J J Hopwood

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (266)1107.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Characteristic cardiac valve abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy are present in untreated patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). Cardiac ultrasound was performed to investigate these findings in subjects during long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombi-nant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB, rhN-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, galsulfase, Naglazyme®). Studies were conducted in 54 subjects before ERT was begun and at specific intervals for up to 96 weeks of weekly infusions of rhASB at 1 mg/kg during phase 1/2, phase 2, and phase 3 trials of rhASB. At baseline, mitral and aortic valve obstruction was present and was significantly greater in those ≥12 years of age. Mild mitral and trace aortic regurgitation were present, the former being significantly greater in those <12 years. Left ventricular hy-pertrophy, with averaged z-scores ranging from 1.6–1. ≥12 years. After 96 weeks of ERT, ventricular septal hyper-trophy regressed in those <12 years. For those ≥12 years, septal hypertrophy was unchanged, and aortic regurgitation increased statistically but not physiologically. Obstructive gradients across mitral and aortic valves remained unchanged. The results suggest that long-term ERT is effective in reducing intraventricular septal hypertrophy and preventing progres-sion of cardiac valve abnormalities when administered to those <12 years of age.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, sulphamidase, an enzyme involved in the degradation of heparan sulphate. MPS IIIA patients exhibit progressive mental retardation and behavioural disturbance. While neuropathology is the major clinical problem in MPS IIIA patients, there is little understanding of how lysosomal storage generates this phenotype. As reduced neuronal communication can underlie cognitive deficiencies, we investigated whether the secretion of neurotransmitters is altered in MPS IIIA mice; utilising adrenal chromaffin cells, a classical model for studying secretion via exocytosis. MPS IIIA chromaffin cells displayed heparan sulphate storage and electron microscopy revealed large electron-lucent storage compartments. There were also increased numbers of large/elongated chromaffin granules, with a morphology that was similar to immature secretory granules. Carbon fibre amperometry illustrated a significant decrease in the number of exocytotic events for MPS IIIA, when compared to control chromaffin cells. However, there were no changes in the kinetics of release, the amount of catecholamine released per exocytotic event, or the amount of Ca(2+) entry upon stimulation. The increased number of large/elongated granules and reduced number of exocytotic events suggests that either the biogenesis and/or the cell surface docking and fusion potential of these vesicles is impaired in MPS IIIA. If this also occurs in central nervous system neurons, the reduction in neurotransmitter release could help to explain the development of neuropathology in MPS IIIA.
    Neuroscience 09/2012; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characteristic cardiac valve abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy are present in untreated patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). Cardiac ultrasound was performed to investigate these findings in subjects during long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB, rhN-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase, galsulfase, Naglazyme®). Studies were conducted in 54 subjects before ERT was begun and at specific intervals for up to 96 weeks of weekly infusions of rhASB at 1 mg/kg during phase 1/2, phase 2, and phase 3 trials of rhASB. At baseline, mitral and aortic valve obstruction was present and was significantly greater in those ≥12 years of age. Mild mitral and trace aortic regurgitation were present, the former being significantly greater in those <12 years. Left ventricular hypertrophy, with averaged z-scores ranging from 1.6-1.9 SD greater than normal, was present for ages both <12 and ≥12 years. After 96 weeks of ERT, ventricular septal hypertrophy regressed in those <12 years. For those ≥12 years, septal hypertrophy was unchanged, and aortic regurgitation increased statistically but not physiologically. Obstructive gradients across mitral and aortic valves remained unchanged. The results suggest that long-term ERT is effective in reducing intraventricular septal hypertrophy and preventing progression of cardiac valve abnormalities when administered to those <12 years of age.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 06/2012; · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    G Dawson, M Fuller, K M Helmsley, J J Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: Allogenic stem cell transplantation can reduce lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides by up to 27 % in Sanfilippo MPS3a brain, but does not reduce the abnormal storage of sialolactosylceramide (G(M3)) or improve neurological symptoms, suggesting that ganglioside storage is in a non-lysosomal compartment. To investigate this further we isolated the Triton X100-insoluble at 4 °C, lipid raft (LR) fraction from a sucrose-density gradient from cerebral hemispheres of a 7 month old mouse model of Sanfilippo MPS3a and age-matched control mouse brain. HPLC/MS/MS analysis revealed the expected enrichment of normal complex gangliosides, ceramides, galatosylceramides and sphingomyelin enrichment in this LR fraction. The abnormal HS-derived oligosaccharide storage material was in the Triton X100-soluble at 4 °C fractions (8-12),whereas both GM3 and sialo[GalNAc]lactosylceramide (GM2) were found exclusively in the LR fraction (fractions 3 and 4) and were >90 % C18:0 fatty acid, suggesting a neuronal origin. Further analysis also revealed a >threefold increase in the late-endosome marker bis (monoacylglycerol) phosphate (>70 % as C22:6/22:6-BMP) in non-LR fractions 8-12 whereas different forms of the proposed BMP precursor, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were in both LR and non-LR fractions and were less elevated in MPS3a brain. Thus heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharide storage is associated with abnormal lipid accumulation in both lysosomal (BMP) and non-lysosomal (GM3 and GM2) compartments.
    Neurochemical Research 04/2012; 37(6):1372-80. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate and characterise an inborn error of metabolism in a dog with skeletal and ocular abnormalities. A 2.5-year-old small male Miniature Poodle-like dog was presented with gross joint laxity and bilateral corneal opacities. Clinical examination was augmented by routine haematology, serum chemistry, radiographs, pathology, enzymology and molecular genetic studies. Euthanasia was requested when the dog was 3 years of age because of progressively decreasing quality of life. Radiology revealed generalised epiphyseal dysplasia, malformed vertebral bodies, luxation/subluxation of appendicular and lumbosacral joints with hypoplasia of the odontoid process and hyoid apparatus. These clinical and radiographic findings, together with a positive urinary Berry spot test for mucopolysaccharides, and metachromatic granules in leucocytes, were indicative of a mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a lysosomal storage disease. Histological lesions included vacuolation of stromal cells of the cornea, fibroblasts, chondrocytes, macrophages and renal cells. The brain was essentially normal except for moderate secondary Wallerian-type degeneration in motor and sensory tracts of the hind brain. Dermatan sulphate-uria was present and enzymology revealed negligible activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase, also known as arylsulphatase B, in cultured fibroblasts and liver tissue. A novel homozygous 22 base pair (bp) deletion in exon 1 of this enzyme's gene was identified (c.103_124del), which caused aframe-shift and subsequent premature stop codon. The "Wisdom pure breed-mixed breed" test reported the dog as a cross between a Miniature and Toy Poodle. The clinicopathological features are similar to those of MPS type VI as previously described in dogs, cats and other species, and this clinical diagnosis was confirmed by enzymology and molecular genetic studies. This is an autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease. The prevalence of MPS VI in Miniature or Toy Poodles in New Zealand and elsewhere is currently unknown. Due to the congenital nature of the disorder, malformed pups may be subject to euthanasia without investigation and the potential genetic problem in the breed may not be fully recognised. The establishment of a molecular genetic test now permits screening for this mutation as a basis to an informed breeding policy.
    New Zealand veterinary journal 11/2011; 60(3):183-8. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism - MOL GENET METAB. 01/2010; 99(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a progressive, multisystem disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (ASB). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to clinically benefit affected individuals greater than 6 years of age. This case control study of affected siblings assessed the safety, efficacy and benefits of ERT in children less than 5 years of age. Siblings, aged 8 weeks and 3.6 years, were treated weekly with 1 mg/kg recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase (rhASB) with an end-point of 3.6 years. Clinical and biochemical parameters were monitored to assess the benefits of ERT. The treatment was well tolerated by both siblings. In the younger sibling, ERT was associated with the absence of the development of scoliosis and preserved joint movement, cardiac valves and facial morphology. The older sibling had a marked improvement in joint mobility and cardiac valve pathology and scoliosis slowed or stabilized. Corneal clouding and progressive skeletal changes were observed despite treatment. This study demonstrated a clear benefit of early initiation of ERT to slow or prevent the development of significant pathological changes of MPS VI. These results indicate that the earlier ERT is started, the greater the response.
    Clinical Genetics 11/2009; 77(5):492-8. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A, resulting in the accumulation of sulfatide and other lipids in the lysosomal network of affected cells. Accumulation of sulfatide in the nervous system leads to severe impairment of neurological function with a fatal outcome. Prognosis is often poor unless treatment is carried out before the onset of clinical symptoms. Pre-symptomatic detection of affected individuals may be possible with the introduction of newborn screening programs. The ability to accurately predict clinical phenotype and rate of disease progression in asymptomatic individuals will be essential to assist selection of the most appropriate treatment strategy. Biochemical profiling, incorporating the determination of residual enzyme protein/activity using immune-based assays, and metabolite profiling using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, was performed on urine and cultured skin fibroblasts from a cohort of patients representing the clinical spectrum of metachromatic leukodystrophy and on unaffected controls. Residual enzyme protein/activity in fibroblasts was able to differentiate unaffected controls, arylsulfatase A pseudo-deficient individuals, pseudo-deficient compound heterozygotes and affected patients. Metachromatic leukodystrophy phenotypes were distinguished by quantification of sulfatide and other secondarily altered lipids in urine and skin fibroblasts; this enabled further differentiation of the late-infantile form of the disorder from the juvenile and adult forms. Prediction of the rate of disease progression for metachromatic leukodystrophy requires a combination of information on genotype, residual arylsulfatase A protein and activity and the measurement of sulfatide and other lipids in urine and cultured skin fibroblasts.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2009; 99(2):142-8. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2009; 44. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • K M Hemsley, J J Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) have a greatly diminished lifespan and reduced quality of life, particularly those with neurological manifestations. There are few therapeutic options available to treat the neurological signs and symptoms of LSDs. It is, therefore, imperative that efficacious and tolerable treatments are developed. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is carried out in some LSDs in which there is neurological involvement. However, this approach is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and not all patients who receive this treatment exhibit improvements in cognitive signs and symptoms. A growing body of research in animal models of LSDs appears to support the efficacy of repeated delivery of recombinant lysosomal proteins via injection into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Studies in dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) Type 1 have shown that this approach enables widespread distribution of the recombinant protein within the brain, leading to a reduction in LSD pathology. Subsequent studies in MPS IIIA mice revealed that this strategy was also effective in ameliorating neuropathology and improving clinical signs in these animals. More recent studies in mice with Krabbe disease or a late infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis have demonstrated that delivery of recombinant proteins into the CSF may be efficacious in reducing disease pathology and neurological signs and symptoms. Whilst there are still important issues that need to be addressed, such as humoral immune responses to therapeutic protein administration and dose/ frequency selection, this approach represents a medium-term option for treating these devastating conditions. This review summarizes some of the findings and challenges ahead.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 01/2009; 47 Suppl 1:S118-23. · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K. M. Hemsley, H. Beard, B. M. King, J. J. Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive loss of learned skills, sleep disturbance and behavioural problems. Reduced activity of sulphamidase (N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase; SGSH; EC 3.10.1.1) results in intracellular accumulation of heparan sulphate (HS), with the brain as the primary site of pathology. We have used a naturally occurring MPS IIIA mouse model to determine the effectiveness of SGSH replacement through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to decrease neuropathology. This is a potential therapeutic option for patients with this disorder. Mice received intra-CSF injections of recombinant human SGSH (30, 50 or 70 μg) fortnightly from 6 to 18 weeks of age, and the cumulative effect on neuropathology was examined and quantified. Anti-SGSH antibodies detected in plasma at euthanasia did not appear to impact upon the health of the mice or the experimental outcome, with significant but region-dependent and dose-dependent reductions in an HS-derived oligosaccharide observed in the brain and spinal cord using tandem mass spectrometry. SGSH infusion reduced the number of storage inclusions observed in the brain when visualized using electron microscopy, and this correlated with a significant decrease in the immunohistochemical staining of a lysosomal membrane marker. Reduced numbers of activated isolectin B4-positive microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes were seen in many, but not all, brain regions. Significant reductions in the number of ubiquitin-positive intracellular inclusions were also observed. These outcomes show the effectiveness of this method of enzyme delivery in reducing the spectrum of neuropathological changes in murine MPS IIIA brain.
    Genes Brain and Behavior 06/2008; 7(7):740 - 753. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • L M Sutherland, K M Hemsley, J J Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the mechanisms leading to neuropathology in Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS-IIIA, Sanfilippo syndrome), we have harvested and cultured primary neural cells isolated from the cerebellum of newborn and adult MPS-IIIA and unaffected mice. Cell viability and plating efficiency were comparable for brain tissue obtained from either newborn or adult MPS-IIIA and unaffected mice. Cultures (newborn and adult) comprised a mixed brain cell population including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Newborn MPS-IIIA cells contained inclusions and vacuoles consistent with the pathology present in affected brain tissue. Newborn and adult MPS-IIIA brain cells had approximately 5-7% of the sulfamidase activity present in primary neural cells cultured from unaffected newborn and adult mice. In addition, high levels of glucosamine-N-sulfate[alpha-1,4]hexuronic acid, a heparan sulfate-derived disaccharide, were detected in both newborn and adult MPS-IIIA brain cells. These results suggest that the primary MPS-IIIA brain cells exhibit characteristics of MPS-IIIA phenotype at the histopathological and biochemical level in culture.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 03/2008; 28(7):949-59. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a functional deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase. This deficiency results in the accumulation of various oligosaccharides in the lysosomes of affected individuals, causing somatic pathology and progressive neurological degeneration that results in cognitive deficits, ataxia, and other neurological symptoms. We have a naturally occurring guinea pig model of this disease which exhibits a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and has a similar clinical presentation to human alpha-mannosidosis. Various tests were developed in the present study to characterise and quantitate the loss of neurological function in alpha-mannosidosis guinea pigs and to follow closely the progression of the disease. General neurological examinations showed progressive differences in alpha-mannosidosis animals from approximately 1 month of age. Significant differences were observed in hind limb gait width from 2 months of age and significant cognitive (memory and learning) deficits were observed from 3 months of age. Evoked response tests showed an increase in somatosensory P1 peak latency in alpha-mannosidosis guinea pigs from approximately 2 months of age, as well as progressive hearing loss using auditory brainstem evoked responses. The alpha-mannosidosis guinea pig therefore appears to exhibit many of the characteristics of the human disease, and will be useful in evaluating therapies for treatment of central nervous system pathology.
    Behavioural Brain Research 02/2008; 186(2):176-84. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • D Auclair, J J Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by a reduction in alpha-D-mannosidase and intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded mannose-containing oligosaccharides. The alpha-mannosidosis guinea pig exhibits pathological similarities to its human counterpart, which make it a valuable animal model. To trace the progression of alpha-mannosidosis during foetal development, brain and visceral organs from affected and unaffected guinea pigs at 30, 36, 38, 51 and 65 days of gestation (dg) were examined by light and electron microscopy (term: approximately 68 dg). In the affected brain, distended lysosomes (vacuoles) were scarce up to 38 dg and were seen in few differentiating neuronal cells but mostly in macrophages, pericytes and endothelial cells. At 51 and 65 dg, several vacuoles were observed in some neurones, in many Purkinje cells, pericytes, endothelial and microglial cells, and in few cerebellar internal granule cells. Myelination had started by 51 dg. Non-myelinated axonal spheroids were detected in the brainstem at 65 dg. In the kidney cortex and liver, an increase in vacuolation was noticed between 36 and 65 dg. Some vacuolated cells were also noticed in the lungs and spleen at 51 and 65 dg. Altogether, these histological observations suggest that alpha-mannosidosis is unlikely to affect ontogenesis before the second half of gestation in guinea pigs; however, the morphopathological features recorded during the last quarter of gestation (which may roughly correspond to the period covering near term to 1-2 years of age in human) were clearly noticeable and may have had some impact.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 11/2007; 33(5):572-85. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIA were bred within an experimental colony. As part of characterizing them as a model for testing therapeutic strategies for the analogous disease of children, a pathologic study was undertaken. By histology, there were variably stained storage cytosomes within neurons, including many that stained for gangliosides. On ultrastructure examination, these cytosomes contained either moderately dense granular material, tentatively interpreted as precipitated glycosaminoglycan; a variety of multilaminar bodies, interpreted as being associated with secondary accumulation of gangliosides; or a mixture of both types. In the liver, storage vesicles also contained excess glycogen as a secondary storage product. In various tissues, there were large foamy macrophages. In the brain, many of these were in juxtaposition with neurons, and, on ultrastructure examination, they contained storage cytosomes similar to those in neurons. However, the neuron in association with such a macrophage frequently showed little such material.
    Veterinary Pathology 10/2007; 44(5):569-78. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Acta Paediatrica 01/2007; 91:121-121. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder resulting from sulfamidase deficiency, which leads to accumulation of heparan sulfate within lysosomes. We have determined the time-course of accumulation of a disaccharide [hexosamine-N-sulfate[alpha-1,4]hexuronic acid; HNS-UA] marker of heparan sulfate storage within the brain, liver, and spleen of a naturally occurring mouse model of MPS IIIA. HNS-UA is detectable in the brain of affected mice on the day of birth, when it is significantly increased compared to normal control mice. As mice age, this compound steadily accumulates until a plateau is reached at approximately 20-weeks. A similar rate of accumulation of HNS-UA is seen in the liver and spleen of affected mice. Intracerebral delivery of recombinant human sulfamidase reduced the amount of HNS-UA present in segments of the brain receiving the correcting enzyme, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy within the central nervous system of affected mice. This finding therefore provides evidence for the use of the disaccharide HNS-UA to monitor the effect of therapies for this condition in humans, when treatment strategies are devised.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2006; 87(2):107-12. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: alpha-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-D-mannosidase. A major feature of alpha-mannosidosis is progressive neurological decline, for which there is no safe and effective treatment available. We have a guinea pig model of alpha-mannosidosis that models the human condition. This study investigates the feasibility of implanting differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells in the neonatal guinea pig brain in order to provide a source of alpha-mannosidase to the affected central nervous system. Cells implanted at a low dose (1.5 x 10(3)cells per hemisphere) at 1 week of age were found to survive in very low numbers in some immunosuppressed animals out to 8 weeks. Four weeks post-implantation, cells implanted in high numbers (10(5) cells per hemisphere) formed teratomas in the majority of the animals implanted. Although implanted cells were found to migrate extensively within the brain and differentiate into mature cells of neural (and other) lineages, the safety issue related to uncontrolled cell proliferation precluded the use of this cell type for longer-term implantation studies. We conclude that the pluripotent cell type used in this study is unsuitable for achieving safe engraftment in the guinea pig brain.
    Neuroscience Research 11/2005; 53(2):161-8. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • A J Robinson, A C Crawley, J J Hopwood
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder characterised by the lysosomal accumulation of mannose-containing oligosaccharides and a range of pathological consequences, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase. One of the major features of alpha-mannosidosis is progressive neurological decline, for which there is no safe and effective treatment. Implantation of stem cells into the central nervous system has been proposed as a potential therapy for these disorders. We report the construction and characterisation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines for the sustained over-expression of recombinant human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase (rhalphaM). Two vectors (involving recombinant human alpha-mannosidase expression driven by either the chicken beta-actin promoter/CMV enhancer or by the elongation factor 1-alpha promoter) were constructed and used to transfect mouse D3 embryonic stem cells. Selected clonal cell lines were isolated and tested to evaluate their expression of recombinant human alpha-mannosidase. Stem cell clones transfected with the chicken beta-actin promoter/CMV enhancer maintained rhalphaM expression levels throughout differentiation. This expression was not markedly elevated above background. In contrast, the vector incorporating the elongation factor 1-alpha promoter facilitated substantial over-expression of alpha-mannosidase when analysed out to 21 days of differentiation in stably transfected cell lines. The highest expressing cell line was found to qualitatively retain a similar differentiation potential to untransfected cells, and to secrete alpha-mannosidase that could mediate a reduction in the level of oligosaccharides stored by human alpha-mannosidosis skin fibroblasts. These results suggest potential for the use of this cell line for investigation of a stem cell therapy approach to treat alpha-mannosidosis.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 08/2005; 85(3):203-12. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulphatase (ASB). Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human ASB (rhASB) has been studied in a randomized, double-blind, two-dose (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg/week) phase I/II study (n = 7) followed by an open-label single dose (1.0 mg/kg/week) extension study. We report the pharmacokinetic profile of rhASB and the impact of antibody development. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed at weeks 1, 2, 12, 24, 83, 84 and 96. Infusions were administered over 4 hours using a ramp-up protocol. Plasma ASB and rhASB antibody concentrations and urine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations were determined. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) for the high-dose group increased from week 1 to week 2, but remained unchanged at weeks 12 and 24. A large difference in mean AUC(0-t) was observed between the low- and high-dose groups. Pharmacokinetic results at weeks 83, 84 and 96 were similar to those at week 24. Six patients developed antibodies to rhASB. One patient developed high antibody levels in combination with a high ASB concentration, while a second patient also developed high antibody levels with undetectable ASB concentrations. Antibodies from the second patient blocked detection of ASB. By week 72, antibody levels had decreased in all patients. The high-dose rhASB produced a more rapid and greater percentage reduction in urinary GAG concentrations than the lower dose (70% versus 55% at 24 weeks). Antibody levels did not appear to influence urinary GAG concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters appear to be independent of the duration of treatment and are not linear between the 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg/week doses. Antibodies to rhASB develop in most patients, but their concentration decreases over time. Antibody formation may influence pharmacokinetic parameters during the early phases of treatment, although it appears to have limited impact on biochemical efficacy.
    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 04/2005; 94(447):61-8; discussion 57.

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,107.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • The Royal Children's Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1999–2009
    • University of Adelaide
      • Discipline of Paediatrics
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • The University of Manchester
      • Centre for Imaging Sciences
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • Women`s and Children`s Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2001
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      Tromsø, Troms, Norway
  • 1998–2001
    • Michigan State University
      • • Department of Human Pathology
      • • Department of Pathobiology
      East Lansing, MI, United States
  • 2000
    • Massey University
      • Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences
      Palmerston North, Manawatu-Wanganui, New Zealand
  • 1997–1998
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States
    • IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
    • Westmead Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1995
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1992–1994
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • Universität zu Lübeck
      • Institut für Humangenetik
      Lübeck, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 1992–1993
    • Royal Adelaide Hospital
      • Department of Chemical Pathology
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1989
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States