Barbara Schweizer

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (21)151.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A study of genome-wide gene expression in major depressive disorder (MDD) was undertaken in a large population-based sample to determine whether altered expression levels of genes and pathways could provide insights into biological mechanisms that are relevant to this disorder. Gene expression studies have the potential to detect changes that may be because of differences in common or rare genomic sequence variation, environmental factors or their interaction. We recruited a European ancestry sample of 463 individuals with recurrent MDD and 459 controls, obtained self-report and semi-structured interview data about psychiatric and medical history and other environmental variables, sequenced RNA from whole blood and genotyped a genome-wide panel of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We used analytical methods to identify MDD-related genes and pathways using all of these sources of information. In analyses of association between MDD and expression levels of 13 857 single autosomal genes, accounting for multiple technical, physiological and environmental covariates, a significant excess of low P-values was observed, but there was no significant single-gene association after genome-wide correction. Pathway-based analyses of expression data detected significant association of MDD with increased expression of genes in the interferon α/β signaling pathway. This finding could not be explained by potentially confounding diseases and medications (including antidepressants) or by computationally estimated proportions of white blood cell types. Although cause-effect relationships cannot be determined from these data, the results support the hypothesis that altered immune signaling has a role in the pathogenesis, manifestation, and/or the persistence and progression of MDD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 December 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.161.
    Molecular Psychiatry 12/2013; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression study (GenRED II) data were used to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attempted suicide in a population of 1,433 individuals with recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that PTSD resulting from assaultive trauma increases risk for attempted suicide among individuals with recurrent MDD. Data on lifetime trauma exposures and clinical symptoms were collected using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies version 3.0 and best estimate diagnoses of MDD, PTSD, and other DSM-IV Axis I disorders were reported with best estimated age of onset. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt in this sample was 28%. Lifetime PTSD was diagnosed in 205 (14.3%) participants. We used discrete time-survival analyses to take into account timing in the PTSD-suicide attempt relationship while adjusting for demographic variables (gender, race, age, and education level) and comorbid diagnoses prior to trauma exposure. PTSD was an independent predictor of subsequent suicide attempt (HR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8; P < .0001). Neither assaultive nor nonassaultive trauma without PTSD significantly predicted subsequent suicide attempt after Bonferroni correction. The association between PTSD and subsequent suicide attempt was driven by traumatic events involving assaultive violence (HR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.2; P< .0001). Among those with recurrent MDD, PTSD appears to be a vulnerability marker of maladaptive responses to traumatic events and an independent risk factor for attempted suicide. Additional studies examining differences between those with and without PTSD on biological measures might shed light on this potential vulnerability.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the "Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder" scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65636. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tighe SK, Reading SA, Rivkin P, Caffo B, Schweizer B, Pearlson G, Potash JB, DePaulo J Raymond, Bassett SS. Total white matter hyperintensity volume in bipolar disorder patients and their healthy relatives. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 888-893. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Objectives: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are more common in subjects with bipolar disorder (BP) than in healthy subjects (HS). Few studies have examined the effect of the diagnostic type of bipolar illness on WMH burden, and none have approached this question through a direct measurement of the volume of affected white matter in relationship to familiality. In this pilot study, we utilized a volumetric measurement of WMH to investigate the relationship between the total volume of WMH and the familiality and type of BP. Methods: Forty-five individuals with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) with psychotic features, BP-I without psychotic features, or bipolar II disorder (BP-II), seven of their unaffected relatives, and 32 HS were recruited for participation. T-2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on all subjects, and the total volume of all WMH for each subject was measured in cubic centimeters. The significance of difference between groups was tested using ANOVA with post-hoc adjustment for multiple comparisons. Further, we used logistic regression to test for trends between symptom load and total WMH volume. Results: The mean total volume of WMH in BP-I patients with psychotic features was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of HS. Further, we observed a positive linear trend by familiality and type of affectedness when comparing mean total WMH volume of HS, unaffected family members, subjects with BP-II, and BP-I with and without a history of psychosis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on a quantitative technique, WMH burden appears to be associated with familiality and type of BP. The significance of these findings remains to be fully elucidated.
    Bipolar Disorders 12/2012; 14(8):888-893. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies, such as family, twin, and adoption studies, demonstrate the presence of a heritable component to both attempted and completed suicide. Some of this heritability is accounted for by the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, but the evidence also indicates that a portion of this heritability is specific to suicidality. The serotonergic system has been studied extensively in this phenotype, but findings have been inconsistent, possibly due to the presence of multiple susceptibility variants and/or gene-gene interactions. In this study, we genotyped 174 tag and coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 17 genes within the serotonin pathway on 516 subjects with a major mood disorder and a history of a suicide attempt (cases) and 515 healthy controls, with the goal of capturing the common genetic variation across each of these candidate genes. We tested the 174 markers in single-SNP, haplotype, gene-based, and epistasis analyses. While these association analyses identified multiple marginally significant SNPs, haplotypes, genes, and interactions, none of them survived correction for multiple testing. Additional studies, including assessment in larger sample sets and deep resequencing to identify rare causal variants, may be required to fully understand the role that the serotonin pathway plays in suicidal behavior.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2012; 159B(1):112-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is common and often associated with greater illness severity. This study investigates clinical correlates and familiality of four anxiety disorders in a large sample of bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) pedigrees. The sample comprised 566 BP families with 1416 affected subjects and 675 MDD families with 1726 affected subjects. Clinical characteristics and familiality of panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined in BP and MDD pedigrees with multivariate modeling using generalized estimating equations. Co-morbidity between mood and anxiety disorders was associated with several markers of clinical severity, including earlier age of onset, greater number of depressive episodes and higher prevalence of attempted suicide, when compared with mood disorder without co-morbid anxiety. Familial aggregation was found with co-morbid panic and OCD in both BP and MDD pedigrees. Specific phobia showed familial aggregation in both MDD and BP families, although the findings in BP were just short of statistical significance after adjusting for other anxiety co-morbidities. We found no evidence for familiality of social phobia. Our findings suggest that co-morbidity of MDD and BP with specific anxiety disorders (OCD, panic disorder and specific phobia) is at least partly due to familial factors, which may be of relevance to both phenotypic and genetic studies of co-morbidity.
    Psychological Medicine 11/2011; 42(7):1449-59. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. Although attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11-12 and 6q25-26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. In all, 2507 SNPs with evidence for association at P<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (P=5.07 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 (acid phosphatase 1) gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide.
    Molecular Psychiatry 03/2011; 17(4):433-44. · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective—Family studies have suggested that postpartum mood symptoms might have a partly genetic etiology. The authors used a genome-wide linkage analysis to search for chromosomal regions that harbor genetic variants conferring susceptibility for such symptoms. The authors then fine-mapped their best linkage regions, assessing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with postpartum symptoms.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective—Family studies have suggested that postpartum mood symptoms might have a partly genetic etiology. The authors used a genome-wide linkage analysis to search for chromosomal regions that harbor genetic variants conferring susceptibility for such symptoms. The authors then fine-mapped their best linkage regions, assessing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with postpartum symptoms.
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    ABSTRACT: Family studies have suggested that postpartum mood symptoms might have a partly genetic etiology. The authors used a genome-wide linkage analysis to search for chromosomal regions that harbor genetic variants conferring susceptibility for such symptoms. The authors then fine-mapped their best linkage regions, assessing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with postpartum symptoms. Subjects were ascertained from two studies: the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder project and the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression. Subjects included women with a history of pregnancy, any mood disorder, and information about postpartum symptoms. In the linkage study, 1,210 women met criteria (23% with postpartum symptoms), and 417 microsatellite markers were analyzed in multipoint allele sharing analyses. For the association study, 759 women met criteria (25% with postpartum symptoms), and 16,916 SNPs in the regions of the best linkage peaks were assessed for association with postpartum symptoms. The maximum linkage peak for postpartum symptoms occurred on chromosome 1q21.3-q32.1, with a chromosome-wide significant likelihood ratio Z score (Z(LR)) of 2.93 (permutation p=0.02). This was a significant increase over the baseline Z(LR) of 0.32 observed at this locus among all women with a mood disorder (permutation p=0.004). Suggestive linkage was also found on 9p24.3-p22.3 (Z(LR)=2.91). In the fine-mapping study, the strongest implicated gene was HMCN1 (nominal p=0.00017), containing four estrogen receptor binding sites, although this was not region-wide significant. This is the first study to examine the genetic etiology of postpartum mood symptoms using genome-wide data. The results suggest that genetic variations on chromosomes 1q21.3-q32.1 and 9p24.3-p22.3 may increase susceptibility to postpartum mood symptoms.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 09/2009; 166(11):1229-37. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Reelin gene (RELN) encodes a secretory glycoprotein critical for brain development and synaptic plasticity. Post-mortem studies have shown lower Reelin protein levels in the brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP) compared with controls. In a recent genome-wide association study of schizophrenia, the strongest association was found in a marker within RELN, although this association was seen only in women. In this study, we investigated whether genetic variation in RELN is associated with BP in a large family sample. We genotyped 75 tagSNPs and 6 coding SNPs in 1,188 individuals from 318 nuclear families, including 554 affected offspring. Quality control measures, transmission-disequilibrium tests (TDTs), and empirical simulations were performed in PLINK. We found a significant overtransmission of the C allele of rs362719 to BP offspring (OR = 1.47, P = 5.9 x 10(-4)); this withstood empirical correction for testing of multiple markers (empirical P = 0.048). In a hypothesis-driven secondary analysis, we found that the association with rs362719 was almost entirely accounted for by overtransmission of the putative risk allele to affected females (OR(Female) = 1.79, P = 8.9 x 10(-5) vs. OR(Male) = 1.12, P = 0.63). These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in RELN is associated with susceptibility to BP and, in particular, to BP in females. However, our findings should be interpreted with caution until further replication and functional assays provide convergent support.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2009; 153B(2):549-53. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Neuregulin 1 gene (NRG1) has been associated with schizophrenia, and, to a lesser extent, with bipolar disorder (BP). We investigated the association of NRG1 with BP in a large family sample, and then performed analyses according to the presence of psychotic features or mood-incongruent psychotic features. We genotyped 116 tagSNPs and four Icelandic "core" SNPs in 1,199 subjects from 314 nuclear families. Of 515 BP offspring, 341 had psychotic features, and 103 had mood-incongruent psychotic features. In single-marker and sliding window haplotype analyses using FBAT, there was little association using the standard BP or mood-incongruent psychotic BP phenotypes, but stronger signals were seen in the psychotic BP phenotype. The most significant associations with psychotic BP were in haplotypes within the 5' "core" region. The strongest global P-value was across three SNPs: NRG241930-NRG243177-rs7819063 (P = 0.0016), with an undertransmitted haplotype showing an individual P = 0.0007. The most significant individual haplotype was an undertransmitted two-allele subset of the above (NRG243177-rs7819063, P = 0.0004). Additional associations with psychotic BP were found across six SNPs in a 270 kb central region of the gene. The most 3' of these, rs7005606 (P = 0.0029), is located approximately 4 kb from the type I NRG1 isoform promoter. In sum, our study suggests that NRG1 may be specifically associated with the psychotic subset of BP; however, our results should be interpreted cautiously since they do not meet correction for multiple testing and await independent replication.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 02/2009; 150B(5):693-702. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if postpartum mood symptoms and depressive episodes exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar I pedigrees. A total of 1,130 women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative Study and were asked whether they had ever experienced mood symptoms within four weeks postpartum. Women were also asked whether either of two major depressive episodes described in detail occurred postpartum. We examined the odds of postpartum mood symptoms in female siblings, who had previously been pregnant and had a diagnosis of bipolar I, bipolar II, or schizoaffective (bipolar type) disorders (n = 303), given one or more relatives with postpartum mood symptoms. The odds ratio for familial aggregation of postpartum mood symptoms was 2.31 (p = 0.011) in an Any Mood Symptoms analysis (n = 304) and increased to 2.71 (p = 0.005) when manic symptoms were excluded, though this was not significantly different from the Any Mood Symptoms analysis. We also examined familial aggregation of postpartum major depressive episodes; however, the number of subjects was small. Limitations of the study include the retrospective interview, the fact that the data were collected for other purposes and the inability to control for such factors as medication use. Taken together with previous studies, these data provide support for the hypothesis that there may be a genetic basis for the trait of postpartum mood symptoms generally and postpartum depressive symptoms in particular in women with bipolar disorder. Genetic linkage and association studies incorporating this trait are warranted.
    Bipolar Disorders 03/2008; 10(1):38-44. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The FKBP5 gene product forms part of a complex with the glucocorticoid receptor and can modulate cortisol-binding affinity. Variations in the gene have been associated with increased recurrence of depression and with rapid response to antidepressant treatment. We sought to determine whether common FKBP5 variants confer risk for bipolar disorder. We genotyped seven tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5, plus two SNPs previously associated with illness, in 317 families with 554 bipolar offspring, derived primarily from two studies. Single marker and haplotypic analyses were carried out with FBAT and EATDT employing the standard bipolar phenotype. Association analyses were also conducted using 11 disease-related variables as covariates. Under an additive genetic model, rs4713902 showed significant overtransmission of the major allele (P=0.0001), which was consistent across the two sample sets (P=0.004 and 0.006). rs7757037 showed evidence of association that was strongest under the dominant model (P=0.001). This result was consistent across the two datasets (P=0.017 and 0.019). The dominant model yielded modest evidence for association (P<0.05) for three additional markers. Covariate-based analyses suggested that genetic variation within FKBP5 may influence attempted suicide and number of depressive episodes in bipolar subjects. Our results are consistent with the well-established relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which mediates the stress response through regulation of cortisol, and mood disorders. Ongoing whole-genome association studies in bipolar disorder and major depression should further clarify the role of FKBP5 and other HPA genes in these illnesses.
    Molecular Psychiatry 01/2008; 14(3):261-8. · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While some prior studies have found higher rates of psychotic depression in those with bipolar disorder or a bipolar relative, others have failed to confirm these observations. We examined the relationship of psychotic depression to polarity in several large familial samples of mood disorder. A total of 4,724 subjects with major mood disorder in three family studies on the genetics of bipolar I disorder (BPI) or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDDR) were administered semi-structured interviews by clinicians. Determination of psychotic features was based on a report of hallucinations and/or delusions during the most severe depressive episode in the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime Version or the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies interview. Rates of psychotic depression were calculated by diagnostic category and comparisons were made between diagnoses within and across studies using the generalized estimating equation. A diagnosis of BPI disorder was strongly predictive of psychotic features during depression compared to MDDR [odds ratio (OR) = 4.61, p < 0.0005]. Having bipolar II compared to MDDR was not predictive of psychosis (OR = 1.05, p = 0.260), nor was having a family history of BPI in MDDR subjects (OR = 1.20, p = 0.840). Psychotic features during a depressive episode increased the likelihood of a BPI diagnosis. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. The potential genetic underpinnings of psychotic depression warrant further study.
    Bipolar Disorders 01/2008; 9(8):901-6. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite compelling evidence that genetic factors contribute to bipolar disorder (BP), attempts to identify susceptibility genes have met with limited success. This may be due to the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. We sought to identify susceptibility loci for BP in a genome-wide linkage scan with and without clinical covariates that might reflect the underlying heterogeneity of the disorder. We genotyped 428 subjects in 98 BP families at the Center for Inherited Disease Research with 402 microsatellite markers. We first carried out a non-parametric linkage analysis with MERLIN, and then reanalyzed the data with LODPAL to incorporate clinical covariates for age at onset (AAO), psychosis and comorbid anxiety. We sought to further examine the top findings in the covariate analysis in an independent sample of 64 previously collected BP families. In the non-parametric linkage analysis, three loci were nominally significant under a narrow diagnostic model and seven other loci were nominally significant under a broader model. The top findings were on chromosomes 2q24 and 3q28. The covariate analyses yielded additional evidence for linkage on 3q28 with AAO in the primary and independent samples. Although none of the linked loci were genome-wide significant, their congruence with prior results and, for the covariate analyses, their identification in two separate samples increases the likelihood that they are true positives and deserve further investigation. These findings further demonstrate the value of considering clinical features that may reflect the underlying heterogeneity of disease in order to facilitate gene mapping.
    Molecular Psychiatry 08/2007; 12(7):630-9. · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study of chronicity in the course of major depression has been complicated by varying definitions of this illness feature. Because familial clustering is one component of diagnostic validity we compared family clustering of chronicity as defined in the DSM-IV to that of chronicity determined by an assessment of lifetime course of depressive illness. In 1750 affected subjects from 652 families recruited for a genetic study of recurrent, early-onset depression, we applied several definitions of chronicity. Odds ratios were determined for the likelihood of chronicity in a proband predicting chronicity in an affected relative. There was greater family clustering of chronicity as determined by assessment of lifetime course (OR=2.54) than by DSM-IV defined chronic major depressive episode (MDE) (OR=1.93) or dysthymic disorder (OR=1.76). In families with probands who had preadolescent onset of MDD, familiality was increased by all definitions, with a much larger increase observed for chronicity by lifetime course (ORs were 6.14 for lifetime chronicity, 2.43 for chronic MDE, and 3.42 for comorbid dysthymic disorder). Agreement between these definitions of chronicity was only fair. The data used to determine chronicity were collected retrospectively and not blindly to relatives' status, and assessment of lifetime course was based on global clinical impressions gathered during a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Also, it can be difficult to determine whether individuals with recurrent major depressive episodes who frequently experience long periods of low grade depressive symptoms meet the strict timing requirements of DSM-IV dysthymic disorder. An assessment of lifetime symptom course identifies a more familial, and thus possibly a more valid, type of chronic depression than the current DSM-IV categories which are defined in terms of particular cross-sectional features of illness.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2007; 100(1-3):171-7. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are interested in identifying susceptibility genes that predispose subjects to attempted suicide. We conducted a secondary analysis of genome-wide linkage data from 162 bipolar pedigrees that incorporated attempted suicide as a clinical covariate. The strongest covariate-based linkage signal was seen on 2p12 at marker D2S1777. The logarithm of odds (LOD) score at marker D2S1777 rose from 1.56 to 3.82 after inclusion of the suicide covariate, resulting in significant chromosome-wide empirically derived p-values for the overall linkage finding (p = .01) and for the change in LOD score after the inclusion of the covariate (p = .02). The finding on chromosome 2 replicates results from two previous studies of attempted suicide in pedigrees with alcohol dependence and in pedigrees with recurrent early-onset depression. Combined, these three studies provide compelling evidence for a locus influencing attempted suicide on 2p12.
    Biological Psychiatry 04/2007; 61(5):725-7. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mood-incongruent psychotic features in bipolar disorder may signify a more severe form of the illness and might represent phenotypic manifestations of susceptibility genes shared with schizophrenia. This study attempts to characterize clinical correlates, familial aggregation, and genetic linkage in subjects with these features. Subjects were drawn from The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative cohort, consisting of 708 families recruited at 10 academic medical centers. Subjects with mood-incongruent and mood-congruent psychotic features were compared on clinical variables. Familial aggregation was tested using a proband-predictive model and generalized estimating equations. A genome-wide linkage scan incorporating a mood-incongruence covariate was performed. Mood-incongruent psychotic features were associated with an increased rate of hospitalization and attempted suicide. A proband with mood-incongruence predicted mood-incongruence in relatives with bipolar I disorder when compared with all other subjects and when compared with subjects with mood-congruent psychosis. The presence of mood-incongruent psychotic features increased evidence for linkage on chromosomes 13q21-33 and 2p11-q14. These logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD) scores and their increase from baseline met empirical genome-wide suggestive criteria for significance. Mood-incongruent psychotic features showed evidence of a more severe course, familial aggregation, and suggestive linkage to two chromosomal regions previously implicated in major mental illness susceptibility. The 13q21-33 finding supports prior evidence of bipolar disorder/schizophrenia overlap in this region, while the 2p11-q14 finding is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to suggest that this schizophrenia linkage region might also harbor a bipolar disorder susceptibility gene.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 03/2007; 164(2):236-47. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports of ventricular and hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder (BP) have been inconsistent in their findings. One possibility is that volumetric abnormalities are determined by disease subtype. Prior evidence suggests that psychotic (PBP) and nonpsychotic (NPBP) forms of BP are two subtypes that might differ in pathophysiology. We investigated ventricular and hippocampal volumes in 38 adults with clearly defined PBP (n = 23) and NPBP subtypes, compared with 33 persons with schizophrenia (SZ) and 44 healthy community control subjects (HC). Ventricular and hippocampal volumes were reliably measured on high-resolution anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans. We used a multivariate analysis of covariance to compare volumes across groups, covarying for total brain volume. Potential effects of BP illness features were explored, contrasting PBP and NPBP. For ventricular but not hippocampal regions, we found significant volume difference in PBP but not NPBP compared with HC (p < .005). We also observed nonsignificantly smaller left hippocampal volumes in PBP versus HC. Schizophrenic subjects had significantly larger ventricular and smaller left hippocampal volumes than HC. These results suggest that PBP but not NPBP is associated with increased ventricle volumes and a trend toward smaller left hippocampal volumes, as observed in SZ.
    Biological Psychiatry 03/2005; 57(6):633-9. · 9.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

402 Citations
151.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Baltimore, MD, United States