Constanze Pagenstecher

University of Bonn - Medical Center, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (31)193.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A boy showing symptoms of a Turcot-like childhood cancer syndrome together with stigmata of neurofibromatosis type I is reported. His brother suffers from an infantile myofibromatosis, and a sister died of glioblastoma at age 7. Another 7-year-old brother is so far clinically unaffected. The parents are consanguineous. Molecular diagnosis in the index patient revealed a constitutional homozygous mutation of the mismatch repair gene PMS2. The patient was in remission of his glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) after multimodal treatment followed by retinoic acid chemoprevention for 7 years. After discontinuation of retinoic acid medication, he developed a relapse of his brain tumour together with the simultaneous occurrence of three other different HNPCC-related carcinomas. We think that retinoic acid might have provided an effective chemoprevention in this patient with homozygous mismatch repair gene defect. We propose to take a retinoic acid chemoprevention into account in children with proven biallelic PMS2 mismatch repair mutations being at highest risk concerning the development of a malignancy.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 03/2008; 167(2):225-9. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p53 and the prostate-cancer-susceptibility gene RNASEL are tumour suppressor genes involved in apoptosis. We have previously reported that the common, functionally different variants Arg72Pro in p53 and Arg462Gln in RNASEL are associated with the age of disease onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome patients. To assess the combined effect of both variants, we screened 246 unrelated Lynch syndrome patients with a pathogenic germline mutation either in MSH2 (n=138) or in MLH1 (n=108) and colorectal cancer as first tumour, and 245 healthy controls. The global log rank test revealed significant differences in the age of disease onset for the genotypes of each variant (p=0.0176 for p53 and p=0.0358 for RNASEL) and for the combined genotypes of both variants (p=0.0174). The highest difference in median age of disease onset was seen between homozygotes for the wild-types in both genes (42years [range 22-75]) and homozygotes for the variant alleles in both genes (30years [range 26-47]). A multivariate Cox regression model indicated that only the p53 and RNASEL genotypes had a significant influence on age of disease onset (p=0.016 for p53 and p=0.014 for RNASEL) in an additive mode of inheritance, and that the effects of both variants are purely additive, which supports the notion that the p53 and RNaseL pathways do not interact. These findings may be relevant for preventive strategies in Lynch syndrome.
    Cancer Letters 08/2007; 252(1):55-64. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are the underlying cause of familial adenomatous polyposis, an autosomal-dominant cancer predisposition syndrome of the colorectum. Here, we describe a complex pathogenic rearrangement in the APC gene that was detected during deletion screening and transmitted throughout at least three generations. The rearrangement consists of a deletion of 604 bp in intron 4 that impairs the binding site of the reverse primer for exon 4 and of an insertion of 119 bp in exon 4 that interferes with the binding site of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probes for exon 4. The insertion is composed of three duplicated sequences derived from exon 4, intron 3, and intron 4, all in inverse direction. By transcript analysis, we found that the mutation results in complete skipping of exon 4 and that it leads to a frameshift. The rearrangement would not have been identified had it occurred outside the MLPA hybridization site. Our findings demonstrate that part of the pathogenic mutations remain undetected by routine methods. Moreover, MLPA and RNA analysis alone would have led to an incorrect interpretation of a genomic deletion of exon 4.
    Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 03/2007; 9(1):122-6. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High microsatellite instability (MSI-H) occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancers (CRC) and clinical as well as pathological features differ from tumours exhibiting low microsatellite instability (MSI-L) or microsatellite stability (MSS). Conflicting data exists about the relevance of MSI in predicting the prognosis and benefit of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy in patients with CRC. We investigated the usefulness of MSI as a predictor of distinct clinical attributes influencing recurrence rate and disease-free survival (DFS) subject to the use of adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy with 5-FU in stage II- stage IV CRC. We collected data and tumours of 416 consecutive stage I to IV CRC patients from 2000 to 2002, and followed them for a median time of 33 months. Microsatellite loci recommended by the National Cancer Institute were analysed. Cox proportional hazard modelling was used to compare clinical data and survival as well as associations for MSI and 5-FU treatment status of patients with MSI-H, MSI-L or MSS CRC. We identified 52 MSI-H (13%), 21 MSI-L (5%) and 343 MSS (82%) tumours. CRC with MSI-H tended to have a decreased likelihood of metastasising to regional lymph nodes (p=0.055), whilst age of diagnosis and tumour location did not differ. In an analysis that did not take into account the use of chemotherapy, univariate and multivariate analyses failed to show a difference between MSI-H and MSS groups with respect to disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, survival under application of 5-FU did not correlate with MSI status. No clear influence of MSI status on overall survival and response to 5-FU chemotherapy was found.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2007; 22(2):145-52. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • British Journal of Dermatology 02/2007; 156(1):158-62. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2 is an essential polymorphic enzyme involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics, including potential carcinogens. The individual differences in the NAT2 metabolic capacity are caused by allelic variants of the NAT2 gene which are determined by a pattern of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulting in slow (SA), intermediate (IA) or rapid acetylator (RA) phenotypes. Highly penetrant germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes are the cause of the disease in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There is no strict correlation between the type of germline mutation in MMR genes and the HNPCC phenotype, but age of tumor onset (AO) in HNPCC has been associated at least in part with different variants in apoptosis-related genes. To clarify the potential modifying role of the NAT2 acetylator status in HNPCC, we performed a multicenter study in 226 individuals with colorectal cancer carrying exclusively pathogenic germline mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. We did not observe any significant difference in the NAT2 acetylator status frequency between HNPCC patients and 107 healthy controls (P=0.156), and between MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers (P=0.198). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that male patients had a significantly increased risk to develop CRC compared to females during any interval (P=0.043), while the NAT2 acetylator status (P=0.447) and the mutated gene (MLH1 or MSH2) (P=0.236) were not risk factors for AO. The median AO in HNPCC patients was 39 years in patients with RA as well as with SA status (P=0.347). In MLH1 mutation carriers, the median AO was 38 years in RA and 36 years in SA status patients (P=0.901), whereas in MSH2 mutation carriers, the median AO was 39 years in RA and 42 years in SA status patients (P=0.163). Log-rank test revealed a significantly lower age of CRC onset in male compared to female HNPCC patients (P=0.0442). These data do not support the hypothesis that the NAT2 acetylatorship acts as a modifying factor on AO in HNPCC-associated CRC.
    Cancer Letters 10/2006; 241(1):150-7. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome is linked to germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. We analyzed the genotype-phenotype correlations in the largest cohort so far reported. Following standard algorithms, we identified 281 of 574 unrelated families with deleterious germline mutations in MLH1 (n = 124) or MSH2 (n = 157). A total of 988 patients with 1,381 cancers were included in this analysis. We identified 181 and 259 individuals with proven or obligatory and 254 and 294 with assumed MLH1 and MSH2 mutations, respectively. Age at diagnosis was younger both in regard to first cancer (40 v 43 years; P < .009) and to first colorectal cancer (CRC; 41 v 44 years; P = .004) in MLH1 (n = 435) versus MSH2 (n = 553) mutation carriers. In both groups, rectal cancers were remarkably frequent, and the time span between first and second CRC was smaller if the first primary occurred left sided. Gastric cancer was the third most frequent malignancy occurring without a similarly affected relative in most cases. All prostate cancers occurred in MSH2 mutation carriers. The proportion of rectal cancers and shorter time span to metachronous cancers indicates the need for a defined treatment strategy for primary rectal cancers in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients. Male MLH1 mutation carriers require earlier colonoscopy beginning at age 20 years. We propose regular gastric surveillance starting at age 35 years, regardless of the familial occurrence of this cancer. The association of prostate cancer with MSH2 mutations should be taken into consideration both for clinical and genetic counseling practice.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2006; 24(26):4285-92. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency, mutation spectrum and phenotype of the recently described autosomal recessive MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), we performed a systematic search for MUTYH (MYH) mutations by sequencing the complete coding region of the gene in 329 unselected APC mutation-negative index patients with the clinical diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or attenuated FAP (AFAP). Biallelic germline mutations in MUTYH were identified in 55 of the 329 unselected patients (17%) and in another 9 selected index cases. About one-fifth (20%) of the 64 unrelated MAP patients harboured none of the 2 hot-spot missense mutations Y165C and/or G382D. Including 7 affected relatives, almost all MAP patients presented with either an attenuated (80%) or with an atypical phenotype (18%). Fifty percentage of the MAP patients had colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Duodenal polyposis was found in 18%, thyroid and stomach cancer in 1 case, other extraintestinal manifestations associated with FAP were not observed. In 8 families, vertical segregation was suspected; in 2 of these families, biallelic mutations were identified in 2 generations. Monoallelic changes with predicted functional relevance were found in 0.9% of the 329 patients, which is in accordance with the carrier frequency in the general population. In conclusion, biallelic MUTYH mutations are the underlying genetic basis in a substantial fraction of patients with adenomatous polyposis. The phenotype of MAP is best characterised as attenuated or atypical, respectively. Colorectal surveillance starting at about 18 years of age is recommended for biallelic mutation carriers and siblings of MAP patients, who refuse predictive testing.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2006; 119(4):807-14. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCND1 encodes cyclin D1, which plays an important role in the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. A common polymorphism (c.G870A) increases alternate splicing. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MSH2 and MLH1, and shows a wide range in the age of its onset (AO), suggesting the existence of other modifying genetic factors. To date, two studies have investigated the association between CCND1 G/A variation and AO in HNPCC with contradictory results in 86 and 146 MMR mutation carriers, respectively. To clarify the role of the CCND1 G/A variation in HNPCC, we performed a study in 406 individuals carrying exclusively clear cut pathogenic mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. We did not observe a significant difference in genotype frequencies of affected and unaffected mutation carriers and healthy controls. A significant association between CCND1 genotypes and AO was found neither in the global comparison (log-rank, P = 0.2981; Wilcoxon, P = 0.2567) nor in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratios 1.111, 95%CI 0.950-1.299, P = 0.188 and 1.090, 95%CI 0.868-1.369, P = 0.459 for the additive and dominant effect, respectively). We conclude, that the CCND1 G870A sequence variation is not a genetic modifier of the phenotype of HNPCC.
    Cancer Letters 06/2006; 236(2):191-7. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite analysis and immunohistochemistry are commonly used initial screening tests for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. However, tumors in roughly one-half of the patients fulfilling the Bethesda guidelines are microsatellite stable. In addition, normal mismatch repair protein expression in these tumors suggests that a defect in the mismatch repair system is unlikely. Because biallelic MYH mutations occur in patients with both high and low numbers of adenomas, we hypothesized that MYH is involved in the tumorigenesis of microsatellite stable colorectal cancers in patients without vertical transmission of disease and who fulfill the Bethesda guidelines. MYH was analyzed in 50 cancer patients and 116 healthy controls by complete genomic DNA sequencing. No biallelic germline mutations were identified. One patient was a heterozygous carrier for the p.G382D missense mutation, and another patient was a heterozygous carrier for the novel missense mutation p.Q484H. We identified six common variants, three in the coding region (p.V22M, p.Q324H, and p.S501F) and three in adjacent intronic regions (c.157+30A>G, c.462+35G>A, and c.1435-40G>C). In summary, biallelic germline mutations of MYH are unlikely to cause colorectal cancer in patients sharing clinical features with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without mismatch repair defect and therefore cannot fill the molecular diagnostic gap in this subgroup of Bethesda-positive patients.
    Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 06/2006; 8(2):178-82. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single base substitutions in DNA mismatch repair genes which are predicted to lead either to missense or silent mutations, or to intronic variants outside the highly conserved splicing region are often found in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. In order to use the variants for predictive testing in persons at risk, their pathogenicity has to be evaluated. There is growing evidence that some substitutions have a detrimental influence on splicing. We examined 19 unclassified variants (UVs) detected in MSH2 or MLH1 genes in patients suspected of HNPCC for expression at RNA level. We demonstrate that 10 of the 19 UVs analyzed affect splicing. For example, the substitution MLH1,c.2103G > C in the last position of exon 18 does not result in a missense mutation as theoretically predicted (p.Gln701His), but leads to a complete loss of exon 18. The substitution MLH1,c.1038G > C (predicted effect p.Gln346His) leads to complete inactivation of the mutant allele by skipping of exons 10 and 11, and by activation of a cryptic intronic splice site. Similarly, the intronic variant MLH1,c.306+2dupT results in loss of exon 3 and a frameshift mutation due to a new splice donor site 5 bp upstream. Furthermore, we confirmed complete exon skipping for the mutations MLH1,c.1731G > A and MLH1,c.677G > A. Partial exon skipping was demonstrated for the mutations MSH2,c.1275A > G, MLH1,c.588+5G > A, MLH1,c.790+4A > G and MLH1,c.1984A > C. In contrast, five missense mutations (MSH2,c.4G > A, MSH2,c.2123T > A, MLH1,c.464T > G, MLH1,c.875T > C and MLH1,c.2210A > T) were found in similar proportions in the mRNA as in the genomic DNA. We conclude that the mRNA examination should precede functional tests at protein level.
    Human Genetics 03/2006; 119(1-2):9-22. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical criteria, microsatellite analysis (MSA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are important diagnostic tools for identification of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients who are likely to carry pathogenic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Based on MSA and IHC results and subsequent mutation analyses of 1,119 unrelated index patients meeting the Amsterdam II criteria or the classical Bethesda guidelines, we analyzed the value of these tools to predict MLH1 and MSH2 mutations with the aim of establishing optimal strategies for their most efficient sequential use. The overall prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations in our cohort was 20.6% (95% CI = 18.3-23.0%) and 61.8% (95% CI = 56.8-66.6%), respectively, after MSA/IHC-based preselection. IHC was highly predictive (99.1%) and specific (99.6%) with regard to MSA. However, 14 out of 230 mutations (6%) escaped detection by IHC. Thus, IHC cannot be recommended to substitute MSA fully. Nonetheless, IHC is important to indicate the gene that is likely to be affected. To combine both methods efficiently, we propose a novel screening strategy that provides 2 alternative ways of sequential IHC and MSA application, either using IHC or MSA in the first place. A logistic regression model based on the age of the index patient at first tumor diagnosis and the number of fulfilled HNPCC criteria is used to allocate individual patients to that alternative pathway that is expected to be least expensive. A cost analysis reveals that about 25% of the costs can be saved using this strategy.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2006; 118(1):115-22. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a major form of familial colorectal cancer (CRC). It is diagnosed when either the Amsterdam criteria (AC) are fulfilled or mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes have been identified. This project aims at estimating the proportion of HNPCC among unselected patients with CRC. During a period of 2 years, a total of 351 non-selected patients with CRC were registered prospectively. 92 patients met the Bethesda criteria (9 of them fulfilled the AC) and 259 did not. 348 tumours were examined for microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of MMR proteins. MSI-H and MSI-L were identified in 17 and 6%, respectively. Loss of MSH2 or MLH1 was found in 1.5 and 8.8%, respectively. Based on the results of tumour tissue analyses, 80 patients with MSI and/or loss of MSH2 or MLH1 expression were identified as candidates for germline mutation screening. DNA of 40/80 patients was available. These patients were screened for MSH2 and MLH1 mutations; 19/40 patients with MSI and normal MSH2 or MLH1 expression were screened for mutations in MSH6. Three patients had relevant MMR gene mutations and six variants of unknown functional relevance were detected. After adjusting for the cases not evaluable for germline mutations, 1.7% of the CRC patients had HNPCC proven by molecular genetics.
    Digestion 02/2006; 74(1):58-67. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in the STK11 gene have been identified in 10-70% of patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), an autosomal-dominant hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. A second locus was assumed in a large proportion of PJS patients. To date, STK11 alterations comprise mainly point mutations; only a small number of large deletions have been reported. We performed a mutation analysis for the STK11 gene in 71 patients. Of these, 56 met the clinical criteria for PJS and 12 were presumed to have PJS because of mucocutaneous pigmentation only or bowel problems due to isolated PJS polyps. No clinical information was available for the remaining three patients. By direct sequencing of the coding region of the STK11 gene, we identified point mutations in 37 of 71 patients (52%). We examined the remaining 34 patients by means of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method, and detected deletions in 17 patients. In four patients the deletion extended over all 10 exons, and in eight patients only the promoter region and exon 1 were deleted. The remaining deletions encompassed exons 2-10 (in two patients), exons 2-3, exons 4-5, or exon 8. When only patients who met the clinical criteria for PJS are considered, the overall mutation detection rate increases to 94% (64% point mutations and 30% large deletions). No mutation was identified in any of the 12 presumed cases. In conclusion, we found that approximately one-third of the patients who met the clinical PJS criteria exhibited large genomic deletions that were readily detectable by MLPA. Screening for point mutations and large deletions by direct sequencing or MLPA, respectively, increased the mutation detection rate in the STK11 gene up to 94%. There may be still other mutations in the STK11 gene that are not detectable by the methods applied here. Therefore, it is questionable whether a second PJS locus exists at all.
