Alexandre C Pereira

University of Campinas, Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (127)472.96 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Effective analytical tools are highly desirable for data analysis and for making the biological link between genotypic and phenotypic measures. In family data it is important to reconcile the methods that explain the phenotypic variability through fixed genetic effects and ones that estimate variance components using classical heritability methods. Thus, in this paper, we propose a method based on added-variable plot for polygenic linear mixed models applied to genome wide association studies in family-based designs. Our goal is to be able to discriminate genetic predictor variables in effects due to random polygenic and residual components. We also propose an index to detect influential families for each predictor variable identified with genetic effect. We assess the performance of our proposed method using our own family simulated data and the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 family simulated data.
    Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology 06/2014; 13(3):359-78. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refractory angina is a severe form of coronary artery disease (CAD) characterized by persistent angina despite optimal medical therapy. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depression are common in patients with stable CAD and may contribute to a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that OSA and depression are more common and more severe in patients with refractory angina than in patients with stable CAD. We used standardized questionnaires and full polysomnography to compare consecutive patients with well-established refractory angina versus consecutive patients with stable CAD evaluated for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients with refractory angina (n=70) compared with patients with stable CAD (n=70) were similar in respect to sex distribution (male: 61.5% vs 75.5%; p=0.07), body mass index (29.5±4 kg/m2 vs 28.5±4 kg/m2; p=0.06) and were older (61±10 yr vs 57±7 yr; p=0.013), respectively. Patients with refractory angina had significantly more symptoms of daytime sleepiness (Epworth: 12±6 vs 8±5; p<0.001), had higher depression symptom scores (Beck: 19±8 vs 10±8; p<0.001) despite greater use of antidepressants, had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: 37±30 events/h vs 23±20 events/h, p=0.001), higher proportion of oxygen saturation <90% during sleep (8%±13 vs 4%±9, p=0.04) and a higher proportion of severe OSA (AHI ≥30 events/h: 48% vs 27%; p=0.009) than patients with stable CAD. OSA (p=0.017), depression (p<0.001), higher Epworth (p=0.007) and lower sleep efficiency (p=0.016) were independently associated with refractory angina in multivariate analysis. OSA and depression are independently associated with refractory angina and may contribute to poor cardiovascular outcome.
    Chest 05/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the LPA gene were associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are differences in the allelic frequencies, Lp(a) levels, and significant association with CAD according to ethnic groups. In this scenario, the main aim of this study was to assess the influence of the LPA polymorphisms on coronary lesions in Brazilian patients. 1,394 consecutive patients submitted to coronary angiography to study suggestive CAD and twenty coronary segments were scored. Genotyping for the LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 polymorphisms were performed by high resolution melting analysis. The frequencies of the rs10455872 G and rs3798220 C variant alleles were 6.4% and 6.2%, respectively. LPA rs10455872 G variant allele was associated with higher odds ratio of having coronary lesions in an adjusted model (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = 1.10-3.72, p = 0.02). Scores of coronary lesions (extension, severity, and Gensini scores) were significantly different among rs10455872 genotype groups. Coronary lesions was not associated with LPA rs3798220 (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.67-1.76, p = 0.73) and scores of coronary lesions were not different among rs3798220 genotypes. We confirmed the association of the LPA rs10455872 with CAD in a large sample of Brazilian patients. For the LPA rs3798220, our finding is consistent with studies which showed the lack of this genetic association.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 04/2014; 13(1):74. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health interventions aimed at smoking cessation can clearly have a significant impact on public health around the globe. Even though the health benefits of quitting smoking are indisputable, research indicates that smoking cessation is associated with an increase in the prevalence of overweight. In this scenario, the present study evaluated the weight gain among patients participating in a smoking cessation intervention in order to find possible predictor variables.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 7.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many important complex diseases are composed of a series of phenotypes, which makes the disease diagnosis and its genetic dissection difficult. The standard procedures to determine heritability in such complex diseases are either applied for single phenotype analyses or to compare findings across phenotypes or multidimensional reduction procedures, such as principal components analysis using all phenotypes. However each method has its own problems and the challenges are even more complex for extended family data and categorical phenotypes. In this paper, we propose a methodology to determine a scale for complex outcomes involving multiple categorical phenotypes in extended pedigrees using item response theory (IRT) models that take all categorical phenotypes into account, allowing informative comparison among individuals. An advantage of the IRT framework is that a straightforward joint heritability parameter can be estimated for categorical phenotypes. Furthermore, our methodology allows many possible extensions such as the inclusion of covariates and multiple variance components. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for the parameter estimation and validate our method through simulated data. As an application we consider the metabolic syndrome as the multiple phenotype disease using data from the Baependi Heart Study consisting of 1,696 individuals in 95 families. We adjust IRT models without covariates and include age and age squared as covariates. The results showed that adjusting for covariates yields a higher joint heritability (ĥ2=0.53) than without co variates (ĥ2=0.21) indicating that the covariates absorbed some of the error variance.
