Matthew R Smith

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (178)1657.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context: Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth. Androgen deprivation (ADT) is associated with muscle loss and increased body fat and currently available therapies have limited efficacy to treat this complication. The anti-myostatin peptibody (AMG 745/Mu-S) markedly attenuated muscle loss and decreased fat accumulation in orchiectomized mice. Objective: The objective was to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and muscle efficacy of AMG 745 in men undergoing ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Methods: This was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled multiple dose phase 1 study of AMG 745 given for 28 days. The endpoint of percent change from baseline in lean body mass (LBM) as assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was pre-specified. Results: Rates of adverse events (AMG 745 versus placebo) were: diarrhea (13% versus 9%), fatigue (13% versus 4%), contusion (10% versus 0%), and injection site bruising (6% versus 4%). Exposure increased linearly from 0.3 mg/kg to 3 mg/kg. AMG 745 significantly increased LBM in the 3 mg/kg versus placebo groups on Day 29 by 2.2% (± 0.8% standard error [SE]), p = 0.008; in exploratory fat mass analysis, a decrease - 2.5% (± 1.0% SE), p = 0.021 was observed. Pharmacodynamic changes in muscle and fat were maintained at follow-up, 1 month after Day 29. Conclusion: Four weekly SC doses of AMG 745 were well tolerated and were associated with increased LBM and decreased fat in the men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Results support further investigation of AMG 745 in clinical settings with muscle loss and atrophy.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that has progressed on docetaxel. Our aim was to assess the activity and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer. This trial is an ongoing open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study, done across 12 European sites. Men aged over 18 years, with hormone-naive prostate cancer for whom hormone therapy was indicated, and who had non-castration levels of testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 2 ng/mL or greater at screening, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0, received oral enzalutamide 160 mg/day. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an 80% or greater decline in PSA at week 25. All analyses included all patients who had received at least one dose of the study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01302041. 67 men were enrolled into the study. 62 patients (92·5%, 95% CI 86·2-98·8) had a decline in PSA of 80% or greater at week 25. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events up to week 25 were gynaecomastia (n=24), fatigue (n=23), nipple pain (n=13), and hot flush (n=12), all of which were of mild to moderate severity. Nine patients had a treatment-emergent adverse event of grade 3 or higher, most of which were reported in one patient each, except for pneumonia (grade 3, two patients) and hypertension (grade 3, four patients). Five patients reported serious adverse events, none of which were deemed to be treatment related. Our findings suggest that enzalutamide monotherapy in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer of varying severity provides a level of disease suppression, and was generally well tolerated. These findings provide a rationale for further investigation of clinical response and outcomes with enzalutamide in non-castrate men with prostate cancer. Astellas Pharma Inc, Medivation Inc.
    The Lancet Oncology 04/2014; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary androgen-deprivation therapy (PADT) is often used to treat clinically localized prostate cancer, but its effects on cause-specific and overall mortality have not been established. Given the widespread use of PADT and the potential risks of serious adverse effects, accurate mortality data are needed to inform treatment decisions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using comprehensive utilization and cancer registry data from three integrated health plans. All men were newly diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer. Men who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2008, were not treated with curative intent therapy, and received follow-up through December 2010 were included in the study (n = 15,170). We examined all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality as our main outcomes. We used Cox proportional hazards models with and without propensity score analysis. Overall, PADT was associated with neither a risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.11) nor prostate-cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.19) after adjusting for all sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. PADT was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality but not prostate-cancer-specific mortality. PADT was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality only among the subgroup of men with a high risk of cancer progression (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.97). We found no mortality benefit from PADT compared with no PADT for most men with clinically localized prostate cancer who did not receive curative intent therapy. Men with higher-risk disease may derive a small clinical benefit from PADT. Our study provides the best available contemporary evidence on the lack of survival benefit from PADT for most men with clinically localized prostate cancer.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zoledronic acid decreases the risk for skeletal-related events (SREs) in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases but its role earlier in the natural history of the disease is unknown. This phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of earlier treatment with zoledronic acid in men with castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer and bone metastases whose androgen-deprivation therapy was initiated within 6 months of study entry were randomly assigned in a blinded 1:1 ratio to receive zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously every 4 weeks) or a placebo. After their disease progressed to castration-resistant status, all patients received open-label treatment with zoledronic acid. The primary end point was time to first SRE, defined as radiation to bone, clinical fracture, spinal cord compression, surgery to bone, or death as a result of prostate cancer. Target accrual was 680 patients. Primary analysis was planned after 470 SREs. The study was discontinued prematurely (645 patients; 299 SREs) after the corporate supporter withdrew study drug supply. Early zoledronic acid was not associated with increased time to first SRE. The median time to first SRE was 31.9 months in the zoledronic acid group (95% CI, 24.2 to 40.3) and 29.8 months in the placebo group (95% CI, 25.3 to 37.2; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0 to 1.17; one-sided stratified log-rank P = .39). Overall survival was similar between the groups (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.12; P = .29). Rates of adverse events were similar between the groups. In men with castration-sensitive prostate cancer and bone metastases, early treatment with zoledronic acid was not associated with lower risk for SREs.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain negatively affects quality of life for cancer patients. Preliminary data in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) suggested a benefit of the oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib to pain palliation. Prospective evaluation of cabozantinib's benefits on pain and narcotic use in mCRPC. This was a nonrandomized expansion (NRE) cohort (n=144) of a phase 2 randomized discontinuation trial in docetaxel-refractory mCRPC patients. Pain and interference of symptoms with sleep and general activity were electronically self-reported daily for 7-d intervals at baseline and regularly scheduled throughout the study. Mean per-patient scores were calculated for each interval. Narcotic use was recorded daily during the same intervals. Open-label cabozantinib (100mg or 40mg). The following stringent response definition was used: clinically meaningful pain reduction (≥30% improvement in mean scores from baseline) confirmed at a later interval without concomitant increases in narcotics. Only patients with moderate or severe baseline pain were analyzed. Sixty-five patients with moderate or severe baseline pain were evaluable. Of these, 27 (42%) experienced pain palliation according to the stringent response definition. Thirty-seven patients (57%) had clinically meaningful pain relief at two consecutive intervals, reported ≥6 wk apart in the majority. Forty-four patients (68%) had palliation at one or more intervals; 36 (55%) decreased narcotics use during one or more intervals. Clinically meaningful pain reduction was associated with significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvements in sleep quality and general activity. A limitation of this study was its open-label design. Cabozantinib demonstrated clinically meaningful pain palliation, reduced or eliminated patients' narcotic use, and improved patient functioning, thus meriting prospective validation in phase 3 studies. We evaluated the potential of cabozantinib to improve symptoms in patients with metastatic prostate cancer that no longer responds to standard therapies. We saw a promising reduction in pain and reduced need for narcotic painkillers. Larger, well-controlled trials are necessary to confirm these findings.
    European Urology 02/2014; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In a randomized controlled trial of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases, denosumab was superior to zoledronic acid (ZA) for reducing skeletal-related events (SRE, defined as pathological fracture, surgery or radiation to bone [including the use of radioisotopes], or spinal cord compression) (Fizazi, et al. Lancet 2011;377:813-822.). Recently, the composite endpoint of symptomatic skeletal event (SSE, defined as symptomatic fracture, surgery or radiation to bone, or spinal cord compression) was introduced as an alternative term/clinical trial endpoint to describe skeletal morbidity. Methods: Men with CRPC, ≥ 1 bone metastasis, and no prior IV bisphosphonate use received either SC denosumab 120 mg or IV ZA 4 mg (adjusted for creatinine clearance) in a blinded fashion every 4 weeks. Oral calcium and vitamin D supplements were recommended. SSEs included pathologic fractures considered symptomatic by the investigator, spinal cord compression and surgery and radiation to bone. Results: As previously reported, fewer men who received denosumab than ZA had confirmed first SREs, and experienced multiple SREs (Table). Similarly, fewer patients in the denosumab group than the ZA group had confirmed first SSE and multiple SSEs. The median (95% CI) estimate of time to first SSE (superiority analysis) for denosumab was not reached (28.8 mo, not estimable), and for ZA it was 24.2 (20.7, 30.2) mo (HR = 0.78 (0.66, 0.93) P = 0.01). Conclusions: Denosumab reduced the risk of skeletal events in men with CRPC regardless of endpoint definition as SRE or SSE. The risk of developing SSEs was reduced by up to 22% when comparing denosumab with ZA.
    2014 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, J Clin Oncol 32, 2014 (suppl 4; abstr 35); 02/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background We retrospectively evaluated the prognostic impact of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a marker for inflammatory and immune state in men with progressive metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) following docetaxel. Methods The SUN-1120 phase III trial comparing prednisone combined with sunitinib (n=584) or placebo (n=289) for mCRPC following docetaxel-based chemotherapy was evaluated. The arms were combined for analysis, since no difference was observed in the primary endpoint of overall survival (OS). A logarithmic transformation was applied to non-normal factors. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for OS estimation. To identify an optimal prognostic model for survival, we used a Cox proportional hazards regression method with forward stepwise selection, stratifying for ECOG PS, progression type (PSA or radiographic) and treatment group. Patients were categorized into risk groups. Results Complete data was evaluable in 784 men for construction of a prognostic model. The factors used in the model that remained individually significant for OS in multivariable analysis were: log-LDH (HR 2.86 [95% CI=2.29, 3.56], P<0.001), hemoglobin (0.80 [0.74, 0.85], P<0.001), >1 organ involved by metastatic disease (1.49 [1.21, 1.84], P<0.001), log-alkaline phosphatase (1.13 [0.99, 1.28], P=0.074), log-number of prior cycles of docetaxel (0.84 [0.71, 0.98], P=0.031), progression on docetaxel (1.35 [1.00, 1.81], P=0.049), log-PSA (1.06 [1.00, 1.12], P=0.075) and log-NLR (1.55 [1.32, 1.83], P<0.001). NLR increased the c-statistic of the prognostic model from 0.703 to 0.715. Conclusion High NLR may be associated with an independent poor prognostic impact in post-docetaxel patients with mCRPC. These data warrant external validation.
    Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 01/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy. Objective Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302. Design, setting, and participants Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1). Intervention Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000 mg plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Co–primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O’Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively. Results and limitations With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45–0.61]; p < 0.0001). Abiraterone improved OS (median: 35.3 vs 30.1 mo; HR: 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66–0.95]; p = 0.0151) but did not reach the prespecified statistical efficacy boundary (α-level: 0.0035). A post hoc multivariate analysis for OS using known prognostic factors supported the primary results (HR: 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61–0.89]; p = 0.0017), and all clinically relevant secondary end points and patient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports. Conclusions The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo. Trial registration Study COU-AA-302, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198. Patient summary The updated results of this ongoing study showed that disease progression was delayed in patients with advanced prostate cancer who were treated with abiraterone acetate and prednisone, and there was a continued trend in prolongation of life compared with patients treated with prednisone alone. Treatment with abiraterone acetate and prednisone was well tolerated by patients who were treated for >2 yr.
    European Urology 01/2014; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a key component of treatment for aggressive and advanced prostate cancer, but it has also been associated with adverse effects on bone, metabolic, cardiovascular, sexual, and cognitive health as well as body composition. Objective To review the current literature on the adverse effects of ADT and strategies for ameliorating harm from ADT. Evidence acquisition The Medline database (through PubMed) was searched from inception to August 1, 2013, for studies documenting the side effects of ADT and for randomized and prospective trials of interventions to mitigate those side effects. Evidence synthesis Adverse effects of ADT include decreases in bone mineral density; metabolic changes such as weight gain, decreased muscle mass, and increased insulin resistance; decreased libido and sexual dysfunction; hot flashes; gynecomastia; reduced testicle size; anemia; and fatigue. Several observational studies suggest an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events, although most published studies report that ADT is not linked to greater cardiovascular mortality. Randomized trials have found value in treatments for some adverse effects including bone loss (bisphosphonates, denosumab, selective estrogen receptor modulators), markers of metabolic syndrome (exercise, diet, metformin), gynecomastia (tamoxifen, prophylactic radiation), muscle loss (resistance and aerobic exercise), and hot flashes (venlafaxine, medroxyprogesterone, cyproterone acetate, gabapentin). Conclusions ADT is often a necessary component of the treatment of aggressive prostate cancer, yet it has known harms that can impair health and quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of interventions that can help mitigate these adverse effects. Patient summary Androgen deprivation therapy is a critical component of the management of aggressive and advanced prostate cancer, but it causes adverse effects including bone loss, metabolic changes, gynecomastia, muscle loss, hot flashes, and possibly increased cardiovascular events. Clinicians should be aware of interventions that can help mitigate these adverse effects.
    European Urology. 01/2014;
  • Matthew R Smith
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(21):2313. · 29.98 Impact Factor
  • Richard J Lee, Matthew R Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with cabozantinib, an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 signaling, has demonstrated clinical benefit in early trials in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Preclinical evidence suggests that cabozantinib can kill cancer cell seeds while disrupting angiogenesis and stromal cells in the metastatic soil.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly improves radiographic progression-free survival in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer compared with prednisone alone. We describe analyses of data for patient-reported pain and functional status in a preplanned interim analysis of a phase 3 trial. Between April 28, 2009, and June 23, 2010, patients with progressive, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were enrolled into a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were eligible if they were asymptomatic (score of 0 or 1 on item three of the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form [BPI-SF] questionnaire) or mildly symptomatic (score of 2 or 3) and had not previously received chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral abiraterone (1 g daily) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone in continuous 4-week cycles. Pain was assessed with the BPI-SF questionnaire, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire. We analysed data with prespecified criteria for clinically meaningful pain progression and deterioration in HRQoL. All patients who underwent randomisation were included in analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00887198. 1088 patients underwent randomisation: 546 were assigned to abiraterone plus prednisone and 542 to placebo plus prednisone. At the time of the second prespecified interim analysis, median follow-up was 22·2 months (IQR 20·2-24·8). Median time to progression of mean pain intensity was longer in patients assigned to abiraterone plus prednisone (26·7 months [95% CI 19·3-not estimable]) than in those assigned to placebo plus prednisone (18·4 months [14·9-not estimable]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·82, 95% CI 0·67-1·00; p=0·0490), as was median time to progression of pain interference with daily activities (10·3 months [95% CI 9·3-13·0] vs 7·4 months [6·4-8·6]; HR 0·79, 95% CI 0·67-0·93; p=0·005). Median time to progression of worst pain was also longer with abiraterone plus prednisone (26·7 months [95% CI 19·4-not estimable]) than with placebo plus prednisone (19·4 months [16·6-not estimable]), but the difference was not significant (HR 0·85, 95% CI 0·69-1·04; p=0·109). Median time to HRQoL deterioration was longer in patients assigned to abiraterone plus prednisone than in those assigned to placebo plus prednisone as assessed by the FACT-P total score (12·7 months [95% CI 11·1-14·0] vs 8·3 months [7·4-10·6]; HR 0·78, 95% CI 0·66-0·92; p=0·003) and by the score on its prostate-cancer-specific subscale (11·1 months [8·6-13·8] vs 5·8 months [5·5-8·3]; HR 0·70, 95% CI 0·60-0·83; p<0·0001). Abiraterone plus prednisone delays patient-reported pain progression and HRQoL deterioration in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These results provide further support for the efficacy of abiraterone in this population. Janssen Research & Development.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Denosumab, an anti-RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Matthew R Smith
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology 08/2013; · 11.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D may be associated with prostate cancer, and darker skin reduces the body's ability to generate vitamin D from sunshine. The impact of sunshine on racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unknown. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, the authors calculated age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates among black and white men aged ≥45 years by race and county between 2000 and 2009 (N = 906,381 men). Similarly, county-level prostate cancer mortality rates were calculated from the National Vital Statistics System (N = 288,874). These data were linked with the average monthly solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation index by county and data regarding health, wellness, and demographics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether increases in the UV index (in deciles) moderated the association between black race and the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Compared with counties in the lowest UV index decile, prostate cancer incidence rates for white and black men were lower in counties with a higher UV index (all Ps ≤ .0.051). Incidence rates were higher for black men versus white men, but the difference by race was less for counties in the fourth to fifth UV index deciles versus those in the first decile (Ps ≤ 0.02). Mortality rates also were found to decrease with increasing UV index for white men (Ps ≤ 0.003), but increase for black men, and an unexplained increase in racial differences in mortality rates was observed with an increasing UV index. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in the incidence of prostate cancer were larger in some areas with less sunshine. Additional research should confirm the findings of the current study and assess whether optimizing vitamin D levels among black men can reduce disparities. Cancer 2013 © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 06/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cabozantinib is an oral MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor. A recent phase II study of cabozantinib (100mg daily) demonstrated improved bone scans in subjects with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but adverse events (AEs) caused frequent dose reductions. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of cabozantinib at lower starting doses. Patients and Methods An adaptive design was used to determine the lowest active daily dose among 60mg, 40mg, and 20mg. The primary endpoint was week 6 bone scan response, defined as ≥30% decrease in bone scan lesion area. The secondary endpoint was change in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Results Among 11 evaluable subjects enrolled at 40mg, there were 9 partial responses (PRs), 1 complete response, and 1 stable disease (SD). Of 10 subjects subsequently enrolled at 20mg, there were 1 PR, 5 SDs, and 4 with progressive disease. Among 13 subjects enrolled on the 40mg expansion cohort, there were 6 PRs and 7 SDs. No subjects required dose reduction or treatment interruption at 6 or 12 weeks; 3 subjects at dose level 0 discontinued due to AEs by 12 weeks. At 40mg, median treatment duration was 27 weeks. 58% of subjects with ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL at baseline converted to <5. Conclusions Cabozantinib 40mg daily was associated with a high rate of bone scan response. Cabozantinib 40mg daily was associated with better tolerability than previously reported for cabozantinib 100mg daily. These observations informed the design of phase III studies of cabozantinib in mCRPC.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased diabetes risk among nondiabetic men. Few data are available about the effects of ADT on diabetes control among men with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We examined care for men who had diabetes at the time of PCa diagnosis to assess the effect of ADT on diabetes control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the intensification of diabetes pharmacotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was an observational cohort study using US Department of Veterans Affairs registry data and administrative data to assess HbA1c levels and intensification of diabetes pharmacotherapy among 2237 pairs of propensity-matched men with PCa and diabetes who were or were not treated with ADT. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We calculated the difference in difference of HbA1c levels at baseline and at 1 and 2 yr in the two groups, compared using a paired Student t test. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate time to intensification of diabetes pharmacotherapy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.24 (standard error [SE]: 0.05) for the ADT group and 7.24 (SE: 0.04) for the no-ADT group. HbA1c increased at 1 yr for men treated with ADT to 7.38 (SE: 0.04) and decreased among men not treated with ADT to 7.14 (SE: 0.04), for a difference in differences of +0.24 (p=0.008). Results were similar at 2 yr (p=0.03). The worsening HbA1c control occurred despite ADT being associated with an increased hazard of addition of diabetes medication (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.32). The limitation of this study was that it was observational and relied on administrative data. CONCLUSIONS: ADT is associated with worsening of diabetes control and increases in HbA1c levels despite the use of additional diabetes medications.
    European Urology 02/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) by either a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or bilateral orchiectomy improves disease-related outcomes of men with prostate cancer but has a variety of adverse metabolic effects including obesity, increased abdominal girth, increased triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Each is a risk factor for gallstone disease. Additionally, GnRH agonist treatment was recently shown in metabolomic analyses to increase plasma levels of some bile acids. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between ADT and the incidence of biliary disease in men with prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied 183 842 men >65 yr of age living in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results regions who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1992 to 2007 and followed through 2009. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We calculated incidence rates for biliary disease during treatment with GnRH agonists, orchiectomy, or no therapy. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of ADT with biliary disease. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Among 183 842 men with locoregional prostate cancer, 48.4% received GnRH agonist treatment and 2.2% underwent bilateral orchiectomy during follow-up. GnRH agonist treatment was associated with a significantly higher incidence of biliary disease compared with no treatment (15.7 vs 13.4 cases per 1000 person-years; p<0.001). In adjusted analyses, GnRH agonist use was associated with the risk of biliary disease (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.15; p<0.001). Orchiectomy was not significantly associated with biliary disease. CONCLUSIONS: GnRH agonist treatment may be associated with a greater risk of incident biliary disease.
    European Urology 02/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor
  • Richard J Lee, Matthew R Smith
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    ABSTRACT: Effective management of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains an important unmet medical need. MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) are rational targets for intervention in CRPC. Clinical trials involving agents that inhibit one but not both pathways have reported modest activity and no improvement in overall survival. Cabozantinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits both MET and VEGFR-2. A phase II randomized discontinuation study involving subjects with CRPC demonstrated that cabozantinib therapy is associated with improvement in bone scans, bone turnover markers, and pain response, but with significant adverse events leading to dose reduction and treatment discontinuation. Lower doses of cabozantinib retain high levels of activity with less toxicity. Ongoing phase III clinical trials will define the role of cabozantinib in CRPC. We summarize the rationale for targeting MET and VEGFR pathways in CRPC and the clinical data available to date.
    The Cancer Journal 01/2013; 19(1):90-8. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. Methods In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 1088 patients to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. Results The study was unblinded after a planned interim analysis that was performed after 43% of the expected deaths had occurred. The median radiographic progression-free survival was 16.5 months with abiraterone-prednisone and 8.3 months with prednisone alone (hazard ratio for abiraterone-prednisone vs. prednisone alone, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.62; P<0.001). Over a median follow-up period of 22.2 months, overall survival was improved with abiraterone-prednisone (median not reached, vs. 27.2 months for prednisone alone; hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01) but did not cross the efficacy boundary. Abiraterone-prednisone showed superiority over prednisone alone with respect to time to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy, opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression, and decline in performance status. Grade 3 or 4 mineralocorticoid-related adverse events and abnormalities on liver-function testing were more common with abiraterone-prednisone. Conclusions Abiraterone improved radiographic progression-free survival, showed a trend toward improved overall survival, and significantly delayed clinical decline and initiation of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development, formerly Cougar Biotechnology; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2012; · 51.66 Impact Factor

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8k Citations
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Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1999–2014
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2013
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Urology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2008–2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • McGill University Health Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2012
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • College of Medicine
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • GTx Inc.
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Urology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2009
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science
      Waterloo, Quebec, Canada