[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents more than 5% of all cancers diagnosed annually in United States and around the world. Despite advances in the management of patients with this disease, the survival has not been significantly improved, and the search for potential alternative therapies is encouraging. Here we demonstrate that deguelin administration causes a significant HNSCC cell death. Deguelin induces both cell apoptosis and autophagy by modulating multiple signaling pathways in cultured HNSCC cells. Deguelin inhibits Akt signaling, and down-regulates survivin and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) expressions, by disrupting their association with heat shock protein-90 (Hsp-90). Deguelin induces ceramide production through de novo synthase pathway to promote HNSCC cell death. Importantly, increased ceramide level activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which then directly phosphorylates Ulk1 and eventually leads to cell autophagy. We found that a low dose of deguelin sensitized HNSCC cells to 5-FU. Finally, using a nude mice Hep-2 xenograft model, we also showed a significant anti-tumor ability of deguelin in vivo. Together, we suggest that deguelin may represent a novel and effective chemo-agent against HNSCC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54736. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent published studies suggest that increasing levels of ceramides enhance the chemo-sensitivity of curcumin. Using in vitro approaches, we analyzed the impact of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK-1) inhibition on ceramide production, and evaluated SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) as a potential curcumin chemo-sensitizer in ovarian cancer cells. We found that SphK1 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer patients' tumor tissues and in cultured ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibition of SphK1 by SKI-II or by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown dramatically enhanced curcumin-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. SKI-II facilitated curcumin-induced ceramide production, p38 activation and Akt inhibition. Inhibition of p38 by the pharmacological inhibitor (SB 203580), a dominant-negative expression vector, or by RNAi diminished curcumin and SKI-II co-administration-induced ovarian cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, restoring Akt activation introducing a constitutively active Akt, or inhibiting ceramide production by fumonisin B1 also inhibited the curcumin plus SKI-II co-administration-induced in vitro anti-ovarian cancer effect, suggesting that ceramide accumulation, p38 activation and Akt inhibition are downstream effectors. Our findings suggest that low, well-tolerated doses of SKI-II may offer significant improvement to the clinical curcumin treatment of ovarian cancer.
Cancer Science 05/2012; 103(8):1538-45. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ala499Val (C > T) and Lys939Gln (A > C) of the XPC gene are two potentially functional nonsynonymous polymorphisms, which affect the rate of DNA repair and might change XPC production and activity. This study aimed to explore the distribution of these two polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population and their relationship with male infertility.
We genotyped the two polymorphisms of the XPC gene by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in 318 infertile patients and 228 fertile male controls, detected the frequency of the alleles, and analyzed both the individual and the joint contribution of the two polymorphisms to male infertility.
For the Ala499Val (C > T) polymorphism, the frequencies of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were significantly different in distribution between the patients and the controls (P = 0.020). Males with the TT genotype had a lower risk of male infertility than those with the CC genotype (adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.23-0.88), and even lower than those with both CC and CT genotypes (adjusted OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.22-0.71). The Lys939Gln (A > C) polymorphism was not related with male infertility. The combined genotype analysis showed that the individuals with 1-4 risk alleles had a significantly higher risk of male infertility (adjusted OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.50-5.04) than those with 0 risk allele.
The Ala499Val (C > T) polymorphism of the XPC gene is correlated with male infertility and may be a potential genetic risk factor for male infertility in the Chinese Han population.
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology 03/2010; 16(3):244-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fenvalerate is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and is reported to disrupt reproductive function in humans and animals. However, little is known about its influence on follicular development. In this study, rat preantral follicles were primary cultured to investigate the effects of fenvalerate on follicular survival rate, morphological change, steroid hormone levels and steroidogenesis related gene mRNA expression. Follicles were cultured with 0, 1, 5 and 25 micromol/L fenvalerate for 72 h. And then the morphous was assessed by conventional light microscopy, steroid hormones were measured by RIA, and the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) were monitored by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that fenvalerate inhibited the augmentation of follicular diameters but did not have detectable effects on follicular survival rates. The level of steroid hormones, such as progesterone, testosterone and estradiol, was inhibited. The inhibition might be due to the decreased expression levels of StAR and P450scc. These results suggested that fenvalerate restrained the follicular growth, and inhibited steroidogenesis by reducing StAR and P450scc gene expression, which might further contribute to the fenvalerate-induced reproductive dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression pattern of rat Eppin (epididymal protease inhibitor; official symbol Spinlw1), we detected mRNA transcripts and subsequent protein translation of Eppin in several sorts of tissues by RT-PCR and western blotting. Then immunohistochemistry was performed for more detailed observation. The testicular transcription level was monitored by real-time PCR throughout postnatal development. We found that rat Eppin was specifically expressed in the testis and epididymis. The testicular transcription was slight in neonatal (1-day) and infantile stages (5-, 7- and 10-day). It increased sharply thereafter, with maximum expression level (about 38-fold compared with that of 1-day old rat) detected in prepubertal stage (15-day). Then a slightly declined but stable level (about 20-fold compared with that of 1-day old rat) was kept in pubertal-early adult (30-day) and adult (60-day) stages of postnatal maturation. In the adult rat, EPPIN protein was mainly localized in the elongated spermatids and epididymal epithelial cells. Sperm in the epididymal duct were all covered with EPPIN and its level kept constant during incubation under conditions used to achieve capacitation. Its stage-specific expression in the testis suggests that EPPIN may be important during spermatogenesis especially for the spermatid elongation. The abundant production of epididymal EPPIN indicated indirectly that it might play a role in the function of the epididymis.
Asian Journal of Andrology 10/2009; 11(6):731-9. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the possible role of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair gene XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) during spermatogenesis by investigating the associations of one promoter polymorphism (T-77C) and two exonic polymorphisms (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln) in XRCC1 gene with risk of idiopathic azoospermia in a Chinese population.
The genotype and allele frequencies of three observed polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism based on a Chinese population consisting of 171 idiopathic azoospermia subjects and 247 normal-spermatogenesis controls.
In our study, all the observed genotype frequencies were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The 399A (GA+AA) allele frequency for idiopathic azoospermia subjects and controls was 0.216 and 0.269, respectively. Compared with GG genotype, the AA genotype of Arg399Gln showed a significant association with a decreased risk of idiopathic azoospermia (odds ratio = 0.315; 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.86). However, no significant differences were found between the cases and controls for T-77C and Arg194Trp polymorphisms. The major haplotypes of XRCC1 gene were TCG, TTG and TCA, whereas no haplotypes appeared to be significantly associated with idiopathic azoospermia based on the cutoff of P < 0.05.
In a selected Chinese population, AA genotype of Arg399Gln appears to contribute to a decreased risk of idiopathic azoospermia, while we have not any evidence of involvement of XRCC1 T-77C and Arg194Trp polymorphisms in idiopathic azoospermia.
Asian Journal of Andrology 12/2007; 9(6):781-6. · 2.14 Impact Factor