[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This observational study in antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected adults explored the efficacy of etravirine plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV group; n = 999) vs. etravirine plus an alternative boosted protease inhibitor (other PI group; n = 116) using pooled European cohort data.Methods
Two international (EuroSIDA; EUResist Network) and five national (France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and UK) cohorts provided data (collected in 2007–2012). Stratum-adjusted (for confounding factors) Mantel–Haenszel differences in virological responses (viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived.ResultsBaseline characteristics were balanced between groups except for previous use of antiretrovirals (≥ 10: 63% in the DRV group vs. 49% in the other PI group), including previous use of at least three PIs (64% vs. 53%, respectively) and mean number of PI resistance mutations (2.3 vs. 1.9, respectively). Week 24 responses were 73% vs. 75% (observed) and 49% vs. 43% (missing = failure), respectively. Week 48 responses were 75% vs. 73% and 32% vs. 30%, respectively. All 95% CIs around unadjusted and adjusted differences encompassed 0 (difference in responses) or 1 (ORs). While ORs by cohort indicated heterogeneity in response, for pooled data the difference between unadjusted and adjusted for cohort ORs was small.Conclusions
These data do not indicate a difference in response between the DRV and other PI groups, although caution should be applied given the small size of the other PI group and the lack of randomization. This suggests that the efficacy and virology results from DUET can be extrapolated to a regimen of etravirine with a boosted PI other than darunavir/ritonavir.
HIV Medicine 02/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12218 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few data on the clinical and virological factors associated with maraviroc (MVC) virological response (VR) in clinical practice. This study aimed to identify factors associated with VR to MVC-containing regimens in 104 treatment-experienced but CCR5 inhibitor-naive HIV-1 patients. VR was defined at Month 3 (M3) as HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL. The impact on VR of age, sex, baseline tropism, HIV subtype (B vs non-B), nadir CD4 cell count and CD4 cell count, baseline VL, genotypic susceptibility score of treatment, once or twice daily treatment, presence of raltegravir in optimized background therapy and MVC concentrations was investigated. Median baseline VL was 3.3 log10 copies/mL (range 1.7-6.0 log10 copies/mL) and CD4 cell count was 299 cells/mm3 (range 7-841 cells/mm3). At M3, 53.8% of patients were responders. In univariate analysis, a better efficacy of MVC-containing regimen was associated with a high CD4 cell count (p=0.0069) and there was a trend for low baseline VL, high nadir CD4 cell count and HIV subtype (B versus non B). Only low baseline VL remained significantly associated with better VR in the multivariate analysis. This study demonstrated a VR of an optimized antiretroviral treatment including MVC in clinical practice similar to that observed in clinical trials. The factors associated with VR were higher baseline CD4 cell count in univariate analysis and lower baseline VL in multivariate analysis.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 11/2014; 31(5). DOI:10.1089/AID.2014.0223 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
In resource-limited settings, few data are available on virological failure after long-term first-line antiretroviral therapy. This study characterized the genotypic resistance patterns at the time of failure after at least 36 months of a first-line regimen in Mali, West Africa.
Plasma samples from 84 patients who were receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment and with an HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL were analysed. Genotypic resistance testing was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance was interpreted according to the latest version of the National Agency for HIV and Hepatitis Research algorithm.
At the time of resistance testing, patients had been treated for a median of 60 months (IQR 36-132 months) and had a median CD4 cell count of 292 cells/mm(3) (IQR 6-1319 cells/mm(3)), a median HIV-1 RNA level of 28266 copies/mL (IQR 1000-2 93 495 copies/mL) and a median genotypic susceptibility score of 1 (IQR 1-4). The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations was 78% and 82%, respectively. Viruses were resistant to at least one drug in 92% of cases. Although etravirine and rilpivirine were not used in the first-line regimens, viruses were resistant to etravirine in 34% of cases and to rilpivirine in 49% of cases. The treatment duration, median number of NRTI and NNRTI mutations and some reverse transcriptase mutations (T215Y/F/N, L210W, L74I, M41L and H221Y) were associated with the VL at virological failure.
This study demonstrated a high level of resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs, compromising second-generation NNRTIs, for patients who stayed on long-term first-line regimens. It is crucial to expand the accessibility of virological testing in resource-limited settings to limit the expansion of resistance and preserve second-line treatment efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of simplification strategies, it is essential to know the feasibility of a switch to a rilpivirine-based therapy. The aim of this study was to describe rilpivirine, tenofovir and emtricitabine resistance in HIV-1-infected patients who experienced virological failure during their previous antiretroviral treatment.