    Genetic Epidemiology 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Circulation 01/2014; 129(Suppl 1):AP334-AP334. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100223. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. However, the determinants of aortic stiffness progression are not fully established. This study evaluated the predictive value of blood pressure (BP) response to cold pressor test (CPT) in the progression of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in men and women. A total of 408 individuals (165 men, 243 women) from Vitoria, Brazil, underwent BP evaluation, clinical and laboratorial investigations, and CPT and PWV assessment. Five years later, the studied individuals were re-evaluated, except for the CPT. In men, 5-year PWV change correlated inversely with baseline PWV (P < 0.001) and directly with BP response to CPT (P < 0.05) and 5-year BP change (P < 0.05). In women, 5-year PWV change correlated inversely with baseline PWV (P < 0.001) and directly with age (P < 0.01), glycemia (P < 0.05) and 5-year BP change (P < 0.05) but not with BP response to CPT. Further linear regression analysis showed that 5-year PWV change was associated with baseline PWV, systolic BP response to CPT, and 5-year systolic BP change in men and with baseline PWV, age, glycemia, and 5-year systolic BP change in women. BP response to CPT was a predictor of PWV progression in men after 5 years of follow-up. These findings provide further insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of arterial stiffness, suggesting that elevated sympathetic reactivity may be a predisposing factor for future increases in aortic stiffness, at least in men.
    American Journal of Hypertension 11/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -The present study addressed the hypothesis that the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that inactivates peptides that possess cardioprotective actions, correlates with adverse outcomes in heart failure (HF). The therapeutic potential of DPPIV inhibition in preventing cardiac dysfunction was also investigated. -Measurements of DPPIV activity in blood samples obtained from 190 HF patients and 42 controls demonstrated that patients with HF exhibited an increase of approximately 130% in circulating DPPIV activity compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was observed between serum DPPIV activity and left ventricular LV ejection fraction in HF patients. Similarly, radiofrequency LV ablation-induced HF rats displayed higher DPPIV activity in the plasma (~50%) and heart tissue (~3.5 fold) compared with sham-operated rats. Moreover, positive correlations were observed between the plasma DPPIV activity and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and lung congestion. Two days after surgery, one group of LV ablation-induced HF rats was treated with the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin (40 mg/kg, twice daily) for six weeks, whereas the remaining rats were administered water. Hemodynamic measurements demonstrated that radiofrequency LV-ablated rats treated with sitagliptin exhibited a significant attenuation of HF-related cardiac dysfunction, including LVEDP, systolic performance and chamber stiffness. Sitagliptin treatment also attenuated cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and minimized pulmonary congestion. -Collectively, the results presented herein associate circulating DPPIV activity with poorer cardiovascular outcomes in human and experimental HF. Moreover, the results demonstrate that long-term DPPIV inhibition mitigates the development and/or progression of HF in rats.
    Circulation Heart Failure 07/2013; · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.
    Revista de saude publica 06/2013; 47 Suppl 2:72-8. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.
    Revista de saude publica 06/2013; 47 Suppl 2:63-71. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) exhibit the absence of enzymatic activity and are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Recent reports have related both lower and higher urinary sodium excretion (USE) to higher cardiovascular risk. Here we investigate the impact of GSTM1 and GSTT1-null polymorphisms on USE in a Brazilian population. METHODS: We cross-sectionally evaluated 1,308 subjects from the city of Vitoria, Brazil, based on clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of laboratory parameters, measurement of USE, and GST polymorphisms genotyping. RESULTS: The frequency of GST M1, T1, and double-deletion polymorphisms was 51%, 22%, and 11%, respectively. Individuals with the GSTM1-null genotype had lower USE than those with the non-null genotype (92.1±52.3 vs. 102.8 ± 6 0.7 mEq/12h; P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors revealed that the GSTM1-null genotype was independently associated with USE (P = 0.001). In addition, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels were higher in GSTM1-null individuals than in non-null individuals in the highest tertile of USE. Finally, the presence of GSTT1-null or double-deleted genotypes did not influence USE or affect the interactions between USE and the variables studied. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of GSTM1 was associated with low USE and modulated the interaction between sodium intake and blood pressure in Brazilian subjects. These novel findings may provide a new unexplored link between sodium regulation and GST homeostasis.
    American Journal of Hypertension 05/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: According to hypertension guidelines, the recommended electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnostic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are the Sokolow-Lyon and Cornel voltage criteria, both with general acceptance by primary care physicians. However, it was recently reported that the R-wave voltage in lead aVL (RaVL) was as good as other more complicated and time-consuming ECG criteria to detect LVH in hypertensive patients. Therefore, our aim was to investigate if the ability of the RaVL to identify echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECHO-LVH) could be translated to the general population, a more realistic assessment of its utility in a nonreferral setting. METHODS: 682 participants (43.5 % males), aged between 27 and 72 years from the urban population of Vitoria, ES, Brazil, were enrolled. We investigated the association of ECHO-LVH (LV mass >51 g/Ht(2.7)) with several ECG voltage measurements: Sokolow-Lyon and Cornel criteria, S-wave voltage in lead V3 (SV3) and RaVL. RESULTS: The RaVL showed the best positive correlation with LV mass indexed to Ht(2.7), superior to both Cornell and Sokolow-Lyon criteria and was not influenced by gender. Analysis of the ROC curves showed that the RaVL depicted a significant superior performance in relation to all the other measurements in the ability to detect ECHO-LVH. SV3 was not correlated with LV mass. Thus, it seems that most of Cornell's performance depends on its simplified version, that is, RaVL. CONCLUSION: We have shown that the simple and single assessment of RaVL presented a greater diagnostic ability in detecting ECHO-LVH in the general population, signaling its value mainly as a screening tool.
    Clinical Research in Cardiology 05/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases and recent studies have suggested that the A55V polymorphism can cause UCP2 dysfunction. The main aim was to investigate the association of A55V polymorphism with cardiovascular events in a group of 611 patients enrolled in the Medical, Angioplasty or Surgery Study II (MASS II), a randomized trial comparing treatments for patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function. METHODS: The participants of the MASS II were genotyped for the A55V polymorphism using allele-specific PCR assay. Survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan--Meier method and evaluated with the log-rank statistic. The relationship between baseline variables and the composite end-point of cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), refractory angina requiring revascularization and cerebrovascular accident were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. RESULTS: There were no significant differences for baseline variables according genotypes. After 2 years of follow-up, dysglycemic patients harboring the VV genotype had higher occurrence of AMI (p=0.026), Death+AMI (p=0.033), new revascularization intervention (p=0.009) and combined events (p=0.037) as compared with patients carrying other genotypes. This association was not evident in normoglycemic patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that A55V polymorphism is associated with UCP2 functional alterations that increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with previous coronary artery disease and dysglycemia.
    BMC Medical Genetics 03/2013; 14(1):40. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome), a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2%) had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 288 (39.0%) had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 242 (32.8%) had unstable angina (UA). The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76%) and sedentarism (73.4%). Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03). Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006). Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2013; 68(3):431-4. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are implicated in the physiopathogenesis of salt-induced hypertension and the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene has been associated with higher superoxide production. This study investigated the impact of this polymorphism on the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (USE) and blood pressure levels in an urban Brazilian population. We cross-sectionally evaluated 1,298 subjects from the city of Vitoria-ES, located in the Southeast region of Brazil, by clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of laboratory parameters, USE measurement and p22-phox C242T polymorphism genotyping. No significant differences in studied parameters were detected between the studied genotype groups (CC vs. CT+TT). Systolic blood pressure exhibited significant correlation with USE only in T allele carriers (r = 0.166; p<0.001), while diastolic blood pressure and hypertension status correlated with USE in both genotypes albeit more weakly in subjects with CC genotype (r = 0.098; p = 0.021 and r = 0.105; p = 0.013, respectively) than in T carriers (r = 0.236; p<0.001 and r = 0.213; p<0.001, respectively). Regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors showed that USE remained independently associated with systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001) and hypertension status (p = 0.004) only in T allele carriers. Finally, higher diastolic and systolic blood pressure levels were detected in T allele carriers than in CC genotype individuals in the highest tertile of USE. The p22-phox 242T allele is associated with higher blood pressure levels among subjects with higher USE in an urban Brazilian population.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81054. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In populations that have a high degree of admixture, such as in Brazil, the sole use of ethnicity self-declaration information is not a good method for classifying individuals regarding their ethnicity. Here, we evaluate the relationship of self-declared ethnicities with genomic ancestry and mitochondrial haplogroups in 492 individuals from southeastern Brazil. Mitochondrial haplogroups were obtained by analyzing the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the genomic ancestry was obtained using 48 autosomal insertion-deletion ancestry informative markers (AIM). Of the 492 individuals, 74.6% self-declared as White, 13.8% as Brown and 10.4% as Black. Classification of the mtDNA haplogroups showed that 46.3% had African mtDNA, and the genomic ancestry analysis showed that the main contribution was European (57.4%). When we looked at the distribution of mtDNA and genomic ancestry according to the self-declared ethnicities from 367 individuals who self-declared as White, 37.6% showed African mtDNA, and they had a high contribution of European genomic ancestry (63.3%) but also a significant contribution of African ancestry (22.2%). Of the 68 individuals who self-declared as Brown, 25% showed Amerindian mtDNA and similar contribution of European and African genomic ancestries. Of the 51 subjects who self-declared as black, 80.4% had African mtDNA, and the main contribution of genomic ancestry was African (55.6%), but they also had a significant proportion of European ancestry (32.1%). The Brazilian population had a uniform degree of Amerindian genomic ancestry, and it was only with the use of genetic markers (autosomal or mitochondrial) that we were able to capture Amerindian ancestry information. Additionally, it was possible to observe a high degree of heterogeneity in the ancestry for both types of genetic markers, which shows the high genetic admixture that is present in the Brazilian population. We suggest that in epidemiological studies, the use of these methods could provide complementary information.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e62005. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noonan and Noonan-related syndromes are common autosomal dominant disorders with neuro-cardio-facial-cutaneous and developmental involvement. The objective of this article is to describe the most relevant tegumentary findings in a cohort of 41 patients with Noonan or Noonan-related syndromes and to detail certain aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying ectodermal involvement. A standard questionnaire was administered. A focused physical examination and a systematic review of clinical records was performed on all patients to verify the presence of tegumentary alterations. The molecular analysis of this cohort included sequencing of the following genes in all patients: PTPN1, SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, SHOC2 and BRAF. The most frequent tegumentary alterations were xeroderma (46%), photosensitivity (29%), excessive hair loss (24%), recurrent oral ulcers (22%), curly hair (20%), nevi (17%), markedly increased palmar and plantar creases (12%), follicular hyperkeratosis (12%), palmoplantar hyperkeratosis (10%), café-au-lait spots (10%) and sparse eyebrows (7%). Patients with mutations in PTPN11 had lower frequencies of palmar and plantar creases and palmar/plantar hyperkeratosis compared with the other patients. We observed that patients with mutations in genes directly involved in cell proliferation kinase cascades (SOS1, BRAF, KRAS and RAF1) had a higher frequency of hyperkeratotic lesions compared with patients with mutations in genes that have a more complex interaction with and modulation of cell proliferation kinase cascades (PTPN11).
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2013; 68(8):1079-83. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Varenicline has a significant impact on the ability to quit smoking. However, patients may have side effects similar to nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of varenicline in monotherapy or in combined therapy with bupropion and/or serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in a specific cardiovascular smoking cessation service. METHODS: It is an outcome research of 427 patients that received varenicline monotherapy or combined pharmacotherapy and were followed for 52 weeks. Patients were oriented to take varenicline until week 12. During each medical visit, the patients were evaluated and in the cases of mood changes after varenicline use, SRIs were prescribed. Bupropion was combined in patients that did not achieve complete tobacco abstinence in 2 or 3 weeks after starting varenicline use or if the patient presented uncomfortable abstinent symptoms. RESULTS: The success (continuous abstinence rate in 52 weeks) in different drug regimens were: varenicline monotherapy (32.1%), varenicline + bupropion (55.0%), varenicline + SRI (50.6%), and varenicline + bupropion + SRI (57.7%). In a multivariate analysis of successful treatment predictors, compared with varenicline monotherapy, patients who used bupropion + SRI adjuvant treatment had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.05 (1.99-12.80) for a successful treatment response after 1-year follow-up, while patients who used bupropion or SRI had OR of 3.21 (1.68-6.14) and 3.58 (1.98-6.48), respectively.Conclusions:Our results suggest that adjuvant treatment to varenicline therapy may be associated with improved success in smoking cessation, especially in patients with nicotine withdrawal symptoms. These results should be tested in randomized controlled trials.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 11/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
472.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Campinas
      • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011–2013
    • Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
      • Instituto da Criança (ICr)
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2007–2013
    • Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
      • Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas
      Victoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil
  • 2005–2012
    • Texas Heart Institute
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Instituto do Coração
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1998–2012
    • University of São Paulo
      • Faculty of Medicine (FM)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil