, with results which are often inconsistent in different randomized trials, real world registries and different follow-up duration. AIM: : The aim of this analysis was to assess the effect on 30-day and 1-year mortality of thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with conventional PCI.
    Cardiology journal. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies reported that drug-eluting stents (DES) are able to reduce restenosis incidence without increasing mortality, concerns still exist about their safety in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients mainly for a possible higher rate of in-stent thrombosis. Recent evidence suggests a better safety profile of second-generation DES, but data on their outcome in STEMI are still poor. In this study we evaluated the impact on mortality and target lesion revascularization (TLR) of DES or bare metal stent (BMS) implantation in STEMI patients submitted to primary angioplasty. We analyzed mortality and TLR in 1150 STEMI patients during a mean 43-month follow-up after DES (44.6%) or BMS (55.4%) implantation. A propensity score method was used to minimize bias. During follow-up, 223 deaths occurred. Unadjusted for potential confounders, DES implantation was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.40; 95%CI 0.30-0.54] and TLR (HR 0.55; 95%CI 0.36-0.86); this latter was confirmed after propensity score analysis (HR 0.39; 95%CI 0.21-0.67). Second- (n=179) vs. first- (n=337) generation DES showed a further reduction in TLR (HR 0.17; 95%CI 0.05-0.57). Adjusted analyses showed a significant reduction in the combined end-point of all-cause mortality or TLR after both first- and second-generation DES vs. BMS implantation with a trend to a lower risk for second- vs. first-generation DES. DES implantation in STEMI patients showed a significant reduction in TLR and in the combined endpoint of TLR or mortality. Second-generation DES showed a more protective effect on the combined endpoint, suggesting that they would be preferred in this setting.
    Journal of Cardiology 12/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    International journal of cardiology 04/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stent thrombosis (ST) is a new, rare, cause of STEMI. Few data are available about incidence and clinical impact of shock complicating acute myocardial infarction due to ST (st-STEMI). From January 2004 to March 2007, 92 st-STEMI patients were observed: 14 (15.2%) of them presented with cardiogenic shock and were evaluated in the present analysis. In particular, clinical and angiographic characteristics of survivors and non-survivors to PCI were compared. St-STEMI was related to left main or multivessels stent thrombosis in 35.7% of cases; whereas in 93% of cases st-STEMI occurred in a territory with previous myocardial infarction. All patients underwent IABP implantation immediately before coronary angiography, whereas Impella LP 2.5 pump was used in 21% of cases when persistent cardiac low-output signs were recorded. PCI was successful in 80% of cases. In-hospital survival was 28.6%. Death occurred within the first 48 h in the majority of patients. At six-months all patients survived to the acute phase were alive. Survivors had significantly lower thrombus grade after wire passage (p=0.03) and, albeit not significant, they showed a higher rate of very late ST, longer times from symptoms onset to revascularization, and higher TIMI flow grade either before and after PCI. The incidence of cardiogenic shock in st-STEMI is high, particulary it seems to be two times higher than the rate reported during myocardial infarction. One third of cases is related to left main or multiple vessels ST. Shock in st-STEMI represents a dramatic event with very low in-hospital and early survival.
    International journal of cardiology 05/2011; 148(3):337-40. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared left ventricular (LV) remodeling following a first time acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (aSTEMI) treated with primary coronary intervention (pPCI) in different age groups. A total of 116 patients, 61 aged <65 and 55 aged >or=65 years, who survived after a recent aSTEMI treated with pPCI, underwent dobutamine stress-echocardiography (DSE) and non-invasive measurement of left anterior descending coronary artery flow reserve (CFR) during intravenous adenosine infusion. Baseline LV dimensions and systolic function were similar between the two groups; wall motion score indices during all DSE stages and CFR were also similar. In both groups, the LV ejection fraction was positively affected by the presence of viability in the necrosis area and by a higher CFR, but negatively influenced by viability in a remote area, an indirect sign of an extensive infarction size. This study demonstrates that PCI in the geriatric population with aSTEMI is as equally effective as in younger subjects, in terms of LV remodeling and function.
    Internal and Emergency Medicine 08/2010; 5(4):311-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major predictors of late stent malapposition (LSM) is primary stenting in acute myocardial infarction. However, mechanisms of LSM are still under debate. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and enrolled in the SELECTION trial (38 patients in the paclitaxel-eluting stent, PES, and 35 in the bare metal stent, BMS, cohort) were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate LSM, by means of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data recorded at the index and 7-month follow-up procedures. Stent malapposition was documented in 21 lesions in 21 patients (28.8%): in 8 of these 21 patients (38.1%) it was LSM. Although statistical significance was not reached, LSM was more frequent after PES than BMS implantation (15.8% vs. 5.7%). LSM was mainly located within the body of the stent (62.5% of the cases). At the LSM segment, a significant increase of vessel area (19.2 +/- 3.3 mm(2) vs. 21.9 +/- 5.3 mm(2), P = 0.04) and a reduction of plaque area (12.6 +/- 4.6 mm(2) vs. 9.1 +/- 3.9 mm(2), P = 0.04) were observed at IVUS between the index and follow-up procedure. After primary stenting for STEMI, LSM seems to be more frequent after PES rather than BMS implantation. In the STEMI setting, possible mechanisms leading to LSM include positive remodeling and plaque mass decrease.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 05/2009; 22(3):201-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and exercise stress test (EST) between patients in different age groups and to evaluate their proportional prognostic value in a population with established coronary artery disease (CAD). The study sample included 323 subjects, subdivided in group 1 (G1), comprising 246 patients aged <75 years, and group 2 (G2), with 77 subjects aged >or=75 years. DSE and EST were performed before enrollment in a cardiac rehabilitation program; for prognostic assessment, end points were all-cause mortality and hard cardiac events (cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction). During DSE, G2 patients showed worse wall motion score index (WMSI), but the test was stopped for complications in a comparable proportion of cases (54 G1 and 19 G2 patients, P = NS). EST was inconclusive in similarly high proportion of patients in both groups (76% in G1 vs. 84% in G2, P = NS); G2 patients reached a significantly lower total workload (6 +/- 1.6 METs in G1 vs. 5 +/- 1.2 METs in G2, P < 0.001). At multivariate analysis, a lower peak exercise capacity (HR 0.566, CI 0.351-0.914, P = 0.020) was associated with higher mortality, while a high-dose WMSI >2 (HR 5.123, CI 1.559-16.833, P = 0.007), viability (HR 3.354, CI 1.162-9.678, P = 0.025), and nonprescription of beta-blockers (HR 0.328, CI 0.114-0.945, P = 0.039) predicted hard cardiac events. In patients with known CAD, EST and DSE maintain a significant prognostic role in terms of peak exercise capacity for EST and of presence of viability and an extensive wall motion abnormalities at peak DSE.
    Echocardiography 11/2008; 26(1):1-9. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes between patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to stent thrombosis (ST) and de novo coronary thrombosis. There are limited data for procedural and mid-term outcomes of patients with ST presenting with STEMI. From January 2004 to March 2007, 115 definite ST patients were observed: 92 (80%) of them presented as STEMI and were compared with a consecutive group of 98 patients with de novo STEMI. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Primary end points were successful angiographic reperfusion and distal embolization. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), evaluated at 6-month follow-up, were defined as death, nonfatal myocardial reinfarction, target vessel revascularization, and cerebrovascular accident. Successful reperfusion rate was lower in patients with ST (p < 0.0001), whereas distal embolization rate was higher (p = 0.01) in comparison with patients with de novo STEMI. Stent thrombosis proved to be an independent predictor of unsuccessful reperfusion at propensity-adjusted binary logistic regression (odds ratio 6.8, p = 0.004). In-hospital MACCE rate was higher in patients with ST (p = 0.003), whereas no differences were observed at 6-month follow-up among hospital survivors between the 2 groups (p = 0.7). Stent thrombosis identifies a subgroup of patients with STEMI with poor angiographic and early clinical outcomes, suggesting that the management of these patients should be improved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2008; 51(25):2396-402. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Florence Acute Myocardial Infarction registry was a population-based, prospective study aimed at identifying the determinants of coronary reperfusion therapy [CRT, by primary coronary intervention (PCI) in more than 95% of cases] utilization and of prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The registry involved one teaching hospital with, and five district hospitals without PCI facilities. Overall, as many as 45.6% of 930 cases of STEMI did not receive any form of CRT. In multivariable analysis, the direct admission to the teaching hospital was the strongest positive predictor, whereas the time delay, older age, and chronic comorbid conditions were negative predictors of CRT utilization. Compared to conservative therapy, CRT was associated with a remarkably reduced 12-month mortality, after adjusting for age, chronic comorbidities and Killip class, which also were significantly associated with long-term prognosis. The higher crude mortality observed in women was accounted for by older age and other age-related factors. The improvement in prognosis with CRT was larger in older patients and/or in those with a greater burden of chronic comorbidity, who less frequently received CRT. These results suggest the need for interdisciplinary reassessing the adherence to therapeutic guidelines and the criteria adopted in the real clinical world to select patients for CRT during STEMI.
    Internal and Emergency Medicine 05/2008; 3(2):109-115. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the superiority of the paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in reducing neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) over its corresponding bare metal stent (BMS) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Primary PCI with stent implantation is the repercussion strategy of choice for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); nonetheless restenosis rate is still high. Drug-eluting stents have been proven to reduce restenosis rate in many settings, but their use during primary PCI is still controversial. Consecutive patients with STEMI <12 hours were randomized to receive PES or BMS. The primary end-point was the percentage of the stent volume obstructed by neointimal proliferation (NIH) measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at a 7-month angiographic follow-up. Secondary end-points were binary restenosis rate and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, i.e., death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization). Eighty patients with STEMI were randomized into the PES or BMS group. Patients were well matched for baseline characteristics and the index procedure was always successful. In-hospital and 1-month MACE were 2.5% per group. NIH at 7 months was 4.6% versus 20% (P< 0.01), late lumen loss 0.1 versus 1.01 mm (P = 0.01). MACE were 7.5% versus 42.5% (P = 0.001) with no difference in death and recurrent myocardial infarction rates. Late-acquired incomplete stent apposition (ISA) rate was 5.1% versus 2.7% (P = 0.65). One subacute stent thrombosis was reported in each group. PES was superior to its corresponding BMS in reducing NIH in the STEMI setting without any increase in early and long-term clinical adverse events.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 08/2007; 20(4):282-91. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    F Innocenti, C. Agresti, G.J. Baldereschi, N Marchionni, R Pini
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 12/2006; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies suggest that open visiting policies are preferred by most patients and visitors in intensive care units (ICUs), but no randomized trial has compared the safety and health outcomes of unrestrictive (UVP) and restrictive (RVP) visiting policies. The aim of this pilot, randomized trial was to compare the complications associated with UVP (single visitor with frequency and duration chosen by patient) and RVP (single visitor for 30 minutes twice a day). Two-month sequences of the 2 visiting policies were randomly alternated for 2 years in a 6-bed ICU, with 226 patients enrolled (RVP/UVP, n=115/111). Environmental microbial contamination, septic and cardiovascular complications, emotional profile, and stress hormones response were systematically assessed. Patients admitted during the randomly scheduled periods of UVP received more frequent (3.2+/-0.2 versus 2.0+/-0.0 visits per day, mean+/-SEM) and longer (2.6+/-0.2 versus 1.0+/-0.0 h/d) visits (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Despite significantly higher environmental microbial contamination during the UVP periods, septic complications were similar in the 2 periods. The risk of cardiocirculatory complications was 2-fold (odds ratio 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5; P=0.03) in the RVP periods, which were also associated with a nonsignificantly higher mortality rate (5.2% versus 1.8%; P=0.28). The UVP was associated with a greater reduction in anxiety score and a significantly lower increase in thyroid stimulating hormone from admission to discharge. Despite greater environmental microbial contamination, liberalizing visiting hours in ICUs does not increase septic complications, whereas it might reduce cardiovascular complications, possibly through reduced anxiety and more favorable hormonal profile.
    Circulation 02/2006; 113(7):946-52. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological estimates of left ventricular mass are based on echocardiographic imaging from the parasternal view, which is often unavailable in subjects with obesity or lung disease. This study was undertaken to assess whether the subcostal view is a valid alternative to estimate left ventricular mass in an unselected older population. In a cross-sectional study of all the residents in Dicomano, Italy, aged > or =65 years, echocardiography was performed with a systematic attempt to obtain both the parastermal and the subcostal views. The parasternal view was missing in 73/614 participants, 48 of whom were imaged from the subcostal view. In participants imaged from both views, the subcostal view underestimated left ventricular cavity dimension and, consequently, left ventricular mass [79.7 (1.3) vs. 93.3 (1.5) g/m2; p<0.001]. Furthermore, the subcostal view was only 25% sensitive for the diagnosis of hypertrophy. Several multivariate regression models, developed in an equation development subgroup and tested in a validation subgroup, failed to correct the prediction of left ventricular mass based on measures taken from the subcostal view, also after inclusion of demographic, anthropometric, and spirometric covariates. In unselected older persons, the subcostal view does not improve the accuracy of echocardiographic estimation of left ventricular mass, which remains biased in epidemiological studies.
    International Journal of Cardiology 12/2004; 97(3):521-7. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to compare construct and predictive validity of four sets of heart failure (HF) diagnostic criteria in an epidemiologic setting. The prevalence estimates of HF vary broadly depending on the diagnostic criteria. Data were collected in a survey of community dwellers who were > or =65 years of age living in Dicomano, Italy. At baseline, HF was diagnosed with the criteria of the Framingham, Boston, and Gothenburg studies and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction, left atrium systolic dimension, lower extremity mobility disability, summary physical performance score, and 6-min walk test were compared between HF and non-HF participants to test for construct validity of each set of criteria. Predictive validity was evaluated with follow-up assessment of cardiovascular mortality, incident disability, and HF-related hospitalizations. Comparisons were adjusted for demographics, comorbidity, and psychoaffective status. Of 553 participants, 11.9%, 10.7%, 20.8%, and 9.0% had HF, according to Framingham, Boston, Gothenburg, and ESC criteria, respectively. In terms of construct validity, Framingham and Boston criteria discriminated HF from non-HF participants better than Gothenburg and ESC criteria across the measures of cardiac function and global performance. The Boston criteria showed a superior predictive validity because they indicated a significantly greater adjusted risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio3.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 13.2), incident disability, and hospitalizations in participants with HF. The Boston criteria are preferable to Framingham, Gothenburg, and ESC criteria for the diagnosis of HF in older community dwellers because they have good construct validity and more accurately predict cardiovascular death, incident disability, and hospitalizations.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2004; 44(8):1601-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the short-term systemic and renal hemodynamic response to dopamine is influenced by clinical severity of congestive heart failure. Effects of increasing doses of dopamine were assessed in patients consecutively admitted for acutely decompensated congestive heart failure. Intensive care unit. We enrolled 16 congestive heart failure patients stratified by clinical severity (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class III, n = 8; NYHA class IV, n = 8) and two additional NYHA class III patients as controls. Measurements were carried out throughout five 20-min experimental periods: baseline, dopamine infusion at 2, 4, and 6 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), and recovery. Controls received a similar amount of saline. Systemic and renal hemodynamics were determined respectively by right cardiac catheterization and radioisotopes (iodine 131-labeled hippuran and iodine 125-labeled iothalamate clearance). The peak increase in heart rate and cardiac index occurred at a dopamine dose of 4-6 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). The dose-response relation was similar in NYHA classes III and IV. Improvement in effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, peaking at 4 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), was more rapid and marked in NYHA class III than class IV patients, in whom the renal fraction of cardiac output failed to increase. The systemic and renal effects of dopamine were independent of age. No change occurred in controls. The dose of dopamine producing an optimal improvement of systemic and renal hemodynamics in congestive heart failure is higher than usually reported. A greater clinical severity of congestive heart failure impairs the renal effects of dopamine, probably through a selective loss in renal vasodilating capacity.
    Critical Care Medicine 06/2004; 32(5):1125-9. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether advanced age affects the immediate and long-term results of direct-current external cardioversion (ECV) of atrial fibrillation (AF), the sustained arrhythmia most commonly encountered in older patients. Retrospective analysis of medical records. Intensive care unit. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients(age 34-100) with AF who underwent ECV following a standardized protocol in an intensive care unit. Immediate efficacy of ECV, defined as recovery of sinus rhythm, and maintenance of sinus rhythm over the follow-up were study outcomes. The univariate and multivariate associations of immediate efficacy of ECV and long-term results with clinical variables were analyzed. At univariate analysis, immediate efficacy of ECV (overall, 91.2%) was lower in older patients and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher for a 3- to 90-day pre-ECV duration of AF than for a duration of 2 days or less or more than 90 days, and independent of underlying cardiac disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, previous AF, and left atrial dimension. However, pre-ECV duration of AF was the only multivariate predictor of ECV immediate success. Major complications occurred in only three patients. Of 220 patients discharged in sinus rhythm, 211 were followed up for a mean period +/- standard deviation of 34 +/- 25 months. AF relapsed in 45.5% of them. At multivariate analysis, underlying cardiac disease was the only predictor of the relapse rate, and relapse rate was lower in coronary heart disease than in valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, or lone AF. Immediate and long-term results of ECV of AF, an effective and safe procedure, are unaffected by age,at least after adjusting for several covariates.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 08/2002; 50(7):1192-7. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although borderline isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as a blood pressure of 140 to 159/<90 mm Hg, is a proven cardiovascular risk factor, the major clinical trials on treatment of ISH have used a cutoff of 160 mm Hg. Moreover, no data exist on the cardiovascular modifications associated with borderline ISH. Therefore, we compared subjects with borderline ISH to subjects with diastolic hypertension (diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg) or ISH. Community-dwelling residents (age > or =65 years) of a small town in Italy (Dicomano) underwent extensive clinical examination, echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and applanation tonometry. Only untreated subjects were included in this analysis: 95 with diastolic hypertension, 87 with borderline ISH, and 43 with ISH. Despite lower systolic and mean pressures in borderline ISH, left ventricular mass was similar to that in diastolic hypertension. In univariate and multivariate analysis, pulse pressure but not systolic pressure was related to left ventricular mass. Borderline ISH subjects had a tendency to greater carotid cross-sectional area and stiffness index than did diastolic hypertensive subjects despite lower mean carotid pressure, whereas the number of atherosclerotic plaques was similar in the 2 groups. Pulse pressure but not systolic pressure was independently related to carotid remodeling. In our community-based, older population, individuals with borderline ISH had a similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid atherosclerosis as that of subjects with diastolic hypertension, despite lower systolic and mean pressures. Among blood pressure values, pulse pressure was the single or strongest independent predictor of cardiovascular remodeling.
    Hypertension 12/2001; 38(6):1372-6. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-aortic balloon pump entrapment is a rare complication that may necessitate major abdominal surgery that is potentially life threatening in the critically ill patients who require balloon counterpulsation. We report successful removal of a ruptured and entrapped intra-aortic balloon pump catheter after use of streptokinase solution to clear clots from the device. We suggest this procedure as a safer, nonsurgical method that may eliminate the need for abdominal surgery.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 07/1998; 44(2):218-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to analyze the effects of different intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) inflation volumes on effective arterial elastance (Ea) in patients with complicated coronary heart disease and to determine whether Ea can predict the hemodynamic response to IABC. Ea (the central aortic end-systolic pressure to stroke volume ratio) incorporates the principal elements of input arterial impedance and has been proved useful to evaluate the effects of afterload reduction in patients with left ventricular (LV) failure. However, although the hemodynamic action of IABC can be considered as a typical example of "pure" afterload reduction, it has never been assessed in terms of changes in Ea. After clinical stabilization, 18 patients treated with IABC for complicated acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina were enrolled in the study. Systemic hemodynamics were measured by use of right cardiac thermodilution catheters with IABC off (control) and IABC on at balloon inflation volumes of 20 and 40 ml, in randomized sequence. Aortic pressure was recorded through the central lumen of the IABC catheter to calculate Ea as the ratio of aortic dicrotic pressure to stroke volume. A higher control Ea was associated with a lower control LV stroke work and a larger IABC-related hemodynamic improvement (that was maximal with the 40 ml inflation volume). The increase in LV stroke work was closely related to the decrease in Ea. Accordingly, hemodynamic benefits from IABC were less evident in patients with lower control Ea. In conclusion, effects of IABC were related to both balloon inflation volume and control hemodynamics, reflecting the afterload dependence of a depressed LV function.
    American Heart Journal 06/1998; 135(5 Pt 1):855-61. · 4.50 Impact Factor