    Human Mutation 01/2006; 26(6):513-9. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite analysis (MSA) in tumour tissue is useful for pre-selection of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients for mutation screening, but is time-consuming and cost-intensive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins is simple, fast, and indicates the affected gene. IHC has therefore been proposed as an alternative pre-screening method. However, some authors report a lower sensitivity of IHC compared with MSA. The present study reports IHC results for MSH2 and MLH1 performed in 82 tumours with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) from 81 carriers of pathogenic mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. One hundred per cent (38/38) of the tumours from MSH2 mutation carriers showed loss of MSH2 staining; in all cases, the affected MSH2 gene was predicted correctly by IHC. Complete loss of MLH1 expression was observed in 66% (29/44) of MLH1 mutation carriers. Weak positive MLH1 staining was observed in 14 (32%) cases and, in one case, normal MLH1 staining was seen. The pathologist was aware of the weak staining pattern as an indicator of an MLH1 mutation; 98% of the MLH1 mutations were predicted correctly. To evaluate whether weak positive MLH1 staining is observed more often with in-frame or missense mutations, IHC data from 23 MSI-H tumours from carriers of unspecified variants were added and mutations were grouped into truncating mutations, large non-truncating deletions, and small non-truncating mutations. Weak MLH1 staining was observed in all three categories and it is postulated that other factors, such as mutation of the second allele, also influence protein expression. In conclusion, IHC can be regarded as a very useful method for selecting HNPCC patients for mutation analysis, as long as it is interpreted by an experienced pathologist. The high specificity of IHC in terms of indicating the affected gene is useful for evaluating unspecified variants. However, the staining pattern does not predict whether the underlying germ-line mutation is truncating or not.
    The Journal of Pathology 01/2006; 207(4):385-95. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphic variants at codon 72 of the p53 gene were shown to be functionally distinct in vitro, whereby the arginine (arg) variant induces apoptosis more efficiently than the proline (pro) variant. From the evidence that the DNA mismatch repair system and p53 interact to maintain genomic integrity, we hypothesized that the codon 72 variation may influence the age of onset of disease in HNPCC patients. We tested 538 patients for p53 codon 72 variants, including 167 unrelated patients with pathogenic germline mutations in MSH2 or MLH1 and colorectal carcinoma as first tumour, 126 patients with sporadic microsatellite stable colorectal cancers, and 245 healthy controls. The median age of onset was 41, 36, and 32 years for MSH2 or MLH1 mutation carriers with arg/arg, arg/pro, and pro/pro genotypes, respectively. The log rank test revealed significant differences in the age of onset between arg/arg and pro/pro individuals (p = 0.0002) and in arg/pro versus arg/arg and pro/pro individuals (p = 0.0026 and p = 0.0217, respectively). A Cox regression model indicated an additive mode of inheritance. No significant differences in age of onset were observed among different genotype carriers with microsatellite stable tumours. Our results suggest that p53 codon 72 genotypes are associated with the age of onset of colorectal carcinoma in a mismatch repair deficient background in a dose dependent manner. These findings may be relevant for preventive strategies in HNPCC.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2005; 42(10):769-73. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in DNA MMR genes, mainly MSH2 and MLH1, account for the majority of HNPCC, an autosomal dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer and other malignancies. The evaluation of many questions regarding HNPCC requires clinically and genetically well-characterized HNPCC patient cohorts of reasonable size. One main focus of this multicenter study is the evaluation of the mutation spectrum and mutation frequencies in a large HNPCC cohort in Germany; 1,721 unrelated patients, mainly of German descent, who met the Bethesda criteria were included in the study. In tumor samples of 1,377 patients, microsatellite analysis was successfully performed and the results were applied to select patients eligible for mutation analysis. In the patients meeting the strict Amsterdam criteria (AC) for HNPCC, 72% of the tumors exhibited high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) while only 37% of the tumors from patients fulfilling the less stringent criteria showed MSI-H; 454 index patients (406 MSI-H and 48 meeting the AC of whom no tumor samples were available) were screened for small mutations. In 134 index patients, a pathogenic MSH2 mutation, and in 118 patients, a pathogenic MLH1 mutation was identified (overall detection rate for pathogenic mutations 56%). One hundred sixty distinct mutations were detected, of which 86 are novel mutations. Noteworthy is that 2 mutations were over-represented in our patient series: MSH2,c.942+3A>T and MLH1,c.1489_1490insC, which account for 11% and 18% of the MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, respectively. A subset of 238 patients was screened for large genomic deletions. In 24 (10%) patients, a deletion was found. In 72 patients, only unspecified variants were found. Our findings demonstrate that preselection by microsatellite analysis substantially raises mutation detection rates in patients not meeting the AC. As a mutation detection strategy for German HNPCC patients, we recommend to start with screening for large genomic deletions and to continue by screening for common mutations in exon 5 of MSH2 and exon 13 of MLH1 before searching for small mutations in the remaining exons.