[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most frequent form of inherited neuropathy, is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of the peripheral nervous system, but with a quite homogeneous clinical phenotype (progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss and usually decreased tendon reflexes). Our aim was to review the various CMT subtypes identified at the present time.
We have analysed the medical literature and performed a historical retrospective of the main steps from the individualisation of the disease (at the end of the nineteenth century) to the recent knowledge about CMT.
To date, >60 genes (expressed in Schwann cells and neurons) have been implicated in CMT and related syndromes. The recent advances in molecular genetic techniques (such as next-generation sequencing) are promising in CMT, but it is still useful to recognise some specific clinical or pathological signs that enable us to validate genetic results. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic approaches and the underlying molecular pathogenesis.
We suggest a modification of the current classification and explain why such a change is needed.
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Journal of Medical Genetics 08/2015; 52(10). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103272 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibodies is an immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy. The pathophysiology of this condition is likely to involve anti-MAG antibody deposition on myelin sheaths of the peripheral nerves and it is supposed to be distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), another immune-mediated demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. In this series, we have retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory findings from 60 patients with polyneuropathy, IgM gammopathy, and anti-MAG antibodies. We found that the clinical picture in these patients is highly variable suggesting a direct link between the monoclonal gammopathy and the neuropathy. Conversely, one-third of patients had a CIDP-like phenotype on electrodiagnostic testing and this was correlated with a low titer of anti-MAG antibodies and the absence of widening of myelin lamellae. Our data suggest that polyneuropathy associated with anti-MAG antibodies is less homogeneous than previously said and that the pathophysiology of the condition is likely to be heterogeneous as well with the self-antigen being MAG in most of the patients but possibly being another component of myelin in the others.
Journal of Immunology Research 06/2015; 2015:1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/450391 · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases represent a heterogeneous genetic disorder (more than 80 genes are implicated in these inherited neuropathies), but sharing a similar phenotype. In recent years, advances in molecular genetics and molecular biology, and also the development of various animal models of CMT, have led to a better understanding. Taken together, this knowledge represents a prerequisite for the development of future therapies in CMT, and in peripheral nervous system disorders in general. The efficacy of various substances has been shown in vitro and also in vivo (in animal models); but, no significant positive effect has yet been confirmed in humans. However, some of these trials are still in development, and we may expect positive results in the future. Although CMT is still an incurable disease, symptomatic treatments (physiotherapy, surgery, analgesic, etc.) are crucial to improve the quality of life of CMT patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematological malignancies include several diseases that may affect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) through various mechanisms. A common and challenging situation is represented by the occurrence of an active peripheral neuropathy in a patient with a supposed inactive hematological disorder.We report clinical, electrophysiological, biological, and pathological data of 8 patients with latent malignant hemopathies (most were considered in remission): B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 3 patients, B-cell lymphoma in 1 patient, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1 patient, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia in 1 patient, smoldering multiple myeloma in 1 patient, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in 1 patient.In all these cases, the nerve biopsy (NB) helped to diagnose the hematological relapse or detect a pathological mechanism linked to the hematological disorder: epineurial lymphocytic infiltration in 5 patients (including one with antimyelin-associated glycoprotein antibodies), cryoglobulin deposits in 1 patient, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in 1 patient, and necrotizing vasculitis in 1 patient. In each case, pathological findings were crucial to select the adequate treatment, leading to an improvement in the neurological and biological manifestations.These observations illustrate the value of NB and the need for active collaboration between neurologists and hematologists in such cases.
Medicine 01/2015; 94(3):e394. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000394 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease (CMT1A) is a rare orphan inherited neuropathy caused by an autosomal dominant duplication of a gene encoding for the structural myelin protein PMP22, which induces abnormal Schwann cell differentiation and dysmyelination, eventually leading to axonal suffering then loss and muscle wasting. We favour the idea that diseases can be more efficiently treated when targeting multiple disease-relevant pathways. In CMT1A patients, we therefore tested the potential of PXT3003, a low-dose combination of three already approved compounds (baclofen, naltrexone and sorbitol). Our study conceptually builds on preclinical experiments highlighting a pleiotropic mechanism of action that includes downregulation of PMP22. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of PXT3003. The secondary objective aimed at an exploratory analysis of efficacy of PXT3003 in CMT1A, to be used for designing next clinical development stages (Phase 2b/3).Methods80 adult patients with mild-to-moderate CMT1A received in double-blind for 1 year Placebo or one of the three increasing doses of PXT3003 tested, in four equal groups. Safety and tolerability were assessed with the incidence of related adverse events. Efficacy was assessed using the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score (CMTNS) and the Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS) as main endpoints, as well as various clinical and electrophysiological outcomes.ResultsThis trial confirmed the safety and tolerability of PXT3003. The highest dose (HD) showed consistent evidence of improvement beyond stabilization. CMTNS and ONLS, with a significant improvement of respectively of 8% (0.4% - 16.2%) and 12.1% (2% - 23.2%) in the HD group versus the pool of all other groups, appear to be the most sensitive clinical endpoints to treatment despite their quasi-stability over one year under Placebo. Patients who did not deteriorate over one year were significantly more frequent in the HD group.Conclusions
These results confirm that PXT3003 deserves further investigation in adults and could greatly benefit CMT1A-diagnosed children, usually less affected than adults.Trial registrationEudraCT Number: 2010-023097-40. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01401257. The Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products issued in February 2014 a positive opinion on the application for orphan designation for PXT3003 (EMA/OD/193/13).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD41FoxP31 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are immunosuppressive
cells that are critical for immune tolerance. Several studies
have demonstrated that one of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms
of action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) involves
the expansion of Tregs. Recently, we demonstrated that IVIgmediated
Treg expansion involves the cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2)-dependent induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)
in human dendritic cells (DCs). However, the validity of these
findings in autoimmune patients is lacking. In this report, we
demonstrate that the IVIg-mediated expansion of Tregs in
autoimmune patients is associated with increased levels of circulatory
PGE2. Due to its immunomodulatory effects on various
immune cells, this increase in PGE2 represents one of the
pathways by which IVIg exerts anti-inflammatory effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increased risk of skin pressure ulcers (PUs) is common in patients with sensory neuropathies, including those caused by diabetes mellitus. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been shown to protect the skin against PUs developed in animal models of long-term diabetes. The aim of this work was to determine whether rhEPO could prevent PU formation in a mouse model of drug-inducedSFN. Functional SFN was induced by systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX, 50 µg/kg, i.p.). RhEPO (3000 UI/kg, i.p.) was given the day before RTX injection and then every other day. Seven days after RTX administration, PUs were induced by applying two magnetic plates on the dorsal skin. RTX-treated mice expressed thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia and showed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) depletion without nerve degeneration or vascular dysfunction. RTX mice developed significantly larger stage 2 PUs than Vehicle mice. RhEPO prevented thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia and neuropeptide depletion in small nerve fibers. RhEPO increased hematocrit and altered endothelium-dependent vasodilatation without any effect on PU formation in Vehicle mice. The characteristics of PUs in RTX mice treated with rhEPO and Vehicle mice were found similar. In conclusion, RTX appeared to increased PU development through depletion of CGRP and SP in small nerve fibers, whereas systemic rhEPO treatment had beneficial effect on peptidergic nerve fibers and restored skin protective capacities against ischemic pressure. Our findings support the evaluation of rhEPO and/or its non-hematopoietic analogs in preventing to prevent PUs in patients with SFN.
PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113454. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113454 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, autoimmune inflammatory disorder of peripheral nervous system characterized by a severe functional motor weakness. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is one of the approved and preferred therapeutic strategies for GBS. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefit with IVIg in GBS are not completely understood. In the present study, we observed that GBS patients have increased frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells, but reduced number of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) with defective functions. We show that IVIg treatment in GBS patients results in a marked reduction in the frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells with a concomitant expansion of Treg cells. Importantly, IVIg-expanded Treg cells exhibited an increased T cell suppressive function. Together our results demonstrate that therapeutic benefit of IVIg in GBS patients implicates the reciprocal regulation of Th1/Th17 and Treg cells.
Immunologic Research 11/2014; 60(2-3):320-329. DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8580-6 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations affecting skeletal muscle isoforms of the tropomyosin genes may cause nemaline myopathy (NM), cap myopathy, core-rod myopathy, congenital fibre-type disproportion, core-rod myopathy, distal arthrogryposes and Escobar syndrome. Here we correlate the clinical picture of these diseases with novel (16) and previously reported (31) mutations of the TPM2 and TPM3 genes. Included are altogether 93 families: 53 with TPM2 mutations and 40 with TPM3 mutations. A total of 27 Twenty-seven distinct pathogenic variants of TPM2, and 20 of TPM3, have been published or listed in the Leiden Open Variant Database (http://www.dmd.nl/). Most are heterozygous changes associated with autosomal dominant disease. Patients with TPM2 mutations tended to present with milder symptoms than those with TPM3 mutations, DA being present only in the TPM2 group. Previous studies have shown that five of the mutations in TPM2 and one in TPM3 cause increased Ca2 + sensitivity resulting in a hypercontractile molecular phenotype. Patients with hypercontractile phenotypes more often had contractures of the limb joints (18/19) and jaw (6/19) than those with non-hypercontractile ones (2/22 and 1/22), while patients with the non-hypercontractile molecular phenotypes more often (19/22) had axial contractures than the hypercontractile group (7/19). Our in silico predictions show that most mutations affect tropomyosin–actin association or tropomyosin head-to-tail binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, recurrent pyogenic infections and the presence of giant granules in many cells such as leucocytes (hallmark of the disease). Neurological symptoms are rare. We describe two sisters who presented the same phenotype of slowly progressive motor neuronopathy (with Babinski sign in one patient); biopsy of the sural nerve showed an abnormal endoneurial accumulation of lipofuscin granules. We discuss these two observations and compare them with the few case reports of neuropathy in Chediak-Higashi syndrome.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 09/2014; 344(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.06.026 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guillain–Barré syndromes (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system that share some common pathological features and probably share pathogenic mechanisms. GBS is an acute inflammatory neuropathy usually leading to flaccid paralysis in a matter of days (by definition less than four weeks). There are several variants with different courses and prognoses. The diagnosis of GBS does not usually require pathologic confirmation but neuropathology has contributed to understanding its pathogenesis although several questions remain unanswered. Plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and general supportive measures (including mechanical ventilation) have greatly improved the overall prognosis of GBS, but there is still an urgent need for more effective therapies.CIDP, which can be regarded as the chronic counterpart of GBS is a potentially disabling chronic inflammatory neuropathy, whose pathologic hallmark is inflammatory-mediated demyelination with secondary axon loss. The clinical presentation is quite variable and nerve conduction studies are an important part in the diagnostic workup. In typical cases, treatment with corticosteroids or IVIg (or alternatively plasma exchange) may be started as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, and the course of the disease is usually altered by these treatment options. Nonetheless, atypical cases where the diagnostic criteria are not fulfilled are common. Atypical cases may require pathologic confirmation in order to make the diagnosis or to rule out alternative options. Although not all pathologic features of CIDP are specific, a careful examination of a nerve biopsy sample may greatly help confirming its diagnosis. The pathogenesis of CIDP remains largely obscure mainly because a definite target antigen has not been identified. Based on clues inferred from nerve biopsy findings, new treatment options should allow the prognosis to be improved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are both autosomal-dominant disorders linked to peripheral myelin anomalies. CMT1A is associated with a Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22) duplication, whereas HNPP is due to a PMP22 deletion on chromosome 17. In spite of this crucial difference, we report three observations of patients with the 1.4 megabase CMT1A duplication and atypical presentation (electrophysiological, clinical or pathological): a 10 year-old girl with tomaculous lesions on nerve biopsy; a 26 year-old woman with recurrent paresthesiae and block conduction on the electrophysiological study; a 46 year-old woman with transient recurrent nerve palsies mimicking HNPP. These observations highlight the wide spectrum of CMT1A and the overlap between CMT1A and HNPP (both linked to the PMP22 gene), and finally illustrate the complexity of the genotype-phenotype correlations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations affecting skeletal muscle isoforms of the tropomyosin genes may cause nemaline myopathy (NM), cap myopathy, core-rod myopathy, congenital fibre-type disproportion, distal arthrogryposes and Escobar syndrome. We correlate the clinical picture of these diseases with novel (16) and previously reported (31) mutations of the TPM2 and TPM3 genes. Included are altogether 93 families: 53 with TPM2 mutations and 40 with TPM3 mutations. Twenty-seven distinct pathogenic variants of TPM2, and 20 of TPM3, have been published or listed in the Leiden Open Variant Database (http://www.dmd.nl/). Most are heterozygous changes associated with autosomal dominant disease. Patients with TPM2 mutations tended to present with milder symptoms than those with TPM3 mutations, DA being present only in the TPM2 group. Previous studies have shown that five of the mutations in TPM2 and one in TPM3 cause increased Ca(2+) sensitivity resulting in a hypercontractile molecular phenotype. Patients with hypercontractile phenotype more often had contractures of the limb joints (18/19) and jaw (6/19) than those with non-hypercontractile ones (2/22 and 1/22), while patients with the non-hypercontractile molecular phenotype more often (19/22) had axial contractures than the hypercontractile group (7/19). Our in silico predictions show that most mutations affect tropomyosin-actin association or tropomyosin head-to-tail binding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Human Mutation 04/2014; 35(7). DOI:10.1002/humu.22554 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease with renal dysfunction is uncommon but has long been recognized in several families. Recently, mutations in the INF2 gene, which encodes inverted formin-2, were identified in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and a dominant intermediate form of CMT (CMTDIE, OMIM #614455). We describe the pathologic lesions of nerve biopsies from 6 patients with INF2-related CMTDIE. There were 4 females and 2 males; ages were from 12 to 47 years; durations between neuropathy onset and biopsy were from 2 to 37 years. Clinical phenotypes were similar to those seen in other forms of CMT disease, but there was always an associated proteinuria (and later renal failure). Motor median nerve conduction velocities were in the range of intermediate CMT disease. Pathologic lesions suggested chronic demyelination and remyelination associated with progressive axonal loss. By electron microscopy, we observed unusual whorl-like proliferations of flattened Schwann cell cytoplasm and anomalies of unmyelinating Schwann cell cytoplasm with supernumerary elongated extensions similar to those described in CMT4C. We also observed abnormal accumulation of β-actin in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that these lesions reflect a global disorder of the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells and that CMTDIE is the first peripheral nerve disorder associated with a Schwann cell actinopathy.