[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year)1. Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors1, 2, 3, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described3, 4. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches5. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,393 CeAD cases and 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.82; P = 4.46 × 10−10), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 × 10−3; combined P = 1.00 × 10−11). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction6, 7, 8, 9. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a large series of patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults, we aimed to examine frequencies and correlates of family history of CeAD and of inherited connective tissue disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the prognostic importance of Horner syndrome (HS) in patients with internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) or vertebral artery dissection (VAD).
In this observational study, characteristics and outcome of patients with ICAD or VAD from the CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) database were analyzed. The presence of HS was systematically assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Patients with HS (HS+) were compared with HS- patients. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals and ORs adjusted for age, sex, center, arterial occlusion, bilateral dissection, stroke severity, and type of antithrombotic treatment were calculated.
We analyzed 765 patients (n = 496 with ICAD, n = 269 with VAD, n = 303 prospective, n = 462 retrospective). HS was present in 191 (38.5%) of the patients with ICAD and 36 (13.4%) of the patients with VAD (p < 0.001). HS+ ICAD patients presented less often with stroke or TIA (p < 0.001), less often had bilateral (p = 0.019) or occlusive (p = 0.001) dissections, and had fewer severe strokes (p = 0.041) than HS- ICAD patients. HS+ ICAD patients had a better functional 3-month outcome than those without HS (ORcrude = 4.0 [2.4-6.7]), and also after adjustment for outcome-relevant covariates (ORadjusted = 2.0 [1.1-4.0]). HS+ ICAD patients were less likely to have new strokes than HS- ICAD patients (p = 0.039). HS+ VAD patients more often had vessel occlusion (p = 0.014) than HS- patients but did not differ in any of the other aforementioned variables.
In patients with ICAD, HS is an easily assessable marker that might indicate a more benign clinical course. HS had no prognostic meaning in patients with VAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purposePatients with ischaemic stroke (IS) caused by a spontaneous cervical artery dissection (CeAD) worry about an increased risk for stroke in their families. The occurrence of stroke in relatives of patients with CeAD and in those with ischaemic stroke attributable to other (non-CeAD) causes were compared.Methods
The frequency of stroke in first-degree relatives (family history of stroke, FHS) was studied in IS patients (CeAD patients and age- and sex-matched non-CeAD patients) from the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients (CADISP) database. FHS ≤ 50 and FHS > 50 were defined as having relatives who suffered stroke at the age of ≤50 or >50 years. FHS ≤ 50 and FHS > 50 were studied in CeAD and non-CeAD IS patients and related to age, sex, number of siblings, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and body mass index (BMI).ResultsIn all, 1225 patients were analyzed. FHS ≤ 50 was less frequent in CeAD patients (15/598 = 2.5%) than in non-CeAD IS patients (38/627 = 6.1%) (P = 0.003; odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22–0.73), also after adjustment for age, sex and number of siblings (P = 0.005; odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.23–0.77). The frequency of FHS > 50 was similar in both study groups. Vascular risk factors did not differ between patients with positive or negative FHS ≤ 50. However, patients with FHS > 50 were more likely to have hypertension and higher BMI.Conclusion
Relatives of CeAD patients had fewer strokes at a young age than relatives of non-CeAD IS stroke patients.
European Journal of Neurology 04/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about factors contributing to multiple rather than single cervical artery dissections (CeAD) and their associated prognosis.
We compared the baseline characteristics and short-term outcome of patients with multiple to single CeAD included in the multicenter Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients (CADISP) study.
Among the 983 patients with CeAD, 149 (15.2%) presented with multiple CeAD. Multiple CeADs were more often associated with cervical pain at admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.30), a remote history of head or neck surgery (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.16-3.00), a recent infection (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.12-2.61), and cervical manipulation (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.26-3.95). On imaging, cervical fibromuscular dysplasia (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 2.04-7.74) and the presence of a pseudoaneurysm (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.86-4.57) were more often seen in patients with multiple CeAD. The presence of multiple rather than single CeAD had no effect on functional 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≥3; 12% in multiple CeAD versus 11.9% in single CeAD; OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.60-2.41).
In the largest published series of patients with CeAD, we highlighted significant differences between multiple and single artery involvement. Features suggestive of an underlying vasculopathy (fibromuscular dysplasia) and environmental triggers (recent infection, cervical manipulation, and a remote history of head or neck surgery) were preferentially associated with multiple CeAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purposeIt has been suggested that inflammation may play a role in the development of cervical artery dissection (CeAD), but evidence remains scarce. MethodsA total of 172 patients were included with acute (
European Journal of Neurology 10/2013; 20(10). · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the import of prior cervical trauma (PCT) in patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD). METHODS: In this observational study, the presence of and the type of PCT were systematically ascertained in CeAD patients using 2 different populations for comparisons: 1) age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke attributable to a cause other than CeAD (non-CeAD-IS), and 2) healthy subjects participating in the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients Study. The presence of PCT within 1 month was assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and ORs adjusted for age, sex, and center were calculated. RESULTS: We analyzed 1,897 participants (n = 966 with CeAD, n = 651 with non-CeAD-IS, n = 280 healthy subjects). CeAD patients had PCT in 40.5% (38.2%-44.5%) of cases, with 88% (344 of 392) classified as mild. PCT was more common in CeAD patients than in non-CeAD-IS patients (ORcrude 5.6 [95% CI 4.20-7.37], p < 0.001; ORadjusted 7.6 [95% CI 5.60-10.20], p < 0.001) or healthy subjects (ORcrude 2.8 [95% CI 2.03-3.68], p < 0.001; ORadjusted 3.7 [95% CI 2.40-5.56], p < 0.001). CeAD patients with PCT were younger and presented more often with neck pain and less often with stroke than CeAD patients without PCT. PCT was not associated with functional 3-month outcome after adjustment for age, sex, and stroke severity. CONCLUSION: PCT seems to be an important environmental determinant of CeAD, but was not an independent outcome predictor. Because of the characteristics of most PCTs, the term mechanical trigger event rather than trauma may be more appropriate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a frequent cause of stroke among young patients. It is unclear how many CeADs occur asymptomatically or cause subtle and unspecific clinical symptoms. We hypothesize that CeAD remains often unrecognized. Accordingly, the incidence of CeAD might be higher and the stroke risk lower than generally assumed. Lack of CeAD-indicating clinical symptoms is regarded as the main cause of missed diagnoses. We further hypothesize that underrepresentation of asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic patients in CeAD studies may have biased the association between ischemia and local symptoms in CeAD patients as well as the associations of CeAD with risk factors or co-morbidities. We finally hypothesize that symptomatic CeAD may be preceded by an initial asymptomatic phase. According to this final hypothesis, the time of onset of CeAD should be considered uncertain. The issue of unrecognized CeAD is relevant, as it may affect the associations between CeAD and putative risk factors. Furthermore, the existence of clinically silent CeADs may explain why recurrent and familial CeAD have been rarely observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of antiplatelets and anticoagulants on stroke and death in patients with acute cervical artery dissection.
Systematic review with Bayesian meta-analysis.
The reviewers searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to November 2012, checked reference lists, and contacted authors.
Studies were eligible if they were randomised, quasi-randomised or observational comparisons of antiplatelets and anticoagulants in patients with cervical artery dissection.
Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Bayesian techniques were used to appropriately account for studies with scarce event data and imbalances in the size of comparison groups.
Thirty-seven studies (1991 patients) were included. We found no randomised trial. The primary analysis revealed a large treatment effect in favour of antiplatelets for preventing the primary composite outcome of ischaemic stroke, intracranial haemorrhage or death within the first 3 months after treatment initiation (relative risk 0.32, 95% credibility interval 0.12 to 0.63), while the degree of between-study heterogeneity was moderate (τ(2) = 0.18). In an analysis restricted to studies of higher methodological quality, the possible advantage of antiplatelets over anticoagulants was less obvious than in the main analysis (relative risk 0.73, 95% credibility interval 0.17 to 2.30).
In view of these results and the safety advantages, easier usage and lower cost of antiplatelets, we conclude that antiplatelets should be given precedence over anticoagulants as a first line treatment in patients with cervical artery dissection unless results of an adequately powered randomised trial suggest the opposite.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e72697. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke in patients with acute cervical artery dissection may be anticipated by initial transient ischemic or nonischemic symptoms. AIM: Identifying risk factors for delayed stroke upon cervical artery dissection. METHODS: Cervical artery dissection patients from the multicenter Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients study were classified as patients without stroke (n = 339), with stroke preceded by nonstroke symptoms (delayed stroke, n = 244), and with stroke at onset (n = 382). Demographics, clinical, and vascular findings were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: Patients with delayed stroke were more likely to present with occlusive cervical artery dissection (P < 0·001), multiple cervical artery dissection (P = 0·031), and vertebral artery dissection (P < 0·001) than patients without stroke. No differences were observed in age, smoking, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, migraine, body mass index, infections during the last week, and trauma during the last month, but patients with delayed stroke had less often transient ischemic attack (P < 0·001) and local signs (Horner syndrome and cranial nerve palsy; P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: Occlusive cervical artery dissection, multiple cervical artery dissection, and vertebral artery dissection were associated with an increased risk for delayed stroke. No other risk factors for delayed stroke were identified. Immediate cervical imaging of cervical artery dissection patients without ischemic stroke is needed to identify patients at increased risk for delayed ischemia.
International Journal of Stroke 12/2012; · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to explore age-dependent differences in cervical artery dissection (CeAD). This study is based on the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients population comprising 983 consecutive CeAD patients and 658 control patients with a non-CeAD ischemic stroke (IS), frequency-matched for age and gender. Patients were divided into three age categories: ≤33 (for CeAD, n = 150), 34-54 (n = 688), and ≥55 (n = 145) years, and the youngest and oldest groups were compared. The youngest patients were mostly women and the oldest men. The frequency of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) versus vertebral artery dissection (VAD) increased with age from 44 to 75 %. This age-related shift remained significant after adjustment for sex. The frequency of a transient ischemic event as the CeAD symptom declined from 33 % in the youngest age group, to 19 % in the oldest. Vascular risk factors increased in frequency with advancing age in both groups, but for hypertension the increase was steeper for non-CeAD IS patients. For CeAD patients, but not for patients with non-CeAD IS, preceding infection was more common in the oldest group. The youngest non-CeAD IS patients had better functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-1) than the oldest, while the similar trend was not statistically significant among CeAD patients. Younger age seems to be associated with VAD and female gender, and older age with ICAD and male gender. Age-related changes in the frequencies of hypertension and recent infection were different between the CeAD and non-CeAD IS groups. Age does not seem to be an important outcome predictor in CeAD strokes.
Journal of Neurology 04/2012; 259(10):2202-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several small to medium-sized studies indicated a link between cervical artery dissection (CeAD) and migraine. Migrainous CeAD patients were suggested to have different clinical characteristics compared to nonmigraine CeAD patients. We tested these hypotheses in the large Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients (CADISP) population.
A total of 968 CeAD patients and 653 patients with an ischemic stroke of a cause other than CeAD (non-CeAD IS) were recruited. CeAD patients with stroke (CeAD(stroke), n = 635) were compared with non-CeAD IS patients regarding migraine, clinical characteristics, and outcome. CeAD patients with and without migraine were compared in terms of clinical characteristics and outcome.
Migraine was more common among CeAD(stroke) patients compared to non-CeAD IS patients (35.7 vs 27.4%, p = 0.003). The difference was mainly due to migraine without aura (20.2 vs 11.2%, p < 0.001). There were no differences in prevalence of strokes, arterial distribution, or other clinical or prognostic features between migrainous and nonmigrainous CeAD patients.
Migraine without aura is more common among CeAD(stroke) patients compared to non-CeAD IS patients. The mechanisms and possible causative link remain to be proved. Although CeAD is often complicated by stroke, our data do not support increased risk of stroke in migrainous CeAD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether thrombolysis for stroke attributable to cervical artery dissection (CeAD(Stroke) ) affects outcome and major haemorrhage rates.
We used a multicentre CeAD(Stroke) database to compare CeAD(Stroke) patients treated with and without thrombolysis. Main outcome measures were favourable 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) and 'major haemorrhage' [any intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and major extracranial haemorrhage]. Adjusted odds ratios [OR (95% confidence intervals)] were calculated on the whole database and on propensity-matched groups.
Among 616 CeAD(Stroke) patients, 68 (11.0%) received thrombolysis; which was used in 55 (81%) intravenously. Thrombolyzed patients had more severe strokes (median NIHSS score 16 vs. 3; P < 0.001) and more often occlusion of the dissected artery (66.2% vs. 39.4%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for stroke severity and vessel occlusion, the likelihood for favourable outcome did not differ between the treatment groups [OR(adjusted) 0.95 (95% CI 0.45-2.00)]. The propensity matching score model showed that the odds to recover favourably were virtually identical for 64 thrombolyzed and 64 non-thrombolyzed-matched CeAD(Stroke) patients [OR 1.00 (0.49-2.00)]. Haemorrhages occurred in 4 (5.9%) thrombolyzed patients, all being asymptomatic ICHs. In the non-thrombolysis group, 3 (0.6%) patients had major haemorrhages [asymptomatic ICH (n = 2) and major extracranial haemorrhage (n = 1)].
As thrombolysis was neither independently associated with unfavourable outcome nor with an excess of symptomatic bleedings, our findings suggest thrombolysis should not be withheld in CeAD(Stroke) patients. However, the lack of any trend towards a benefit of thrombolysis may indicate the legitimacy to search for more efficient treatment options including mechanical revascularization strategies.
European Journal of Neurology 03/2012; 19(9):1199-206. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs more often in autumn or winter than in spring or summer. We searched for clinical variables associated with this seasonality by comparing CeAD patients with onset of symptoms in autumn–winter (September 22–March 21) versus those with first CeAD symptom in spring–summer (March 22–September 21). We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the multicenter CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) registry. Age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke attributable to a cause other than CeAD (non-CeAD patients) were analyzed to study the specificity of our findings. Autumn–winter CeAD patients had a higher median brachial pulse pressure at admission (55 vs. 52 mmHg; p = 0.01) and more recent infections (22.0% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.047), but prevalence of trauma was not associated with seasonal onset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher pulse pressure was significantly associated with autumn–winter CeAD (p = 0.01), while age, gender, history of hypertension, recent infection, and recent trauma were not. No association between pulse pressure and seasonal occurrence was found in non-CeAD ischemic stroke patients. Increased pulse pressure was associated with the higher frequency of CeAD in autumn or winter.
Journal of Neurology 01/2012; 259(8):1662-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze previously established gender differences in cervical artery dissection (CeAD).
This case-control study is based on the CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) population comprising 983 consecutive CeAD patients (mean age: 44.1 ± 9.9 years) and 658 control patients with a non-CeAD ischemic stroke (IS) (44.5 ± 10.5 years).
Cervical artery dissection was more common in men (56.7% vs. 43.3%, P < 0.001) and men were older (46.4 vs. 41.0 years, P < 0.001). We assessed putative risk factors for CeAD including vascular risk factors, recent cervical trauma, pregnancies, and infections. All gender differences in the putative risk factors and outcome were similar in the CeAD and the non-CeAD IS groups.
Our analysis of the largest collection of CeAD patients to date confirms male predominance and differences in age at dissection between men and women. Gender differences in putative risk factors may explain the higher frequency of CeAD in men and their older age, but the putative risk factors are probably not specific for CeAD.
European Journal of Neurology 12/2011; 19(4):594-602. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether risk factor profile, baseline features, and outcome of cervical artery dissection (CEAD) differ according to the dissection site.
We analyzed 982 consecutive patients with CEAD included in the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients observational study (n = 619 with internal carotid artery dissection [ICAD], n = 327 with vertebral artery dissection [VAD], n = 36 with ICAD and VAD).
Patients with ICAD were older (p < 0.0001), more often men (p = 0.006), more frequently had a recent infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.31]), and tended to report less often a minor neck trauma in the previous month (OR = 0.75 [0.56-1.007]) compared to patients with VAD. Clinically, patients with ICAD more often presented with headache at admission (OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) but less frequently complained of cervical pain (OR = 0.36 [0.27-0.48]) or had cerebral ischemia (OR = 0.32 [0.21-0.49]) than patients with VAD. Among patients with CEAD who sustained an ischemic stroke, the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission was higher in patients with ICAD than patients with VAD (OR = 1.17 [1.12-1.22]). Aneurysmal dilatation was more common (OR = 1.80 [1.13-2.87]) and bilateral dissection less frequent (OR = 0.63 [0.42-0.95]) in patients with ICAD. Multiple concomitant dissections tended to cluster on the same artery type rather than involving both a vertebral and carotid artery. Patients with ICAD had a less favorable 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score >2, OR = 3.99 [2.32-6.88]), but this was no longer significant after adjusting for baseline NIHSS score.
In the largest published series of patients with CEAD, we observed significant differences between VAD and ICAD in terms of risk factors, baseline features, and functional outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the risk factors for cervical artery dissection (CEAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity are important risk factors for IS. However, their specific role in CEAD is poorly investigated. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of vascular risk factors in CEAD patients versus referents and patients who suffered an IS of a cause other than CEAD (non-CEAD IS) in the multicenter Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients (CADISP) study.
The study sample comprised 690 CEAD patients (mean age, 44.2 ± 9.9 years; 43.9% women), 556 patients with a non-CEAD IS (44.7 ± 10.5 years; 39.9% women), and 1170 referents (45.9 ± 8.1 years; 44.1% women). We compared the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m²) or overweightness (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² and <30 kg/m²) between the 3 groups using a multinomial logistic regression adjusted for country of inclusion, age, and gender. Compared with referents, CEAD patients had a lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.71; P<0.0001), obesity (odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.52; P<0.0001), and overweightness (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.88; P=0.002) but were more frequently hypertensive (odds ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 2.1; P<0.0001). All vascular risk factors were less frequent in CEAD patients compared with young patients with a non-CEAD IS. The latter were more frequently hypertensive, diabetic, and current smokers compared with referents.
These results, from the largest series to date, suggest that hypertension, although less prevalent than in patients with a non-CEAD IS, could be a risk factor of CEAD, whereas hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and overweightness are inversely associated with CEAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on recurrence of vascular events and their prognostic factors in young (<50 years of age) stroke patients are not well defined.
We assessed the occurrence of arterial thrombotic events in consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years entered into the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry (January 1994-October 2004) within 5-year follow-up. Follow-up was conducted with a structured telephone interview or letter, and review of all patient records; mortality data came from Statistics Finland. Primary outcomes were (1) nonfatal or fatal recurrent ischemic stroke; (2) nonfatal or fatal myocardial infarct, other arterial thrombotic event, or revascularization procedure; and (3) any combination of these, whichever occurred first (composite endpoint). We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate cumulative risks and Cox proportional hazard model-adjusted for age, gender, relevant risk factors, and stroke subtype-for identifying predictors of recurrence.
In the 807 patients followed (mean age, 41.5 ± 7.4 years; 62.9% male), cumulative 5-year recurrence rate was 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.5%) for nonfatal or fatal ischemic stroke, 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.5%) for nonfatal or fatal myocardial infarct or other arterial endpoint, and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.2-13.7%) for the composite endpoint. Independent predictors of the composite endpoint were type 1 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio [HR], 4.39; 95% CI, 2.28-8.45), large-artery atherosclerosis underlying the index stroke (HR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.36-5.83), heart failure (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.17-7.50), previous transient ischemic attack (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.88), and increasing age (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10).
Despite their young age, these individuals were at marked risk of recurrent arterial events, predicted by mostly modifiable baseline factors.
Annals of Neurology 11/2010; 68(5):661-71. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is the most common single etiology for stroke in young adults. Migraine, especially with aura (MA), is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke. The association between CAD and migraine was suggested based on a few small studies, but there are no large-scale case-control data, and the mechanisms are not yet clear.
We compared the lifetime prevalence of migraine and migraine characteristics in 313 CAD patients with 313 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. We also analyzed clinical and radiological characteristics of CAD with respect to migraine subtypes to investigate whether clear phenotypical associations can be found that might help in the search for a possible shared genetic background for migraine and CAD.
Migraine was clearly more common in CAD patients than in controls (36 vs. 23%; OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.48-3.14), and the association was also highly significant for MA (23 vs. 12%; OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.53-3.80). Percentages of reported migraine history and MA of CAD patients vs. controls compared separately for both sexes were as follows: for women, migraine 54 vs. 35% (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.28-4.13), MA 35 vs. 18% (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.40-5.59); for men, migraine 27 vs. 16% (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.23-3.31), MA 16 vs. 10% (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.19-4.11). Over 60% of the CAD patients with still active migraine at the time of dissection reported later alleviation of migraine activity.
Our observations suggest that patients with CAD are a significant link between ischemic stroke and migraine. This connection may represent a common pathophysiological or genetic background, or both. Migraine activity appears to be alleviated by CAD.