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2005; 116(5):692-702. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNASEL is thought to be a susceptibility gene for hereditary prostate cancer and encodes the endoribonuclease RNase L, which has a role in apoptosis and is a candidate tumour-suppressor protein. A common sequence variation in RNASEL, Arg462Gln, has been associated with hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer, and the Gln variant has about three-fold reduced RNase activity in vitro. In view of the association between the age of onset of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and functionally different variants of P53, which play a key part in the apoptotic pathway, we aimed to assess whether the Arg462Gln variation of RNASEL affects the age of onset of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. We screened 251 patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer who were unrelated, had pathogenic germline mutations in MSH2 (n=141) or MLH1 (n=110), and had colorectal carcinoma as the first tumour, for variation at codon 462 of RNASEL and compared them with 439 healthy controls. The median age of onset was 40 years (range 17-75) for patients with an Arg/Arg genotype at codon 462, 37 years (13-69) for patients with an Arg/Gln genotype, and 34 years (20-49) for those with a Gln/Gln genotype (p=0.0198). Only the RNASEL genotype had a significant effect on age of onset (p=0.0062) in an additive mode of inheritance. Pair-wise comparisons between genotype groups showed that the two homozygous groups (ie, Arg/Arg vs Gln/Gln) differed significantly in age of disease onset (mean age difference 4.8 years [SD 1.7], p=0.0044). A sequence variation in the prostate-cancer-susceptibility gene RNASEL has a role in a different, unassociated malignant disease. Genotypes at RNASEL codon 462 are associated with age of onset of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer in a dose-dependent way, and might have a role in preventive strategies for this disease.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2005; 6(8):566-72. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by a deficiency in DNA mismatch repair in consequence of germline mutations mainly in the genes MSH2 and MLH1. Around 10% of patients suspected of HNPCC are identified with large genomic deletions that cannot be detected by conventional methods of mutation screening. The recently developed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) proved to be an easy to perform method for deletion detection and is reliable when more than one exon is deleted. We show that, in some cases, apparent deletions of single exons may actually result from single base substitutions or small insertions/deletions in the hybridisation sequence of MLPA probes. We conclude that single exon deletions, detected by MLPA or multiplex PCR, should be validated with additional methods.
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 09/2005; 13(8):983-6. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in most hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCC) and less frequently in sporadic tumors as the result of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Instability at coding microsatellites (cMS) in specific target genes causes frameshift mutations and functional inactivation of affected proteins, thereby providing a selective growth advantage to MMR deficient cells. At present, little is known about Selective Target Gene frameshift mutations in preneoplastic lesions. In this study, we examined 30 HNPCC-associated MSI-H colorectal adenomas of different grades of dysplasia for frameshift mutations in 26 cMS-bearing genes, which, according to our previous model, represent Selective Target genes of MSI. About 30% (8/26) of these genes showed a high mutation frequency (> or =50%) in colorectal adenomas, similar to the frequencies reported for colorectal carcinomas. Mutations in one gene (PTHL3) occurred significantly less frequently in MSI adenomas compared to published mutation rates in MSI carcinomas (36.0 vs 85.7%, P=0.023). Biallelic inactivation was observed in nine genes, thus emphasizing the functional impact of cMS instability on MSI tumorigenesis. Some genes showed a high frequency of frameshift mutations already at early stages of MSI colorectal tumorigenesis that increased with grade of dysplasia and transition to carcinoma. These include known Target Genes like BAX and TGFBR2, as well as three novel candidates, MACS, NDUFC2, and TAF1B. Overall, we have identified genes of potential relevance for the initiation and progression of MSI tumorigenesis, thus representing promising candidates for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches directed towards MMR-deficient tumors.
    Oncogene 05/2005; 24(15):2525-35. · 8.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
193.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2008
    • University of Bonn - Medical Center
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2007
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Human Genetics
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany