[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-beta (IFNB) therapy for multiple sclerosis can lead to the induction of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against IFNB. Various methods are used for detection and quantification of NAbs.
Blood samples from 125 IFNB-1b-treated patients, which were tested NAb negative or NAb positive after conclusion of a clinical study, were retested three years after first being assessed in four different laboratories that offer routine NAb testing to practicing neurologists. The myxovirus protein A (MxA) induction assay, the cytopathic effect (CPE) assay (two laboratories), or the luciferase assay were used. Intra- and inter-laboratory agreement between assays with respect to NAb detection and NAb titer quantification were evaluated.
High agreement for NAb detection (kappa coefficient, 0.86) and for titer levels was observed for the intra-laboratory comparison in the laboratory using the MxA induction assay performed three years ago and now. A similarly high agreement for NAb detection (kappa coefficient, 0.87) and for titer quantification was noted for the MxA assay of this laboratory with one of two laboratories using the CPE assay. All other inter-laboratory comparisons showed kappa values between 0.57 and 0.68 and remarkable differences in individual titer levels.
There are considerable differences in the detection and quantification of IFNB-induced NAbs among laboratories offering NAb testing for clinical practice using different assay methods. It is important that these differences are considered when interpreting NAb results for clinical decision-making and when developing general recommendations for potentially clinically meaningful NAb titer levels.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2012; 9:129. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a 1-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and to explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci.
We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each data set was imputed using HapMap phase II, and a per single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meta-analysis was performed across the 7 data sets. We explored RNA expression data using a quantitative trait analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 228 subjects with demyelinating disease.
We meta-analyzed 2,529,394 unique SNPs in 5,545 cases and 12,153 controls. We identified 3 novel susceptibility alleles: rs170934(T) at 3p24.1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; p = 1.6 × 10(-8)) near EOMES, rs2150702(G) in the second intron of MLANA on chromosome 9p24.1 (OR, 1.16; p = 3.3 × 10(-8)), and rs6718520(A) in an intergenic region on chromosome 2p21, with THADA as the nearest flanking gene (OR, 1.17; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). The 3 new loci do not have a strong cis effect on RNA expression in PBMCs. Ten other susceptibility loci had a suggestive p < 1 × 10(-6) , some of these loci have evidence of association in other inflammatory diseases (ie, IL12B, TAGAP, PLEK, and ZMIZ1).
We have performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in MS that more than doubles the size of previous gene discovery efforts and highlights 3 novel MS susceptibility loci. These and additional loci with suggestive evidence of association are excellent candidates for further investigations to refine and validate their role in the genetic architecture of MS.
Annals of Neurology 12/2011; 70(6):897-912. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complementing clinical findings with those generated by biomarkers--such as β-amyloid-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging--has been proposed as a means of increasing overall accuracy in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Florbetaben ([(18)F]BAY 94-9172) is a novel β-amyloid PET tracer currently in global clinical development. We present the results of a proof of mechanism study in which the diagnostic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of florbetaben were assessed. The value of various quantitative parameters derived from the PET scans as potential surrogate markers of cognitive decline was also investigated.
Ten patients with mild-moderate probable AD (DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and ten age-matched (≥ 55 years) healthy controls (HCs) were administered a single dose of 300 MBq florbetaben, which contained a tracer mass dose of < 5 μg. The 70-90 min post-injection brain PET data were visually analysed by three blinded experts. Quantitative assessment was also performed via MRI-based, anatomical sampling of predefined volumes of interest (VOI) and subsequent calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios (SUVRs, cerebellar cortex as reference region). Furthermore, single-case, voxelwise analysis was used to calculate individual "whole brain β-amyloid load".
Visual analysis of the PET data revealed nine of the ten AD, but only one of the ten HC brains to be β-amyloid positive (p = 0.001), with high inter-reader agreement (weighted kappa ≥ 0.88). When compared to HCs, the neocortical SUVRs were significantly higher in the ADs (with descending order of effect size) in frontal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, occipital cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and parietal cortex (p = 0.003-0.010). Voxel-based group comparison confirmed these differences. Amongst the PET-derived parameters, the Statistical Parametric Mapping-based whole brain β-amyloid load yielded the closest correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores (r = -0.736, p < 0.001), following a nonlinear regression curve. No serious adverse events or other safety concerns were seen.
These results indicate florbetaben to be a safe and efficacious β-amyloid-targeted tracer with favourable brain kinetics. Subjects with AD could be easily differentiated from HCs by both visual and quantitative assessment of the PET data. The operator-independent, voxel-based analysis yielded whole brain β-amyloid load which appeared valuable as a surrogate marker of disease severity.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2011; 38(9):1702-14. · 4.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prediction of susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) might have important clinical applications, either as part of a diagnostic algorithm or as a means to identify high-risk individuals for prospective studies. We investigated the usefulness of an aggregate measure of risk of MS that is based on genetic susceptibility loci. We also assessed the added effect of environmental risk factors that are associated with susceptibility for MS.
We created a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) that includes 16 MS susceptibility loci. We tested our model with data from 2215 individuals with MS and 2189 controls (derivation samples), a validation set of 1340 individuals with MS and 1109 controls taken from several MS therapeutic trials (TT cohort), and a second validation set of 143 individuals with MS and 281 controls from the US Nurses' Health Studies I and II (NHS/NHS II), for whom we also have data on smoking and immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Individuals with a wGRS that was more than 1.25 SD from the mean had a significantly higher odds of MS in all datasets. In the derivation sample, the mean (SD) wGRS was 3.5 (0.7) for individuals with MS and 3.0 (0.6) for controls (p<0.0001); in the TT validation sample, the mean wGRS was 3.4 (0.7) for individuals with MS versus 3.1 (0.7) for controls (p<0.0001); and in the NHS/NHS II dataset, the mean wGRS was 3.4 (0.8) for individuals with MS versus 3.0 (0.7) for controls (p<0.0001). In the derivation cohort, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C statistic; a measure of the ability of a model to discriminate between individuals with MS and controls) for the genetic-only model was 0.70 and for the genetics plus sex model was 0.74 (p<0.0001). In the TT and NHS cohorts, the C statistics for the genetic-only model were both 0.64; adding sex to the TT model increased the C statistic to 0.72 (p<0.0001), whereas adding smoking and immune response to EBV to the NHS model increased the C statistic to 0.68 (p=0.02). However, the wGRS does not seem to be correlated with the conversion of clinically isolated syndrome to MS.
The inclusion of 16 susceptibility alleles into a wGRS can modestly predict MS risk, shows consistent discriminatory ability in independent samples, and is enhanced by the inclusion of non-genetic risk factors into the algorithm. Future iterations of the wGRS might therefore make a contribution to algorithms that can predict a diagnosis of MS in a clinical or research setting.
The Lancet Neurology 10/2009; 8(12):1111-9. · 23.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe availability of blood collection systems with RNA stabilizing additives (e.g. PAXgene) has opened the field for gene expression profiling in large multi-center clinical trials. Here, we investigated whether the PAXgene system also offers a method for extraction of RNA from frozen EDTA blood samples, which do not yield RNA of high enough quality for RNA expression profiling, when extracted with standard protocols.Methods: Whole blood was obtained from six healthy volunteers in conventional EDTA tubes and frozen. The thawed EDTA blood was transferred into PAXgene tubes, and the RNA was extracted using the PAXgene RNA extraction kit. Microarray analysis was performed to asses the effect of RNA quality on gene expression profiles.Results: The RNA yield of the transferred samples was 1.76 ± 0.88 µg/ml. This yield was clearly lower than the yield from a PAXgene reference group (2.84 ± 0.62 µg/ml), but considerably higher than the yield resulting from a standard protocol usually applied to fresh EDTA blood samples (0.07 ± 0.06 µg/ml). The RNA integrity number (RIN) of the transferred samples was 6.1 ± 0.8 as compared to 9.8 ± 0.1 for the PAXgene reference. Microarray analysis of the extracted RNA suggested that samples with RIN values above 5 produce data that fulfill the quality criteria defined by the manufacturer.Discussion: The transfer of thawed EDTA blood into PAXgene blood collection tubes offers a method to recover sufficient RNA of acceptable quality for microarray experiments.
Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods 01/2009; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) is clinically effective in multiple sclerosis patients. However, the mechanism of action is only partially understood, and validated biological response markers are lacking. We assessed IFNB-1b-induced transcriptional changes by microarray technology. Healthy male volunteers received 250 mug IFNB-1b or placebo in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (n=5 per group). Most transcripts demonstrated peak levels after 6-12 h and returned to baseline after 48 h. We identified 227 differentially regulated genes including novel and previously described markers. This panel may become a valuable tool for development of new IFNB-1b formulations and assessment of clinical drug effects.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 07/2008; 199(1-2):115-25. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis vulgaris is characterized by hyperproliferation and incomplete terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Despite the established role of Wnt pathways in the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation, they have not yet been associated with the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Here, we took biopsies from uninvolved and from lesional skin of 20 patients with plaque-type psoriasis. The biopsies were used for microarray RNA expression profiling. Based on paired samples from 13 patients, we defined 179 genes that were more than 2-fold differentially expressed in lesional skin. This list included 16 genes with known or possible association to the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin or the non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. The expression of Wnt5a was 4-fold higher in lesional skin. Other Wnt molecules were largely unchanged (Wnt4 and Wnt16), or tended to be expressed at lower levels (Wnt7b). The mRNA expression levels of two inhibitory factors related to Wnt signaling, frizzled-related protein, and dickkopf homolog 2, were reduced in lesional skin, as was mRNA expression of cyclin D1. These findings were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR experiments. We conclude that Wnt5a and other Wnt pathway genes are differentially expressed in psoriatic plaques. Their functional contribution to the pathophysiology of psoriasis needs to be elaborated.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 02/2007; 127(1):163-9. · 6.19 Impact Factor