Hakan Orbay

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (69)162.77 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The critical challenge in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) research is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of AAA progression. Angiogenesis is a pathological hallmark of AAA, and CD105 is highly expressed on newly formed vessels. Our goal was to use (64)Cu-labeled anti-CD105 antibody Fab fragment for noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in the aortic wall in a murine model of AAA. Fab fragment of TRC105, a mAb that specifically binds to CD105, was generated by enzymatic papain digestion and conjugated to NOTA for (64)Cu-labeling. Binding affinity/specificity of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was evaluated by flow cytometry and various ex vivo studies. BALB/c mice were anesthetized and treated with calcium phosphate to induce AAA, which underwent weekly PET scans using (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies were also performed to confirm the accuracy of PET results. NOTA-TRC105-Fab exhibited high purity and specifically bound to CD105 in vitro. Uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab increased from a control level of 3.4 ± 0.1 to 9.5 ± 0.4 %ID/g at 6 h p.i. on Day 5, and decreased to 7.2 ± 1.4 %ID/g on Day 12 which correlated well with biodistribution and autoradiography studies (i.e. much higher tracer uptake in AAA than normal aorta). Of note, enhanced AAA contrast was achieved, due to the minimal background in the abdominal area of mice. Degradation of elastic fibers and highly expressed CD105 were observed in ex vivo studies. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab cleared rapidly through kidneys, which enabled noninvasive PET imaging of the aorta with enhanced contrast and showed increased angiogenesis (CD105 expression) during AAA. (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab PET may potentially be used for future diagnosis and prognosis of AAA. Copyright © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.2967/jnumed.114.153098 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Actively targeted theranostic nanomedicine may be the key for future personalized cancer management. Although numerous types of theranostic nanoparticles have been developed in the last decade for cancer treatment, challenges still exist in the engineering of biocompatible theranostic nanoparticles with highly specific in vivo tumor targeting capabilities. Here, we report the design, synthesis, surface engineering, and in vivo active vasculature targeting of a new category of theranostic nanoparticle for future cancer management. Water-soluble photothermally sensitive copper sulfide nanoparticles were encapsulated in biocompatible mesoporous silica shells, followed by multi-step surface engineering to form the final theranostic nanoparticle. Systematic in vitro targeting, an in vivo long-term toxicity study, photothermal ablation evaluation, in vivo vasculature targeted imaging, and biodistribution and histology studies were performed to fully explore the potential of these as-developed new theranostic nanoparticles.
    ACS Nano 04/2015; DOI:10.1021/nn507241v · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, there is no effective therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has a dismal clinical outcome. Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types, including TNBC. Our goal was to employ the Fab fragment of ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF mAb, for PET imaging of TNBC, which can be used to guide future TNBC therapy. ALT-836-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. SDS-PAGE and FACS studies were performed to evaluate the integrity and TF binding affinity of ALT-836-Fab before NOTA conjugation and (64)Cu-labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out to evaluate the tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in the MDA-MB-231 TNBC model, which expresses high levels of TF on the tumor cells. Blocking studies, histological assessment, as well as RT-PCR were performed to confirm TF specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab. ALT-836-Fab was produced with high purity, which exhibited superb TF binding affinity and specificity. Serial PET imaging revealed rapid and persistent tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab (5.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection; n = 4) and high tumor/muscle ratio (7.0 ± 1.2 at 24 h post-injection; n = 4), several-fold higher than that of the blocking group and tumor models that do not express significant level of TF, which was confirmed by biodistribution studies. TF specificity of the tracer was also validated by histology and RT-PCR. (64)Cu-NOTA-ALT-836-Fab exhibited prominent tissue factor targeting efficiency in MDA-MB-231 TNBC model. The use of a Fab fragment led to fast tumor uptake and good tissue/muscle ratio, which may be translated into same-day immunoPET imaging in the clinical setting to improve TNBC patient management.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00259-015-3038-1 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A key goal for successful bone regeneration is to bridge a bone defect using healing procedures that are stable and durable. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the potential to differentiate into bone. Meanwhile, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an interesting biological means to repair tissue by inducing chemotactic, proliferative, and anabolic cellular responses. This study evaluated bone regeneration using a combination of ASCs and PRP in a rat calvarial defect model. ASCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of F344 inbred rats, while PRP was prepared from these rats. ASCs were cultured in control medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or 5% PRP in vitro. After 1 week, levels of growth factors including insulin-like growth factor-1, transforming growth factor-β1, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Moreover, the ASC/PRP admixture was transplanted into the rat calvarial defect. Micro-computed tomography, histological, and immunohistochemical (osteopontin and osteocalcin) analyses were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. The in vitro study showed that the levels of growth factors secreted by ASCs were significantly increased by the addition of PRP. Transplantation of the ASC/PRP admixture had dramatic effects on bone regeneration overtime in comparison with rats that received other transplants. Furthermore, some ASCs directly differentiated into osteogenic cells in vivo. These findings suggest that the combination of ASCs and PRP has augmentative effects on bone regeneration. The ASC/PRP admixture may be a promising source for the clinical treatment of cranial defects.