The studied population included two groups of patients, all rilpivirine naive, tested for resistance by bulk sequencing from 2008 to 2011: the first group (n = 998) failing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) plus boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen and the second group (n = 3733) failing an NRTI plus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen.
In the first group, the frequency of rilpivirine mutations and resistance to rilpivirine (5.1%) was similar to that in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients. Among the 1605 patients from the second group with at least one NNRTI mutation in their HIV, the prevalence of viruses 'resistant' or 'possibly resistant' to efavirenz, nevirapine and etravirine was 78%, 79% and 74%, respectively, while 59% were resistant to rilpivirine. Resistance to rilpivirine was significantly more frequent in non-B subtype versus B subtype viruses. Among pretreated patients with viruses with at least one NNRTI mutation (other than for rilpivirine), 22% of sequences were susceptible to the combination rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
In patients failing an NRTI plus NNRTI-based regimen, to know the feasibility of a switch to rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, reliable resistance information should be available at the time of use of concurrent NNRTI therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lack of antiretroviral (ARV) backbone activity associated with raltegravir has been proposed as the main explanation for virological relapse observed in patients with undetectable viraemia who are switched from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) to raltegravir. However ARV activity remains difficult to assess in this context. The aim of our study was to precisely assess the ARV backbone activity in patients with undetectable viraemia who underwent raltegravir switching strategies and to evaluate the efficacy of such switching strategies based on the genotypic sensitivity score (GSS).
Patients with a plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of <50 copies/mL on a stable two ARV-class regimen were enrolled if they switched one of their ARV drugs to raltegravir 400 mg twice daily. The GSS was calculated using a genotyping test performed on the HIV-1 RNA of the last plasma measurement with a HIV-1 RNA level of >50 copies/mL before the switch and on the results of all previous genotyping tests. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level of <50 copies/mL at week 24.
Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study. The proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level of <50 copies/mL at week 24 was 92.9 % (range 83.0-97.2 %) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 98.1 % (90.0-99.7 %) in per-protocol analysis. When the backbone was fully active, the proportion was 100.0 % (86.7-100.0 %) at week 24 and week 48 in the per-protocol analysis. We observed a decrease in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides of -12.7 % (p = 0.005) and -26.5 % (p = 0.001), respectively.
Raltegravir switching strategies are effective when the associated backbone is fully active according to the GSS. In the context of undetectable viraemia, where ARV activity remains difficult to assess, the determination of the GSS requires the entire ARV history of the patient and all previous HIV-RNA genotyping test results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated for some drugs that the genetic barrier, defined as the number of genetic transitions and/or transversions needed to produce a resistance mutation, can differ between HIV-1 subtypes. We aimed to assess differences in the genetic barrier for the evolution of resistance to the second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine in subtypes B and CRF02_AG in antiretroviral-naive patients.
An analysis was undertaken of 25 substitutions associated with etravirine and rilpivirine resistance at 12 amino acid positions in 267 nucleotide sequences (136 HIV-1 B and 131 HIV-1 CRF02_AG subtypes) of the reverse transcriptase gene.
The majority (7/12) of amino acid positions studied were conserved between the two HIV-1 subtypes, leading to a similar genetic barrier. Different predominant codons between the subtypes were observed in 5/12 positions (90, 98, 179, 181 and 227), with an effect on the calculated genetic barrier only at the V179D and V179F codons (2.5 versus 3.5 for V179D, and 2.5 versus 5 for V179F, respectively, for subtype B versus subtype CRF02_AG).
The majority of amino acids involved in etravirine and rilpivirine resistance showed a high degree of conservation of the predominant codon between the B and CRF02_AG subtypes. For rilpivirine, the genetic barrier was the same between the two subtypes. Nevertheless, subtype CRF02_AG showed a higher genetic barrier to acquiring mutations V179D and V179F (mutations associated with resistance to etravirine) compared with subtype B, suggesting that it would be more difficult to produce resistance to etravirine in the CRF02_AG subtype than the B subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The induction of neutralizing antibodies against conserved regions of the HIV-1 envelope protein is a major goal of vaccine strategies. We previously identified 3S, a critical conserved motif of gp41 that induces the NKp44 L ligand of an activating NK receptor. In vivo, anti-3S antibodies protect against the NK-cell mediated CD4 depletion that occurs without efficient viral neutralization. Methods. Specific substitutions within the 3S peptide motif were prepared by directed mutagenesis. Virus production was monitored by measuring the p24 production. Neutralization assays were performed with immune-purified antibodies from immunized mice and a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Expression of NKp44 L on CD4+ T cells and degranulation assay on activating NK cells were both performed by flow cytometer. Results. Here, we show that specific substitutions in the 3S motif reduce viral infection without affecting gp41 production, while decreasing both its capacity to induce NKp44 L expression on CD4+ T cells and its sensitivity to autologous NK cells. Generation of antibodies in mice against the W614 specific position in the 3S motif elicited a capacity to neutralize cross-clade viruses, notable in its magnitude, breadth and durability. Antibodies against this 3S variant were also detected in sera from some HIV-1 infected patients, demonstrated both neutralization activity and protection against CD4 depletion. Conclusions. These findings suggest that a specific substitution in a 3S-based immunogen might allow the generation of specific antibodies, providing a foundation for a rational vaccine that combine a capacity to neutralize HIV-1 and to protect CD4+ T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is an oncogenic gamma-herpes virus first described in 1994 in Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions. HHV-8 is involved in the pathophysiologic features of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), both rare B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. HHV-8-related tumours occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, most with HIV infection. Combined antiretroviral therapies have reduced the incidence of KS but not MCD and PEL. HHV-8-related diseases frequently exhibit pulmonary involvement, which may indicate the disease. KS in the lung is often asymptomatic but may require specific therapy. It mostly shows cutaneous or mucosal involvement. Patients with typical MCD present fever and lymphadenopathy associated with interstitial lung disease without opportunistic infection. Specific treatment may be urgent. PEL provokes a febrile, lymphocytic-exudative pleural effusion, without pleural mass on CT scan. Rapid diagnosis prevents unnecessary exams and leads to specific, rapid treatment. Therapy is complex, combining antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy.
European Respiratory Journal 02/2013; DOI:10.1183/09031936.00154212 · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that HIV-1 evolution under maraviroc (MVC) pressure can lead to the selection of either X4-tropic variants and/or R5-tropic, MVC-resistant isolates. However, the viral dynamics of HIV-1 variants in patients with virological failure (VF) on MVC-containing regimens remain poorly studied. Here, we investigated the V3 loop evolution of HIV-1 on MVC in relation to coreceptor usage and the nature of HIV-1 quasispecies before MVC therapy using bulk population sequences and ultradeep sequencing. The majority of patients had no detectable minority X4 variant at baseline. The evolution of tropism was followed up until VF and showed three possibilities for viral evolution in these patients: emergence of preexisting X4 variants, de novo selection of R5 variants presenting V3 loop mutations, or replication of R5 variants without selection of known mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, international guidelines recommend the combination of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs] and a third agent [non-NRTI (NNRTI), boosted protease inhibitor (r/PI) or integrase inhibitor (INI)] for initial treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the selection of resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) for regimens containing or lacking N(t)RTIs in patients experiencing their first virological failure. Eligible patients had a first virological failure, defined as the occurrence of two consecutive HIV plasma viral loads ≥50 copies/mL. Genotypic resistance testing was performed at the time of virological failure (on the second sample with detectable viral load ≥50 copies/mL) in patients failing regimens of N(t)RTIs + r/PI or NNRTI or INI, r/PI + NNRTI or INI, and INI + NNRTI. Among 434 virological failures analysed, resistance testing results were available in 416 cases (95.9%). Higher rates of drug resistance were observed in patients receiving N(t)RTI-sparing regimens. When the combination of N(t)RTIs + r/PI was used, PIs protect themselves and the associated N(t)RTIs from the selection of resistance; however, this was not observed with the NNRTI + r/PI combination. The same phenomenon was observed for raltegravir: when used in combination with N(t)RTIs, INI resistance mutations were less frequently selected compared with its use in combination with PIs or NNRTIs. In conclusion, regimens of the ARV classes combined impact the frequency of resistance development. Lower resistance is observed for N(t)RTI-based regimens, with more therapeutic options for subsequent regimens after failure.
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance 01/2013; 2(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jgar.2013.12.001 · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were to assess the risk of HHV8 transmission resulting from organ transplantation, and related morbidity in liver, heart and kidney transplant recipients. Donor and recipient serologies were screened between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2005 using HHV8 indirect immunofluorescence latent assay (latent IFA) and indirect immunofluorescent lytic assay (lytic IFA). Recipients negative for latent IFA with a donor positive for at least one test were sequentially monitored for HHV8 viremia and underwent serological tests over a period of 2 years. The results showed that among 2354 donors, HHV8 seroprevalence was 9.9% (lytic IFA) and 4.4% (latent IFA). A total of 454 organ recipients (281 renal, 116 liver and 57 heart) were monitored over a 2-year period. Seroconversion was observed in 12 patients (cumulative incidence 28%) whose donor had positive latent IFA and in 36 patients (cumulative incidence 29%) whose donors were positive only for lytic IFA, without differences across types of transplants. Positive HHV8 viremia was detected in only 4 out of 89 liver transplant recipients during follow-up and not in recipients of other types of transplant. Two liver transplant recipients and one kidney transplant recipient developed KS. In conclusion, although HHV8 transmission is a frequent event after organ transplantation, HHV8-related morbidity is rather rare but can be life threatening. Donor screening is advisable for monitoring HHV8 seronegative liver transplant recipients.
American Journal of Transplantation 10/2012; 13(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04290.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Etravirine (ETR) is recommended as twice-daily dosing in pretreated patients. There are no data regarding the use of ETR once daily in HIV-experienced patients with prior resistance to first-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcripase inhibitors (NNRTIs).Objectives: To evaluate the capacity of once-daily ETR to maintain suppressed viremia over 48 weeks after switching from ETR twice daily in NNRTI-experienced patients.Methods: In this pilot open-label study, patients with plasma viral load (pVL) <50 copies/mL on a stable ETR 200 mg bid regimen were enrolled to switch to ETR 400 mg qd and followed up over 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with pVL <50 copies/mL at week 24. Secondary endpoints included the rate of pVL< 50 copies/mL at week 48, ETR pharmacokinetic parameters, and tolerability and resistance profile.Results: Twenty-four patients were included. They had extensive antiretroviral treatment for a median of 14 years (range, 1-19). All except for 2 had prior resistance to NNRTIs. Seven patients discontinued ETR once daily prior to week 48 for virological failure (3), protocol deviation (3), and side effects (1). At week 24, 95% of patients maintained pVL< 50 copies/mL (95% CI, 78.4-99.7) and 85% at week 48 (95%CI, 65.6-95.8). Two of the 3 patients with virological failure had ETR resistance mutations prior to initiation. The median ETR Ctrough level remained stable after switching from twice daily 515 ng/mL (340-758) to once daily 422 ng/mL (264-655).Conclusion: These results suggest that ETR is effective as a once-daily regimen in patients with prior NNRTI experience when HIV is sensitive to ETR. The stability of Ctrough concentrations on a once-daily regimen confirms the once-daily profile of the drug in experienced patients.
HIV Clinical Trials 09/2012; 13(5):284-8. DOI:10.1310/hct1305-284 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precise characterization of viruses present in reservoirs in long-term pretreated patients will be a major issue to consider in the context of viral eradication. We assessed the frequency of defective viruses present in cellular reservoirs.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and rectal biopsy samples were compared between five patients on successful long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (>7 years without blips) and five untreated patients. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the reverse transcriptase region were used to detect the presence of and quantify in-frame stop codons in HIV quasi-species. The relationship between the size of the reservoir and the frequency of defective genomes was assessed.
Defective genomes were systematically detected in all patients on long-term HAART in both compartments (PBMCs and rectal tissues), with a higher level of defective genomes per sample compared with PBMCs of untreated patients. A high level of defective genomes was correlated with a small size of HIV proviral DNA. Regarding the nucleotide context, guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution at tryptophan positions was responsible for the appearance of 89% of all in-frame stop codons in the context of G-to-A hypermutation, likely reflecting APOBEC3 footprints on the viral genome.
We propose a scenario whereby defective genomes accumulate during HAART treatment, eventually reaching a viral extinction threshold. In the context of viral eradication, measurement of the relative amounts of defective and non-defective viruses (by molecular cloning and ultradeep sequencing) should be used as a new criterion for eradicating HIV.