Wolfgang Schobersberger

Private Universität für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Medizinische Informatik und Technik, Solbad Hall in Tirol, Tyrol, Austria

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Publications (218)567.12 Total impact

  • Cornelia Blank · Veronika Leichtfried · David Müller · Wolfgang Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Literature on sports psychology outlines parental influence on in various areas. Yet, research has not focused on this potential in the framework of doping. Objectives: This study aims to assess whether parents’ knowledge about doping effects, their behaviour and beliefs might act as protecting factor for Austrian junior (14-18 years) elite athletes’ doping susceptibility. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 1 818 student athletes and their parents. Next to collecting socio-demographic data, information about current sports activity levels as well as own former sports careers of parents only, the following categories were included: (a) knowledge about effects of doping, (b) parental behaviour, (c) parental beliefs about athletes’ skills to become a professional athlete and (d) doping susceptibility. Results: In total, 527 data sets entered analysis. Current state of knowledge was significantly different between mothers (0.72±0.2) and fathers (0.76±0.2) (p=0.003). Next to situational variables, only fathers’ behaviour, which was moderated by fathers’ beliefs, was a significant predictor of athletes’ DS. Conclusion: Fathers seem to have the potential of acting as protective factor for doping susceptibility in athletes, yet only if their level of beliefs is moderate. Doping prevention strategies should include parents, but need to be careful on the role which they are able to fill with emphasizing soft skills (e.g. communication). Future research might want to include variables from sports psychology, such as motivational climate, goal orientation and belief of success, as possible mediators of the impact of parents on their adolescent children in the sports setting.
    09/2015; 27(3):87-91. DOI:10.7196/SAJSM.8094
  • Cornelia Blank · Wolfgang Schobersberger · Veronika Leichtfried · Stefan Duschek
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Doping represents a highly relevant problem even in young athletes, but empirical knowledge of the psychological factors that influence this behavior remains sparse. The present study investigated the predictive potential of different psychological factors, namely well-being, confidence and fear of success, goal orientation, performance motivation and locus of control, on doping susceptibility in junior athletes. Methods: As part of this cross-sectional study, 1,265 Austrian student athletes aged between 14 and 19 years completed psychometric scales (i.e. Berne Questionnaire of Well-Being in Adolescents; Questionnaire for Evaluating Mental Competencies and Attitudes in Sport) measuring these constructs. Findings: According to multiple regression analysis, positive attitude towards life and performance motivation were negative, while depressive mood, self-esteem, fear of failure and self-oriented goal orientation were positive, predictors of doping susceptibility, explaining 21.7% of the variance in doping susceptibility. Discussion: The study corroborates the utility of classical constructs from health psychology in doping research. Educating athletes has already proven useful, but creating an environment that fosters self-efficacy, well-being, and self-esteem, and reduces fear of failure, may represent the most-beneficial additional approach for future preventive interventions.
    EHPS, Limassol, Cyprus; 09/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Commercialization of trekking tourism enables untrained persons to participate in trekking tours. Because hypoxia is one of the main purported triggers for acute mountain sickness (AMS), pulse oximetry, which measures arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2), is discussed to be a possible and useful tool for the diagnosis of AMS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible associations between SPO2 values and the occurrence of AMS. In 204 trekkers, SPO2 values (pulse oximetry) were measured and the Lake Louise Self-assessment Score (LLS) was administered over the first 7 days of their trekking tours. During treks at altitudes of 2500-5500 m in Nepal, India, Africa, and South America, 100 participants suffered from mild AMS, 3 participants suffered from severe AMS, and 9 participants reported both mild and severe AMS. The lowest mean SPO2 was 85.5 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 83.9-86.1 %) on day 5. SPO2 and LLS exhibited a weak to moderate negative correlation for all days of the study (ρ ranging from -0.142 to -0.370). Calculation of time-shifted associations of 24 and 48 h resulted in the disappearance of most associations. Susceptibility to headaches (odds ratio (OR) 2.9-7.2) and a history of AMS (OR 2.2-3.1) were determined to be potential risk factors for the development of AMS. Since there is no strong altitude-independent association between AMS and SPO2 during the first week of high-altitude adaptation, the implementation of pulse oximetry during trekking in order to detect and predict AMS remains questionable.
    Sleep And Breathing 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11325-015-1195-x · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Cornelia Blank · Veronika Leichtfried · Wolfgang Schobersberger · Claudia Möller
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    ABSTRACT: Against all assumptions, leisure and vacation appear to not be recuperative to the same extent for all people. The phenomenon of becoming ill on weekends and/or during vacation has been termed “leisure sickness”. Attempts to understand this problem can be found in the current literature. Vacation for the wrong motivations or a mismatch between leisure activity and personality are some of the reasons. Other reports show associations between similar health-affecting patterns and personality traits or increased stress, but these factors have not been directly linked to leisure sickness before. Indeed, leisure sickness is not a specific defined illness yet but is more an accumulation of different symptoms that lead to indisposition. If leisure sickness is not only a phenomenon but is actually a real illness, it is seriously preventing people from the benefits of leisure time on the one hand and directly affects vacation experience with respect to destination, hotel and other tourism products on the other hand. Therefore, leisure sickness deserves further investigation.
    05/2015; 57(2):152-157. DOI:10.1080/16078055.2015.1027874
  • C Blank · V Leichtfried · R Schaiter · C Fürhapter · D Müller · W Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (ntotal = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015; 25(1):116-124. DOI:10.1111/sms.12168 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coaches are seen as strong influencing factors in the regulation of athletes’ behavior and attitudes as well as in a good position of transferring knowledge. Hence, they should be included in targeted education strategies in doping prevention. The current study aimed at evaluating the knowledge and attitudes of Western-Austrian Coaches to outline possible associations between education and perceived and actual knowledge. A questionnaire divided into four main fields of interest: (a) perceived knowledge, (b) actual knowledge, (c) attitudes, and (d) coach behavior, was handed out to 135 sport teachers and coaches of the Tyrol (response rate: 45.9%). Perceived knowledge was significantly lower than actual knowledge (72.2 and 87 out of 100, p<0.001). The score on attitudes was 86.8 (out of 100), outlining a positive anti-doping attitude. Coach behavior scored very moderately (48.7). Coaches, confronted with the topic during primary education and subsequent training scored significantly higher in perceived knowledge compared to primary education only (77.3 vs 52.8, p<0.05). The goal of prevention strategies should be to increase perceived knowledge by continuing training of the coaches, since only those who perceive to be competent will actively address the topic and appear more trustworthy, thereby helping athletes develop and modify their own set of values.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin 10/2014; 65(10):289-293. DOI:10.5960/dzsm.2014.133 · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Physical activity is a cornerstone in therapy for patients with metabolic syndrome. Walking and hiking in a mountain scenery represents an ideal approach to make them move. The Austrian Moderate Altitude Study (AMAS) 2000 main study is a randomized controlled trial to investigate the cardiovascular effects of hiking at moderate altitude on patients with metabolic syndrome compared with a control group at low altitude, to assess a potential altitude-specific effect. Methods Seventy-one male patients with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to a moderate altitude group (at 1700 m), with 36 participants, or to a low altitude group (at 200 m), with 35 participants. The 3-week vacation program included 12 hiking tours (4 per week, average duration 2.5 hours, intensity 55% to 65% of heart rate maximum). Physical parameters, performance capacity, 24-hour blood pressure, and heart rate profiles were obtained before, during, and after the stay. Results In both groups, we found a significant mean weight loss of −3.13 kg; changes in performance capacity were minor. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and circadian heart rate profiles were significantly reduced in both groups, with no differences between them. Consequently, the pressure-rate product was reduced as well. All study participants tolerated the vacation well without any adverse events. Conclusions A 3-week hiking vacation at moderate or low altitude is safe for patients with metabolic syndrome and provides several improvements in their cardiovascular parameters. The cardiovascular benefits achieved are more likely to be the result of regular physical activity than the altitude-specific effect of a mountain environment.
    Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 09/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.wem.2014.01.003 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The present trial evaluated incorporation of bright light therapy in the treatment of chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP).DesignA prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter, open design with three parallel trial arms was used.SettingSubjects received a novel therapeutic, an expected therapeutic ineffective low dose, or no light exposure at three different medical centers.PatientsA total of 125 CNBP patients reporting pain intensity of ≥3 points on item 5 of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were included.InterventionOver 3 weeks, 36 active treatment, 36 placebo controls, and 33 controls received 3 or no supplementary light exposures of 5.000 lx or 230 lx, respectively.Outcome MeasuresChanges in self-reported scores of pain intensity (BPI sub-score 1) and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were changes in self-reported overall pain sensation (BPI total score), grade of everyday life impairment (BPI sub-score 2), mood (visual analog scale), and well-being (World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index).ResultsChanges in pain intensity were higher (1.0 [0.8-1.6]) in the bright light group compared with controls (0.3 [−0.1-0.8]; effect size D = 0.46). Changes in the depression score were also higher in the intervention group (1.5 [0.0-2.5]) compared with controls (0.0 [0.0-2.0]; effect size D = 0.86). No differences were seen in change scores between intervention vs sham group.Conclusion The present randomized controlled trial shows that light therapy even in low dose could improve depressive symptoms and reduce pain intensity in CNBP patients. Further research is needed for optimizing parameters of frequency, dose, and duration of therapeutic light exposure.
    Pain Medicine 08/2014; 15(12). DOI:10.1111/pme.12503 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive performance and alertness are two determinants for work efficiency, varying throughout the day and depending on bright light. We conducted a prospective crossover study evaluating the impacts of exposure to an intense, early morning illumination on sustained attention, alertness, mood, and serum melatonin levels in 33 healthy individuals. Compared with a dim illumination, the intense illumination negatively impacted performance requiring sustained attention; however, it positively impacted subjective alertness and mood and had no impact on serum melatonin levels. These results suggest that brief exposure to bright light in the morning hours can improve subjective measures of mood and alertness, but can also have detrimental effects on mental performance as a result of visual distraction. Therefore, it is important that adequate lighting should correspond to both non-visual and visual demands.
    Applied Ergonomics 08/2014; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.apergo.2014.07.001 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doping in sport is not only an issue in adult but also in adolescent athletes. Prevention measures shifted from secondary prevention and detection towards primary prevention, often based on education as deterrent for future doping behavior. Prior to developing the latter, target groups need to be identified and their current state of knowledge and doping use, respectively susceptibility needs to be assessed. The current study aims at evaluating Austrian adolescent athletes’ knowledge about doping and its side effects and relates it to doping susceptibility and current substance use. A selfreporting questionnaire was distributed to 1,310 adolescent athletes and included socio-demographic and situational data (e.g. training, trainer team, competitions etc.) as well as questions about current substance use (not necessarily prohibited), doping susceptibility, knowledge about substances and side effects. The overall knowledge was at a satisfying level (mean of 0.73 of 1.0) with low doping susceptibility (0.77 of 4.0) and substance use indicators (prevalence between 0.3% and 5.8%). Doping knowledge was positively associated with gender and male athletes have an increased knowledge about side effects when compared to females (0.74 vs 0.70; p<0.05). There was no association between knowledge and doping susceptibility and a very low negative association with current substance use (r=-0.08, p<0.05). Even though there are still diverse findings on the preventing power of profound knowledge, it can be concluded that this knowledge cannot be the exclusive and unique pillar in doping prevention. A suggestion would be to change the focus of prevention from purely informing to rather inclusively educating athletes and their surrounding network.
  • Daniel Kuhn · Veronika Leichtfried · Wolfgang Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the effects of functional electrical stimulated cycling (FES cycling) in patients with spinal cord injury during their rehabilitation in a special acute care unit. Thirty patients [10 with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A, three with AIS grade B, 15 with AIS grade C, two with AIS grade D] aged 44±15.5 years and 2 (median) (interquartile range, 1.0-4.25) months after spinal cord injury were included in the study. The patients participated in a 20-min FES-cycling program 2 days per week for 4 weeks during their acute inpatient rehabilitation. The influence on muscle cross-section, muscle and leg circumference, spasticity, and the walking ability parameter (distance, time, aids) was measured. Muscle stimulation intensity and output parameters (pedalling time and distance) were also recorded. Spasticity decreased during hip abduction and adduction (70 and 98.1%, respectively). Spasticity during knee flexion and knee extension decreased by 66.8 and 76.6%, and a decrease was found during dorsal foot extension (67.8%; for all, P<0.05). Presession-postsession comparisons showed that after 4 weeks of FES cycling, an increase in the circumference of the cross-sectional area of 15.3% on the left and of 17% on the right m. rectus femoris could be observed in group AIS A+B. In the AIS C+D group, the circumference of the left m. rectus femoris increased by 25% and that of the right m. rectus femoris by 21% (for all, P<0.05). The results of the study show that FES cycling in combination with function-oriented physiotherapy and occupational therapy can have a positive influence on spasticity, walking ability, and muscular reactivation. It seems to support circulatory processes within the rehabilitation of paraplegics already after a 4-week intervention.
    International journal of rehabilitation research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue internationale de recherches de readaptation 05/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1097/MRR.0000000000000062 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Cornelia Blank · David Müller · Wolfgang Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Because athletes rely on sports physicians as a source of information, physicians must be included in research relating to doping prevention. According to several studies, the level of knowledge of sports physicians seems to be inadequate. It is crucial for them to have a comprehensive understanding of doping regulations, substances and side effects as well as the procedure of issuing Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE). Research Questions: (1) to evaluate the knowledge of Austrian sports physicians regarding doping substances, methods and side effects and (2) to provide ideas on efficient strategies to educate this target group. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to all registered Austrian physicians who hold a supplementary diploma in sports medicine (n = 1,543). The questionnaire was administered over four months and structured into eight areas of interest. Chi-Square tests as well as descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. Results: A total of 152 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate of 9.8%). 53.7% subjectively believed they were poorly informed about the topic, and 43% reported they knew the WADA 2011 prohibited list. Knowledge deficits regarding substances (especially insulin, recombinant erythropoietin, stimulants) and strong uncertainties in regard to prohibited methods and side effects of specific substances were reported. This low level of knowledge stood in contrast with high interest in the topic physicians self-reported. In general, physicians had a very positive anti-doping attitude.. Conclusion: Results of this study are comparable with previous studies conducted in Germany and France. This study demonstrated a very high interest by physicians in the topic of doping, and some deficits in their knowledge about doping. Integrating anti-doping related information within educational material may assist to build the knowledge of sports physicians and gain their support with wider anti-doping strategies.
    INTERNATIONAL SPORTMED JOURNAL 01/2014; 15(2):136-145. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • D. Kuhn · V. Leichtfried · W. Schobersberger · K. Röhl
    physioscience 11/2013; 9(04):142-150. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1355939
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    ABSTRACT: Immobility plus preexisting chronic disease or acute trauma can activate the coagulation system, thus increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. The effects of long-term bed-rest immobility and microgravity on the coagulation system of healthy persons (e.g., during crewed Mars missions) have not yet been studied. The main objective of the second Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2) "Coagulation Part" was to investigate adaptations of the hemostatic system during long-term bed rest (60 days) under simulated microgravity (6° head-down-tilt [6°HDT]) and after mobilization in three different volunteer groups (randomly assigned to CTR= inactive control group; RE= resistive exercise only group; and RVE= resistive exercise with whole-body vibration group). In 24 males (aged 21-45 years), before, during, and after long-term bed rest, key parameters of coagulation were measured from venous blood samples: D-dimer (DD), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (PT-F1 + 2). Additionally, modified rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM (®) ) analysis was performed. Times of exploratory analyses were as follows: baseline data collection 2 days before bed rest (BDC-2); eight different days of 6°HDT bed rest (HDT1-HDT60), and two different days after reambulation (R + 3 and R + 6). We found significant changes in DD, TAT, and PT-F1 + 2 over the total time course, but no consistent effect of physical interventions (RE, RVE) on these parameters. Notably, no parameter reached levels indicative of intravascular thrombin formation. All ROTEM® parameters remained within the normal range and no pathological traces were found. Sixty days of 6°HDT bed rest are not associated with pronounced activation of the coagulation system indicative of intravascular thrombus formation in healthy volunteers independent of the training type during the bed rest.
    11/2013; 1(6):e00135. DOI:10.1002/phy2.135
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    ABSTRACT: Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P < 0.001) m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good.
    07/2013; 2013:192459. DOI:10.1155/2013/192459
  • Tanja Massimo · Cornelia Blank · Barbara Strasser · Wolfgang Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Allergic bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. For many years, the climate at moderate altitude has been used as an alternative therapy for patients suffering from bronchial asthma. The aim of such therapy is to reduce the medication dose and to improve the quality of life for each patient. The aim of our current work was to assess published data evaluating the effects of climate therapy at moderate altitude on the health status of patients with bronchial asthma. The health status is represented through surrogate parameters for the pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (PC20), and inflammation (total number of eosinophils, eosinophilic cationic protein, and exhaled nitric oxide). Methods: Our systematic review included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and single-armed studies with adults and children participating. Included in our review were climate therapies occurring at moderate altitudes between 1,500 and 2,500 m and evaluation of patient FEV1 or PC20 values. Results: A literature research in MEDLINE and EMBASE identified three RCTs, two clinically controlled trials, and 15 single-armed studies. Analysis revealed a lack of evidence regarding the moderate altitude therapy arising from small sample sizes, deficits in documentation, and heterogeneous results. Most of the studies, however, showed a tendency for improvement of the analyzed parameters. Conclusions: The currently available data do not allow for valid and generalizable recommendations with respect to moderate altitude therapy for patients with allergic bronchial asthma. There is a need for additional, qualitatively strong research including larger sample sizes and randomized, controlled trial design.
    Sleep And Breathing 06/2013; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-013-0870-z · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • 18th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Barcelona; 06/2013
  • Cornelia Blank · Christina Riedler · Wolfgang Schobersberger
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Health tourism is a growing market that depends on the quality of its professionals. Presently, there are no studies on the demand for academically qualified staff in health tourism, nor are there any reports on the given market regarding the offering of such training or on the willingness to use such offerings. The current study aims to provide a subjective assessment of the industry’s key players regarding their evaluation of the importance and need for qualitatively high academic education in health tourism. An online questionnaire adressing 58 professionals in leading positions of tourism destinations in the German-speaking Alpine area, was used. 17 experts returned the questionnaire (response rate 29.3%). Of the respondents queried, 8 respondents saw a need for higher education in health tourism and 13 assessed it to be important. Only 2 of the respondents employed staff with a degree, 8 were willing to finish academic training, but 13 did not know any institution offering such educational training. Time and cost restraints were the most mentioned reasons not to take part in higher education in health tourism. There is little current knowledge about the actual possibilities for academic training in the field.
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    Wolfgang Schobersberger
    Sleep And Breathing 01/2013; 17(3). DOI:10.1007/s11325-013-0808-5 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An important factor while developing efficient doping prevention strategies is to identify relevant target groups, to evaluate the state of knowledge about this topic as well as to evaluate motivations behind using prohibited substances. Measures to prevent doping substances abuse have to be supported in early stages of childhood. PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the knowledge of Tyrolean junior athletes about doping in sport. Next to the knowledge, their attitudes in regard to doping practices have also been a focus of this project. METHODS: Within a prospective cross-sectional study, Tyrolean junior athletes aged between 14 and 19 years (n = 408) were anonymously questioned by distributing questionnaires in three Tyrolean sport schools as well as two Tyrolean sport-training centers. To collect the data, an anonymous questionnaire with close-ended questions was used. Next to sociodemographic data, questions also evaluated the knowledge about prohibited substances as well as attitudes and behaviors towards doping. The concept was set up based on contents of comparable studies and publications. RESULTS: The knowledge about doping among junior athletes was moderate. The consumer behavior of the young athletes on the other hand has turned out to be satisfactory. Nevertheless, the overall knowledge especially regarding potential negative side effects of doping agents is poor. CONCLUSIONS: To incorporate an effective doping-prevention strategy, improved education, particularly in terms of side effects, is clearly needed. To achieve sustainable doping-prevention effects, focus has to be generally set on education within the frame of junior competitive sport.
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 01/2013; 125(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s00508-012-0318-7 · 0.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
567.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • Private Universität für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Medizinische Informatik und Technik
      • Institute of Health Informatics
      Solbad Hall in Tirol, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2009–2013
    • IST Austria
      Klosterneuberg, Lower Austria, Austria
  • 1988–2013
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 2006–2007
    • Adventist University of Health Sciences
      Orlando, Florida, United States
  • 1998–2002
    • University of Bonn
      • Institut für Physiologie I
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2000
    • Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
      Gratz, Styria, Austria
  • 1994
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany