Jonathan D Wiles

Canterbury Christ Church University, Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (28)56.3 Total impact

  • Gavin R Devereux · Jonathan D Wiles · Reuben Howden ·
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of bilateral-leg isometric exercise training on the immediate isometric post-exercise cardiovascular responses, and (2) to ascertain whether any changes in immediate post-exercise cardiovascular responses may be associated with training-induced adaptations in resting blood pressure. Methods: Thirteen normotensive males completed both isometric exercise training (IET) and control conditions, which were separated by 6 weeks. Participants performed a total of twelve training sessions; 4 × 2-min bilateral-leg isometric exercise bouts separated by 3-min rest periods, 3 days week(-1). Results: Four weeks of bilateral-leg IET resulted in a reduction in resting SBP (120 ± 12-115 ± 12 mmHg, p = 0.01). The intercept of the 5-min post-exercise systolic blood pressure slope was lower (p = 0.015) following the 4-week training intervention. Individual changes in immediate post-exercise response SBP were also significantly correlated with reductions in resting SBP following 4 weeks of training. There were significant differences in the slopes of the first vs. final post-exercise BRS response (p = 0.009), and the intercepts of the HRR slopes (p = 0.04) recorded during the 5-min post-exercise periods. Conclusions: Four weeks of IET altered immediate cardiovascular responses to an individual IET session. Altered immediate responses were also associated with training-induced reductions in resting SBP. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence suggesting that very short-term (immediate) cardiovascular responses may be important in defining chronic reductions in resting blood pressure following a period of IET.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 10/2014; 115(2). DOI:10.1007/s00421-014-3021-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • M Cole · D Coleman · J Hopker · J Wiles ·
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; P<0.001). Additionally, HighCHO GE was significantly greater after 25 min (P=0.015) and 85 min (P=0.021) than in the LowCHO condition. Heart rate responses in the HighCHO condition were significantly lower than during the LowCHO tests (P=0.005). Diet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 09/2013; 35(3). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1348254 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Natalie Goldring · Jonathan D Wiles · Damian Coleman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The isometric wall squat could be utilised in home-based training aimed at reducing resting blood pressure, but first its suitability must be established. The aim of this study was to determine a method of adjusting wall squat intensity and explore the cardiovascular responses. Twenty-three participants performed one 2 minute wall squat on 15 separate occasions. During the first ten visits, ten different knee joint angles were randomly completed from 135° to 90° in 5° increments; five random angles were repeated in subsequent visits. Heart rate and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) were measured. The heart rate and blood pressure parameters produced significant inverse relationships with joint angle (r at least -0.80; P < 0.05), demonstrating that wall squat intensity can be adjusted by manipulating knee joint angle. Furthermore, the wall squat elicited similar cardiovascular responses to other isometric exercise modes that have reduced resting blood pressure (135° heart rate: 76 ± 10 beats ∙ min(-1); systolic: 134 ± 14 mmHg; diastolic: 76 ± 6 mmHg and 90° heart rate: 119 ± 20 beats ∙ min(-1); systolic: 196 ± 18 mmHg; diastolic: 112 ± 13 mmHg). The wall squat may have a useful role to play in isometric training aimed at reducing resting blood pressure.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 07/2013; 32(2). DOI:10.1080/02640414.2013.809471 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age, training status and muscle fibre type distribution on cycling efficiency. Forty males were recruited into one of 4 groups: young and old trained cyclists, young and old untrained individuals. All participants completed an incremental ramp test to measure their VO2peak, maximal heart rate (HRmax) and maximal minute power output (MMP); a submaximal test of ratio corrected cycling gross efficiency at a series of absolute and relative work rates; and in trained participants only, a 1-hour cycling time trial. Finally, all participants underwent a muscle biopsy of their right vastus lateralis muscle. At relative work rates, a general linear model found significant main effects of age and training status on cycling efficiency (P<0.01). The percentage type I muscle fibres was higher in the trained groups (P<0.01), with no difference between age groups. There was no relationship between fibre type and cycling efficiency at any work rate or cadence combination. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that muscle fibre type did not influence cycling performance (P>0.05). Power output in the 1-h performance trial was predicted by average VO2 and GE, with standardised beta coefficients of 0.94 and 0.34 respectively, although some mathematical coupling is evident. These data demonstrate that muscle fibre type does not affect cycling efficiency and was not influenced by the ageing process. Cycling efficiency and the percentage of type I muscle fibres were influenced by training status, but only GE at 120 rev⋅min(-1) was seen to predict cycling performance.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2013; 115(5). DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00361.2013 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Anthony W Baross · Jonathan D Wiles · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: Double-leg isometric training has been demonstrated to reduce resting blood pressure in young men when using electromyographic activity (EMG) to regulate exercise intensity. This study assessed this training method in healthy older (45-60 years.) men. Initially, 35 older men performed an incremental isometric exercise test to determine the linearity of the heart rate versus percentage peak EMG (%EMGpeak) and systolic blood pressure versus %EMGpeak relationship. Thereafter, 20 participants were allocated to a training or control group. The training group performed three double-leg isometric sessions per week for 8 weeks, at 85% of peak heart rate. The training resulted in a significant reduction in resting systolic (11 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.05) and mean arterial (5 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05) blood pressure. There was no significant change in resting systolic blood pressure for the control group or diastolic blood pressure in either group (all P > 0.05). These findings show that this training method, used previously in young men, is also effective in reducing resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure in older men.
    Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2013; 4:33-40. DOI:10.2147/OAJSM.S39375
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    Anthony W Baross · Jonathan D Wiles · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish whether changes in resting blood pressure and the vasculature of trained and untrained limbs are dependent on training intensity, following isometric-leg training. Thirty middle-aged males undertook an 8 week training programme (4 × 2 min bilateral-leg isometric contractions 3 times per week). Two groups trained at either high (HI; 14%MVC) or low (LO; 8%MVC) intensity a third group (CON) acted as controls. All parameters were measured at baseline, 4-weeks and post-training. Resting SBP (-10.8 ± 7.9 mmHg), MAP (-4.7 ± 6.8 mmHg) and HR (-4.8 ± 5.9 b·min(-1)) fell significantly in the HI group post-training with concomitant significant increases in resting femoral mean artery diameter (FMAD; 1.0 ± 0.4 mm), femoral mean blood velocity (FMBV; 0.68 ± 0.83 cm·s(-1)), resting femoral artery blood flow (FABF; 82.06 ± 31.92 ml·min(-1)) and resting femoral vascular conductance (FVC, 45%). No significant changes occurred in any brachial artery measure nor in any parameters measured in the LO or CON groups. These findings show that training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure after isometric-leg training in healthy middle-aged men are associated with concomitant adaptations in the local vasculature, that appear to be dependent on training intensity and take place in the later stages of training.
    International journal of vascular medicine 09/2012; 2012(7):964697. DOI:10.1155/2012/964697
  • Gavin R Devereux · Damian Coleman · Jonathan D Wiles · Ian Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was (a) to assess lactate accumulation during isometric exercise, and to quantify the shifts in accumulation following isometric training; and (b) to relate any training-induced changes in lactate accumulation to reductions in resting blood pressure. Eleven male participants undertook isometric training for a 4-week period using bilateral-leg exercise. Training caused reductions in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial resting blood pressure (of -4.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.01; -2.6 ± 3.0 mmHg, P = 0.01; and -2.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.001 respectively; mean ± s). These were accompanied by changes in muscle activity, taken as electromyographic activity to reach a given lactate concentration (from 114 ± 22 to 131 ± 27 mV and from 136 ± 25 to 155 ± 34 mV for 3 and 4 mmol · L(-1) respectively. Training intensity expressed relative to peak lactate was correlated with reduced resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure. Training caused significant shifts in lactate accumulation, and reductions in resting blood pressure are strongly related to training intensity, when expressed relative to pre-training peak lactate. This suggests that higher levels of local muscle anaerobiosis may promote the training-induced reductions in resting blood pressure.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 06/2012; 30(11):1141-8. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2012.692482 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Gavin R Devereux · Jonathan D Wiles · Ian Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the correlations between selected markers of isometric training intensity and subsequent reductions in resting blood pressure. Thirteen participants performed a discontinuous incremental isometric exercise test to volitional exhaustion at which point mean torque for the final 2-min stage (2min-torque(peak)) and peak heart rate peak (HR(peak)) were identified. Also, during 4 weeks of training (3 sessions per week, comprising 4 × 2 min bilateral leg isometric exercise at 95% HR(peak)), heart rate (HR(train)), torque (Torque(train)), and changes in EMG amplitude (ΔEMG(amp)) and frequency (ΔEMG(freq)) were determined. The markers of training intensity were: Torque(train) relative to the 2min-torque(peak) (%2min-torque(peak)), EMG relative to EMG(peak) (%EMG(peak)), HR(train) ΔEMG(amp), ΔEMG(freq), and %MVC. Mean systolic (-4.9 mmHg) and arterial blood pressure (-2.7mmHg) reductions correlated with %2min-torque(peak) (r = -0.65, P = 0.02 and r = -0.59, P = 0.03), ΔEMG(amp) (r = 0.66, P = 0.01 and r = 0.59, P = 0.03), ΔEMG(freq) (r = -0.67, P = 0.01 and r = -0.64, P = 0.02), and %EMG(peak) (systolic blood pressure only; r = -0.63, P = 0.02). These markers best reflect the association between isometric training intensity and reduction in resting blood pressure observed after bilateral leg isometric exercise training.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 03/2011; 29(7):715-24. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2011.552113 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    I L Swaine · A M Hunter · K J Carlton · J D Wiles · D Coleman ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary responses, to incremental whole-body exercise using a novel swimming training machine. 8 swimmers with a mean age of 23.7 ± 4.6 (yrs), stature 1.77 ± 0.13 (m) and body mass of 74.7 ± 2.8 (kg) gave informed consent and participated in repeat exercise testing on the machine. All subjects performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion using front crawl movements. From these tests peak oxygen consumption (VO(₂peak)), peak heart rate (HR(peak)), peak power output (W (peak)) and individual limb power outputs were determined. Results showed there were no significant differences between test 1 and 2 for any variable at exhaustion, and the CV% ranged from 2.8 to 3.4%. The pooled mean values were; VO(₂peak) 3.7 ± 0.65 L.min⁻¹, HR (peak) 178.7 ± 6.6 b.min⁻¹ and W (peak) 349.7 ± 16.5 W. The mean contributions to the total power output from the legs and arms were (37.3 ± 4.1% and 62.7 ± 5.1% respectively). These results show that it is possible to measure individual limb power outputs and cardiopulmonary parameters reproducibly during whole-body exercise using this training machine, at a range of exercise intensities.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 10/2010; 31(12):854-9. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1265175 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    James Hopker · Damian Coleman · Louis Passfield · Jonathan Wiles ·
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of different intensity training on cycling efficiency in competitive cyclists is unknown. Twenty-nine endurance-trained competitive male cyclists completed 3 laboratory visits during a 12-week training period. At each visit, their cycling efficiency and maximal oxygen uptake were determined. After the first visit, cyclists were randomly split into 2 groups (A and B). Over the first 6 weeks, between tests 1 and 2, group A was prescribed specific high-intensity training sessions, whereas group B was restricted in the amount of intensive work undertaken. After test 2 and for the second 6-week period, group B was allowed to conduct high-intensity training. Gross efficiency (GE) increased in group A (+1.6 +/- 1.4%; p < 0.05) following the high-intensity training, whereas no significant change was seen in group B (+0.1 +/- 0.7%; p > 0.05). Group B cyclists increased their GE between tests 2 and 3 (+1.4 +/- 0.8%; p < 0.05) but no changes in GE were observed in group A over this period (+0.4 +/- 0.4%; p > 0.05). Delta efficiency (DE) did not change significantly in either group across the study period. This study demonstrates that GE is increased following high-intensity training in competitive male cyclists after 12 weeks.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2010; 35(1):17-22. DOI:10.1139/H09-124 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Gavin R Devereux · Jonathan D Wiles · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: There is some evidence to suggest isometric training can reduce resting blood pressure in a shorter period than the typical 8 weeks, reported most commonly. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether 4 weeks of bilateral-leg isometric training can reduce resting blood pressure, and whether these changes are associated with altered cardiac output or total peripheral resistance. Thirteen participants volunteered for a 4-week crossover training study, involving three sessions per week (each session involving 4 x 2 min bilateral-leg isometric exercise). The training intensity used (95% peak HR) was equivalent to 24% MVC. In addition to blood pressure, resting heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured. Results demonstrated that bilateral-leg isometric exercise training for 4 weeks caused significant reductions in systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure. Changes were -4.9 +/- 5.8, -2.8 +/- 3.2, and -2.7 +/- 2.4 mmHg, respectively. No differences were observed in the other resting measures. In conclusion, this study has shown that it is possible to induce reductions in arterial blood pressure after 4 weeks of bilateral-leg isometric exercise.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 02/2010; 109(4):601-6. DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1394-x · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • A Owen · J Wiles · I Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic physical exercise (walking, swimming, and so on) is an important component of lifestyle changes to reduce blood pressure; however, many individuals are unwilling or unable to adopt this lifestyle change. Isometric exercise has not traditionally been recommended as an alternative to dynamic exercise and has not been well studied. A meta-analysis of controlled trials of isometric exercise on resting blood pressure was therefore undertaken. Five trials were identified including a total of 122 subjects. Isometric exercise for <1 h per week reduced systolic blood pressure by 10.4 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 6.7 mm Hg. These changes are similar to those achieved with a single pharmacological agent. These results suggest that isometric exercise may be of value as part of lifestyle advice in maintaining a desirable blood pressure.
    Journal of human hypertension 02/2010; 24(12):796-800. DOI:10.1038/jhh.2010.13 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    James G Hopker · Damian A Coleman · Jonathan D Wiles · Andrew Galbraith ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of sprint performance in both field and laboratory conditions. Twenty-one male (mean ± s: 19 ± 1 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 77.6 ± 7.1 kg) and seventeen female team sport players (mean ± s: 21 ± 4 years, 1.68 ± 0.07 m, 62.7 ± 4.7 kg) performed a maximal 20-metre sprint running test on eight separate occasions. Four trials were conducted on a non-motorised treadmill in the laboratory; the other four were conducted outdoors on a hard-court training surface with time recorded by single-beam photocells. Trials were conducted in random order with no familiarisation prior to testing. There was a significant difference between times recorded during outdoor field trials (OFT) and indoor laboratory trials (ILT) using a non-motorised treadmill (3.47 ± 0.53 vs. 6.06 ±1.17s; p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation (CV) for time was 2.55-4.22% for OFT and 5.1-7.2% for ILT. During ILT peak force (420.9+87.7N), mean force (147.2+24.7N), peak power (1376.8 ± 451.9W) and mean power (514.8 ± 164.4W), and were measured. The CV for all ILT variables was highest during trial 1-2 comparison. The CV (95% confidence interval) for the trial 3-4 comparison yielded: 9.4% (7.7-12.1%), 7.9% (6.4-10.2%), 10.1% (8.2-13.1%) and 6.2% (5.1-8.0%) for PF, MF, PP and MP and respectively. The results indicate that reliable data can be derived for single maximal sprint measures, using fixed distance protocols. However, significant differences in time/speed over 20-m exist between field and laboratory conditions. This is primarily due to the frictional resistance in the non-motorised treadmill. Measures of force and power during ILT require at least 3 familiarisations to reduce variability in test scores.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2009; 8(4):528-32. · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • J. Andrew · T. Henry · D. A. Coleman · J. D. Wiles ·
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data available on the injury occurrence associated with training in high-risk occupations. The aim of this investigation was to assess the injuries sustained during police training conducted by the Staff Safety Training Unit (SSTU), at Kent Police (Maidstone, Kent).
    The Police Journal 09/2009; 82(3):265-274. DOI:10.1350/pojo.2009.82.3.455
  • Jonathan Derek Wiles · Damian A Coleman · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: No previous studies have examined the effects of isometric training intensity upon resting blood pressure (BP). The aims of this study were (a) to compare the effects of leg isometric training, performed at two intensities, upon resting systolic-SBP, diastolic-DBP and mean arterial-MAP BP; and (b) to examine selected cardiovascular variables, in an attempt to explain any changes in resting BP following training. Thirty-three participants were randomly allocated to either control, high- (HI) or low-intensity (LI) training for 8 weeks. Participants performed 4 x 2 min exercise bouts 3x weekly. Resting BP was measured at baseline, 4-weeks and post-training. SBP, DBP and MAP fell significantly in both groups after training. Changes were -5.2 +/- 4.0, -2.6 +/- 2.9 and -2.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg [HI]; -3.7 +/- 3.7, -2.5 +/- 4.8 and -2.6 +/- 2.5 mmHg [LI] for SBP, DBP and MAP, respectively. There were no significant changes in BP at 4 weeks. No significant changes were observed in any of the other cardiovascular variables examined. These findings suggest that isometric training causes reductions in SBP, DBP and MAP at a range of exercise intensities, when it is performed over 8 weeks. Furthermore, it is possible to reduce resting BP using a much lower isometric exercise intensity than has previously been shown.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 04/2009; 108(3):419-28. DOI:10.1007/s00421-009-1025-6 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • A Kirkland · D Coleman · J D Wiles · J Hopker ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ergomopro powermeter. Nine participants completed trials on a Monark ergometer fitted with Ergomopro and SRM powermeters simultaneously recording power output. Each participant completed multiple trials at power outputs ranging from 50 to 450 W. The work stages recorded were 60 s in duration and were repeated three times. Participants also completed a single trial on a cycle ergometer designed to assess bilateral contributions to work output (Lode Excaliber Sport PFM). The power output during the trials was significantly different between all three systems, (p < 0.01) 231.2 +/- 114.2 W, 233.0 +/- 112.4 W, 227.8 +/- 108.8 W for the Monark, SRM and Ergomopro system, respectively. When the bilateral contributions were factored into the analysis, there were no significant differences between the powermeters (p = 0.58). The reliability of the Ergomopro system (CV%) was 2.31 % (95 % CI 2.13 - 2.52 %) compared to 1.59 % (95 % CI 1.47 to 1.74 %) for the Monark, and 1.37 % (95 % CI 1.26 - 1.50 %) for the SRM powermeter. These results indicate that the Ergomopro system has acceptable accuracy under these conditions. However, based on the reliability data, the increased variability of the Ergomopro system and bilateral balance issues have to be considered when using this device.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2008; 29(11):913-6. DOI:10.1055/s-2008-1038621 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Jonathan D Wiles · Simon R Allum · Damian A Coleman · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, it is not possible to prescribe isometric exercise at an intensity that corresponds to given heart rates or systolic blood pressures. This might be useful in optimizing the effects of isometric exercise training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric exercise intensity and both heart rate and systolic blood pressure during repeated incremental isometric exercise tests. Fifteen participants performed seated isometric double-leg knee extension, during which maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was assessed, using an isokinetic dynamometer. From this, a corresponding peak electromyographic activity (EMG(peak)) was determined. Subsequently, participants performed two incremental isometric exercise tests (at least 48 h apart) at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% EMG(peak), during which steady-state heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. In all participants, there were linear relationships between %EMG(peak) and heart rate (r at least 0.91; P < 0.05) and between %EMG(peak) and systolic blood pressure (r at least 0.92; P < 0.05). Also, when repeated tests were compared, there were no differences in the slopes (P > 0.50) or elevations (P > 0.10) for either of the relationships. Therefore, these linear relationships could be used to identify isometric exercise training intensities that correspond to precise heart rates or systolic blood pressures. Training performed in this way might provide greater insight into the underlying mechanisms for the cardiovascular adaptations that are known to occur as a result.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 02/2008; 26(2):155-62. DOI:10.1080/02640410701370655 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • James G Hopker · Damian A Coleman · Jonathan D Wiles ·
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    ABSTRACT: Controversy still exists in the literature as to whether cycling experience affects gross mechanical efficiency (GME). The aim of this study was to identify differences in efficiency between trained and untrained cyclists. Thirty-two participants, 16 trained (mean+/-SD: age, 33+/-4 y; height, 1.76+/-0.05 m; mass 75+/-10 kg; Wmax, 421+/-38 W; maximal oxygen uptake, 62.6+/-7.30 and 16 untrained (22+/-3 y, 175+/-0.06 m, 76+/-10 kg, 292+/-34 W, 42.6+/-7.80, performed two tests of cycling efficiency. One was at the relative workloads of 50% and 60% Wmax and the other was at a fixed workload of 150 W using an electrically braked cycle ergometer. Cadence was maintained at the cyclist's preferred rate throughout. All workloads lasted 10 min with data sampling in the final 3 min. GME was calculated from the gas data. GME was found to be significantly higher in the trained cyclists across all workloads (+1.4%; p=0.03). At workloads of 60% Wmax GME was significantly lower than work at 150 W (-0.8%; p=0.04), but not significantly different from 50% Wmax. These results show that differences do exist between trained and untrained cyclists, illustrating that training experience is a factor that warrants further investigation.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2008; 32(6):1036-42. DOI:10.1139/H07-070 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • D A Coleman · J D Wiles · R C R Davison · M F Smith · I L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: The study aim was to consider the use of a motorised treadmill as a cycling ergometry system by assessing predicted and recorded power output values during treadmill cycling. Fourteen male cyclists completed repeated cycling trials on a motorised treadmill whilst riding their own bicycle fitted with a mobile ergometer. The speed, gradient and loading via an external pulley system were recorded during 20-s constant speed trials and used to estimate power output with an assumption about the contribution of rolling resistance. These values were then compared with mobile ergometer measurements. To assess the reliability of measured power output values, four repeated trials were conducted on each cyclist. During level cycling, the recorded power output was 257.2 +/- 99.3 W compared to the predicted power output of 258.2 +/- 99.9 W (p > 0.05). For graded cycling, there was no significant difference between measured and predicted power output, 268.8 +/- 109.8 W vs. 270.1 +/- 111.7 W, p > 0.05, SEE 1.2 %. The coefficient of variation for mobile ergometer power output measurements during repeated trials ranged from 1.5 % (95 % CI 1.2 - 2.0 %) to 1.8 % (95 % CI 1.5 - 2.4 %). These results indicate that treadmill cycling can be used as an ergometry system to assess power output in cyclists with acceptable accuracy.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2007; 28(6):525-30. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-955888 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Jonathan D Wiles · Damian Coleman · Michael Tegerdine · Ian L Swaine ·
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    ABSTRACT: There is little published data in relation to the effects of caffeine upon cycling performance, speed and power in trained cyclists, especially during cycling of approximately 60 s duration. To address this, eight trained cyclists performed a 1 km time-trial on an electronically braked cycle ergometer under three conditions: after ingestion of 5 mg x kg-1 caffeine, after ingestion of a placebo, or a control condition. The three time-trials were performed in a randomized order and performance time, mean speed, mean power and peak power were determined. Caffeine ingestion resulted in improved performance time (caffeine vs. placebo vs. control: 71.1 +/- 2.0 vs. 73.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 73.3 +/- 2.7 s; P = 0.02; mean +/- s). This change represented a 3.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7-5.6) improvement compared with the placebo condition. Mean speed was also higher in the caffeine than placebo and control conditions (caffeine vs. placebo vs. control: 50.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 49.1 +/- 1.5 vs. 49.2 +/- 1.7 km x h-1; P = 0.0005). Mean power increased after caffeine ingestion (caffeine vs. placebo vs. control: 523 +/- 43 vs. 505 +/- 46 vs. 504 +/- 38 W; P = 0.007). Peak power also increased from 864 +/- 107 W (placebo) and 830 +/- 87 W (control) to 940 +/- 83 W after caffeine ingestion (P = 0.027). These results provide support for previous research that found improved performance after caffeine ingestion during short-duration high-intensity exercise. The magnitude of the improvements observed in our study could be due to our use of sport-specific ergometry, a tablet form and trained participants.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 12/2006; 24(11):1165-71. DOI:10.1080/02640410500457687 · 2.25 Impact Factor