    Tissue Engineering Part A 10/2014; 21(5-6). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0336 · 4.70 Impact Factor
  • Hakan Orbay, Jero Bean, Yin Zhang, Weibo Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of microinvasion to the surrounding tissues makes it difficult to determine an adequate tumor-free excision margin, often forcing the surgeons to perform wide excisions including the healthy tissue that may contain vital structures. It would be ideal to remove the tumor completely, with minimal safety margins, if surgeons could see precise tumor margins during the operation. Molecular imaging with optical techniques can visualize the tumors via fluorophore conjugated probes targeting tumor markers such as proteins and enzymes that are upregulated during malignant transformation. Intraoperative use of this technique may facilitate complete excision of the tumor and tumor micromasses located beyond the visual capacity of the naked eye, ultimately improving the clinical outcome and survival rates of cancer patients.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 12/2013; DOI:10.2174/1389201014666131226113300 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    Hakan Orbay, Hao Hong, Yin Zhang, Weibo Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events are the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Atherosclerosis develops insidiously and the initial manifestation is usually sudden cardiac death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging is a valuable tool to identify the disease at an early stage before fatal manifestations occur. Among the various molecular imaging techniques, this review mainly focuses on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of atherosclerosis. The targets and pathways that have been investigated to date for PET imaging of atherosclerosis include: glycolysis, cell membrane metabolism (phosphatidylcholine synthesis), integrin αvβ3, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLr), natriuretic peptide clearance receptors (NPCRs), fatty acid synthesis, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), macrophages, platelets, etc. Many PET tracers have been investigated clinically for imaging of atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions by PET imaging can help to prevent the premature death caused by atherosclerosis, and smooth translation of promising PET tracers into the clinic is critical to the benefit of patients.
    Theranostics 11/2013; 3(11):894-902. DOI:10.7150/thno.5506 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In conventional tissue-regeneration technologies, stem cells and/or other cells are injected into or incubated on scaffolds. In general, scaffolds can be classified into synthetic and natural polymers and natural matrices. Polymers are generally less suitable than natural matrices in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability. A highly promising alternative may be the acellular adipose matrix (AAM), which is a natural scaffold that could mediate tissue regeneration without any artefacts. The optimal method for adipose-tissue decellularisation is described in this article. Discarded human adipose tissues harvested from routine operations were used. In experiment 1, four different adipose-tissue-decellularisation methods were compared and modified. In experiment 2, the most effective method was tested by using adipose-tissue blocks from various donor sites (the abdomen, chest and forearm) and of different weights (0.8, 25 and 80 g). Haematoxylin and eosin (H &E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the efficacy of decellularisation. In experiment 1, a method using an enzymatic digestion solution yielded complete decellularisation after some modifications. In experiment 2, the 0.8-g specimens were completely decellularised by the modified method. However, cell components remained in the 25- and 80-g specimens. The donor site had no effect on the degree of decellularisation. An optimal method for adipose-tissue decellularisation is reported. Because AAM is a natural collagen scaffold that is of human origin, this report describes an important first step in a tissue-engineering innovation that may be suitable for the regeneration of various tissues.
    Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 09/2013; 67(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2013.08.006 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess ischemia-induced angiogenesis with 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 positron emission tomography (PET) in a murine hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral artery disease (PAD). CD105 binding affinity/specificity of NOTA-conjugated TRC105 (an anti-CD105 antibody) was evaluated by flow cytometry, which exhibited no difference from unconjugated TRC105. BALB/c mice were anesthetized and the right femoral artery was ligated to induce hindlimb ischemia, with the left hindlimb serving as an internal control. Laser Doppler imaging showed that perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb plummeted to ~20% of the normal level after surgery, and gradually recovered to near normal level on day 24. Ischemia-induced angiogenesis was non-invasively monitored and quantified with 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET on postoperative days 1, 3, 10, 17, & 24. 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 uptake in the ischemic hindlimb increased significantly from the control level of 1.6±0.2 %ID/g to 14.1±1.9 %ID/g at day 3 (n=3), and gradually decreased with time (3.4±1.9 %ID/g at day 24), which correlated well with biodistribution studies performed on days 3 & 24. Blocking studies confirmed the CD105 specificity of tracer uptake in the ischemic hindlimb. Increased CD105 expression on days 3 and 10 following ischemia was confirmed by histology and RT-PCR. This is the first report of PET imaging of CD105 expression during ischemia-induced angiogenesis. 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET may play multiple roles in future PAD-related research and improve PAD patient management by identifying the optimal timing of treatment and monitoring the efficacy of therapy.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2013; 10(7). DOI:10.1021/mp400191w · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides, which can negatively regulate gene expression through induction of mRNA degradation and/or post-transcriptional gene silencing. MiRNAs are key factors in the regulation of many biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Since miRNAs are known to be in close association with cancer development, non-invasive imaging of miRNA expression and/or activity is of critical importance, for which conventional molecular biology techniques are not suitable or applicable. Over the last several years, various molecular imaging techniques have been investigated for imaging of miRNAs. In this review article, we summarize the current state-of-the-art imaging of miRNAs, which are typically based on fluorescent proteins, bioluminescent enzymes, molecular beacons, and/or various nanoparticles. Non-invasive imaging of miRNA expression and/or biological activity is still at its infancy. Future research on more clinically relevant, non-toxic techniques is required to move the field of miRNA imaging into clinical applications. Non-invasive imaging of miRNA is an invaluable method that can not only significantly advance our understandings of a wide range of human diseases, but also lead to new and more effective treatment strategies for these diseases.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 05/2013; DOI:10.2174/0929867311320290005 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of slow-release basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on ischemia-reperfusion injury was examined using an island skin flap model in rats. Paired rectangular island skin flaps were elevated on the dorsum of 30 Fischer rats. The flaps were subjected to 6 hours of ischemia. Before reperfusion the flaps were injected with acidic gelatin hydrogel microspheres + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (group I), 20 μg slow-release bFGF + PBS (group II), 50 μg slow-release bFGF + PBS (group III), and 150 μg slow-release bFGF + PBS (group IV). The mean percent flap survival area and the average number of vessels detected by microangiography were significantly higher in group IV (p < 0.05) than in groups I, II, and III. The immunohistochemical staining for vasculogenic growth factors was quantitatively higher in group IV (p < 0.01). In conclusion, slow-release bFGF prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury by upregulating the secretion of vasculogenic growth factors.
    Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 04/2013; 29(5). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1343830 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to generate and characterize the Fab fragment of TRC105, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to human and murine CD105 (i.e., endoglin), and investigate its potential for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis in a small-animal model after (61/64)Cu labeling. METHODS: TRC105-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. The integrity and CD105 binding affinity of TRC105-Fab was evaluated before NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) conjugation and (61/64)Cu labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out in the syngeneic 4T1 murine breast cancer model to quantify tumor targeting efficiency and normal organ distribution of (61/64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Blocking studies with unlabeled TRC105 were performed to confirm CD105 specificity of the tracer in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining was also conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with CD105 expression. RESULTS: TRC105-Fab was produced with high purity through papain digestion of TRC105, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE, HPLC analysis, and mass spectrometry. (61/64)Cu labeling of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was achieved with about 50 % yield (specific activity about 44 GBq/μmol). PET imaging revealed rapid uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab in the 4T1 tumor (3.6 ± 0.4, 4.2 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 0.3, 4.4 ± 0.7, and 4.6 ± 0.8 %ID/g at 0.5, 2, 5, 16, and 24 h after injection, respectively; n = 4). Since tumor uptake peaked soon after tracer injection, (61)Cu-labeled TRC105-Fab was also able to provide tumor contrast at 3 and 8 h after injection. CD105 specificity of the tracer was confirmed with blocking studies and histological examination. CONCLUSION: We report PET imaging of CD105 expression using (61/64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab, which exhibited prominent and target-specific uptake in the 4T1 tumor. The use of a Fab fragment led to much faster tumor uptake (which peaked at a few hours after tracer injection) compared to radiolabeled intact antibody, which may be translated into same-day immunoPET imaging for clinical investigation.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2013; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s00259-012-2334-2 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro and in vivo properties of the F(ab')(2) fragment of TRC105, a human/murine chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds with high avidity to human and murine CD105 (i.e., endoglin), and investigate its potential for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor angiogenesis after (61/64)Cu-labeling. TRC105-F(ab')(2) of high purity was produced by pepsin digestion of TRC105, which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, HPLC analysis, and mass spectrometry. (61/64)Cu-labeling of NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) (NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) was achieved with yields of >75% (specific activity: ∼115 GBq/μmol). PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model (5.8 ± 0.8, 7.6 ± 0.6, 5.6 ± 0.4, 5.0 ± 0.6, and 3.8 ± 0.7% ID/g at 0.5, 3, 16, 24, and 48 h postinjection respectively; n = 4). Since tumor uptake peaked at 3 h postinjection, (61)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) also gave good tumor contrast at 3 and 8 h postinjection. CD105 specificity of the tracers was confirmed by blocking studies and histopathology. In conclusion, the use of a F(ab')(2) fragment led to more rapid tumor uptake (which peaked at 3 h postinjection) than radiolabeled intact antibody (which often peaked after 24 h postinjection), which may allow for same day immunoPET imaging in future clinical studies.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 01/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1021/mp300507r · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 (TRC105 is an anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody that binds to both human and murine CD105) positron emission tomography (PET) was used to assess the response to pravastatin treatment in a murine model of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Hindlimb ischemia was induced by ligation of the right femoral arteries in BALB/c mice under anesthesia, and the left hindlimb served as an internal control. Mice in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal pravastatin daily until the end of the study, whereas the animals in the control group were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Laser Doppler imaging showed that blood flow in the ischemic hindlimb plummeted to ~20% of the normal level after surgery, and gradually recovered to near normal level on day 10 in the treatment group and on day 20 in the control group. Angiogenesis was non-invasively monitored and quantified with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET on postoperative days 3, 10, 17, and 24. Tracer uptake at 48 h post-injection in the ischemic hindlimb in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group on day 10 (20.5 ± 1.9 %ID/g vs 11.4 ± 1.5 %ID/g), suggesting increased CD105 expression and higher level of angiogenesis upon pravastatin treatment, and gradually decreased to background levels in both groups (4.9 ± 0.8 %ID/g vs 3.4 ± 1.9 %ID/g on day 24). The in vivo PET data correlated well with ex vivo biodistribution studies performed on day 24. Increased CD105 expression on days 3 and 10 following ischemia was further confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Taken together, our results indicated that (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET is a suitable and non-invasive method to monitor the angiogenesis and therapeutic response in PAD, which can also be utilized for non-invasive evaluation of other pro-angiogenic/anti-angiogenic drugs in other cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2013; 6(1):54-63. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Article: Abstract 96
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 01/2013; 131:76. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000430038.76356.b7 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Human serum (HS) has attributes similar to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) when compared in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine what types of HS, with respect to the concentrations of endogenous growth factors, could be made available for hASC proliferation. Methods: HS was collected from 2 groups of healthy donor (freshly isolated HS [n=9], and HS preserved for 4 years [n=7]). All sera were isolated with a Cellaid(®) HS isolation device (JMS Co., Ltd, Hiroshima, Japan) and then classified into 3 groups based on the concentrations (high, middle, and low) of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, PDGF-BB, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) by means of enzyme-linked immunoassay screening. The hASCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat using a collagenase enzymatic digestion process and were cultured in control media, each supplemented with HS from a different group. Cell numbers were counted on days 2, 4, 7, and 14, and the relationship between cell proliferation and the level of each growth factor was investigated. Results: The proliferation of hASCs correlated with the concentration of each growth factor. The cut-off points for PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β1 in HS [necessary for hASC proliferation when compared with FBS] were 10 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 15 ng/mL, respectively. There was no correlation between the storage period of HS and the proliferation potential of hASCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the effectiveness of HS on hASC proliferation depends on the concentrations of endogenous PDGFs. In addition, the Cellaid(®) device used in this study allows the simultaneous release of several growth factors from platelets, and our results have shown that it can be used to collect HS for future hASC-based therapies.
    Journal of Nippon Medical School 01/2013; 80(2):140-7. DOI:10.1272/jnms.80.140 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biological changes following myocardial infarction (MI) lead to increased secretion of angiogenic factors that subsequently stimulate the formation of new blood vessels as a compensatory mechanism to reverse ischemia. The goal of this study was to assess the role of CD105 expression during MI-induced angiogenesis by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using (64)Cu-labeled TRC105, an anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in female rats. Echocardiography and (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET scans were performed on post-operative day 3 to confirm the presence of MI in the infarct group and intact heart in the sham group, respectively. Ischemia-induced angiogenesis was non-invasively monitored with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 (an extensively validated PET tracer in our previous studies) PET on post-operative days 3, 10, and 17. Tracer uptake in the infarct zone was highest on day 3 following MI, which was significantly higher than that in the sham group (1.41 ± 0.45 %ID/g vs 0.57 ± 0.07 %ID/g; n=3, p<0.05). Subsequently, tracer uptake in the infarct zone decreased over time to the background level on day 17, whereas tracer uptake in the heart of sham rats remained low at all time points examined. Histopathology documented increased CD105 expression following MI, which corroborated in vivo findings. This study indicated that PET imaging of CD105 can be a useful tool for MI-related research, which can potentially improve MI patient management in the future upon clinical translation of the optimized PET tracers.
    American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2013; 4(1):1-9. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) indicates poor prognosis for cancer patients in a variety of clinical studies. Our goal is to develop a tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of VEGFR expression using recombinant human VEGF121 with three lysine residues fused to the N-terminus (denoted as K3-VEGF121), which can facilitate radiolabeling without affecting its VEGFR binding affinity. K3-VEGF121 was conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with 61Cu (t1/2: 3.3 h; 62% β+). The IC50 value of NOTA-K3-VEGF121 for VEGFR-2 ¬was comparable to K3-VEGF121 (1.50 and 0.65 nM, respectively) based on cell binding assay. 61Cu labeling was achieved with good yield (55 ± 10 %) and specific activity (4.2 GBq/mg). Serial PET imaging showed that the 4T1 tumor uptake of 61Cu-NOTA-K3-VEGF121 was 3.4 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.2 ± 1.0, and 4.8 ± 0.8 %ID/g (n = 4) at 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 h post-injection respectively, which was consistent with biodistribution data measured by gamma counting. Blocking experiments and ex vivo histology confirmed VEGFR specificity of 61Cu-NOTA-K3-VEGF121. Extrapolated human dosimetry calculation showed that liver was the organ with the highest radiation dose. The use of 61Cu as the radiolabel is desirable for small proteins like K3-VEGF121, which has much higher β+ branching ratio than the commonly used 64Cu (62% vs. 17%) thereby offering stronger signal intensity and lower tracer dose for PET imaging.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 11/2012; 9(12). DOI:10.1021/mp3005269 · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • Hakan Orbay, Hiroshi Mizuno
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases that lead to significant disability in effected individuals. Pharmacological treatments failed to provide any significant improvement to date. Recently, the introduction of stem cells into the field of health sciences raised the hopes for a new treatment for neuromuscular diseases. In theory, stem cells, owing to their multilineage differentiation capacity, could differentiate into myofibers and neurons and replace the degenerated cells leading to recovery of the patients. Results obtained from the preclinical studies supported this theory. However, clinical trials with stem cells could not meet the expectations mainly because of early mortality, limited migration, and differentiation of the implanted cells. Modification of the stem cells before implantation, such as introduction of deficient genes or commitment to a precursor cell line provided little improvement. The biggest barrier to overcome for a successful of stem cell treatment, which also should be the focus of the future studies, is to increase the functional integration of the donor cells with the recipient tissues. Understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the neuromuscular diseases is essential to achieve this goal.
    11/2012; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/947329
  • Hakan Orbay, Hao Hong, Yin Zhang, Weibo Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a result of the atherosclerotic narrowing of blood vessels to the extremities, and the subsequent tissue ischemia can lead to the up-regulation of angiogenic growth factors and formation of new vessels as a recovery mechanism. Such formation of new vessels can be evaluated with various non-invasive molecular imaging techniques, where serial images from the same subjects can be obtained to allow the documentation of disease progression and therapeutic response. The most commonly used animal model for preclinical studies of PAD is the murine hindlimb ischemia model, and a number of radiotracers have been investigated for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of PAD. In this review article, we summarize the PET/SPECT tracers that have been tested in the murine hindlimb ischemia model as well as those used clinically to assess the extremity blood flow.
    Angiogenesis 11/2012; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s10456-012-9319-4 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.
    05/2012; 2012:461718. DOI:10.1155/2012/461718

Publication Stats

275 Citations
162.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2015
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • Nippon Medical School
      • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007–2008
    • Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
  • 2006–2007
    • Ankara University
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey