Hironobu Shimoyama

Nara Medical University, Nara-shi, Nara, Japan

Are you Hironobu Shimoyama?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)34.38 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the case of 13-year-old boy who had been diagnosed as having anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) when he was 11 years old. He suffered a relapse despite the chemotherapy regimens he had been subjected to. Since anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), one of the important prognostic factors of ALCL, was not expressed in the tumor cells, allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from his HLA-matched elder brother was performed. Eleven months after PBSCT, the patient developed nephrotic syndrome as a consequence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). He was diagnosed as having membranous nephropathy (MN) based on the results of histological examinations. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor and anti-nuclear antibody closely reflected the clinical course of MN, therefore some immune mechanisms closely related to chronic GVHD seemed to contribute to the occurrence of MN after PBSCT.
    [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology 12/2004; 45(11):1193-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although infiltrating macrophages found in renal biopsy specimens have been accepted as a useful marker for evaluating the activity of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), it is difficult to perform renal biopsies repeatedly, especially in children. To establish a more convenient and noninvasive method for estimating the degree of macrophage infiltration we examined the number of macrophages in urinary sediments. Ten ml of morning urine were collected from 30 children with IgAN, 10 with thin basement membrane disease (TBMD), 8 with idiopathic renal hemorrhage (IRH) which was defined as nonglomerular hematuria due to nutcracker phenomenon revealed on ultrasonography, and 10 healthy children as controls. Ten of the 30 children with IgAN were treated with combination therapy comprising prednisolone, warfarin and dipyridamole and urine samples were collected weekly during the period of treatment. Two microl of the urine sediment were smeared on glass slides, dried and stained with a monoclonal antibody to human macrophages (anti-CD68, PG-M1) followed by a FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. After staining with propidium iodide (PI), the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy with cells stained with both FITC and PI being counted as macrophages. In addition, anti-CD68 staining was used to quantify macrophage infiltration in renal biopsies from the same group of IgAN patients. The number of urine macrophages in children with IgAN was significantly higher than in children with TBMD and IRH as well as the control group (p < 0.01), whereas that was similar among TBMD, IRH and healthy children. In IgAN, there was a significant correlation between urine macrophage number and the activity index (p < 0.01), proteinuria (p < 0.01) and urine WBC count (p < 0.01). In addition, there was also a significant correlation between urine macrophage number and glomerular (p < 0.05) as well as interstitial macrophage infiltration (p < 0.01). In children with IgAN who received combination therapy, urine macrophage number decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the 1st week of treatment whilst the degree of proteinuria decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the 4th week. Urinary macrophage number may represent a noninvasive and straightforward estimate of the pathological activity evident in renal biopsy specimens, and may also be a more sensitive indicator than proteinuria of the therapeutic effect of interventional treatments in childhood IgAN.
    Clinical nephrology 12/2004; 62(5):336-43. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current hypothesis for the pathogenesis of childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) favors the involvement of a T cell-mediated immune response. Various cytokines derived from T cells may play a critical role in INS. Previous studies have measured serum or urine cytokine levels and suggest an imbalance of the T cell-mediated immune response. To elucidate the true profile of T cell-derived cytokines, we determined interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression in children with INS. We collected mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with plasma and urine from nine children in the acute and remission phases of INS. Expression of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-alpha mRNA was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Plasma and urine cytokine concentrations were measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These data were compared between the acute and remission phase in the same patients. The IL-2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the acute phase than in the remission phase, whilst no significant difference was found in the other cytokines investigated. There was no significant difference in the plasma and urine cytokine concentrations between the acute and remission phase. Our results indicate increased expression of IL-2 mRNA in the acute phase of INS, suggesting that IL-2, at least in part, might be involved in the pathophysiology of childhood INS.
    Pediatric Nephrology 11/2004; 19(10):1115-21. · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proteinuria resulting from IgA nephropathy is secondary to altered charge-selective and/or size-selective properties of the glomerular capillary walls. However, the functional changes occurring within the glomerular capillary network which lead to proteinuria are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the participation of charged components in the glomerular capillary and their role with respect to proteinuria in childhood IgA nephropathy. We examined glomerular anionic charge in renal biopsy specimens with confocal laser scanning microscopy using FITC-conjugated poly-L-lysine as a cationic tracer. The renal specimens investigated were from 9 children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN(+)) associated with detectable proteinuria in a morning urine specimen, 8 children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN(-)) and 11 children with thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) with no detectable proteinuria. The labeling intensity of glomerular fixed anionic sites from IgAN(+) was significantly lower than that of IgAN(-) and TBMD. Staining the serial sections following methylation treatment revealed that the labeling intensity for fixed anionic sites in TBMD was significantly higher than that of both IgAN(+) and IgAN(-). On the other hand, saponification treatment resulted in significantly more intensive fluorescence in TBMD and IgAN(-) than in IgAN(+). Furthermore, statistical analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between 24-hour protein excretion and the intensity of fixed anionic sites in all patients with IgA nephropathy at pH 7.0 and following staining with saponification treatment. These findings suggest that a reduction of glomerular anionic charge might be causally associated with the development of proteinuria in childhood IgA nephropathy. Furthermore, sulfate components such as heparan sulfate proteoglycan might be involved initially followed by carboxyl components such as sialoglycoproteins in the glomeruli of patients with IgA nephropathy contributing to the occurrence of proteinuria. We suggest that this method represents a straightforward approach to dissect the participation of charged components in the pathogenesis of childhood IgA nephropathy and their relationship to the development of glomerular proteinuria.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 02/2004; 96(3):c96-104. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) and Alport syndrome, two forms of childhood nephritis, have generally been considered to be hereditary diseases. In Alport syndrome, several reports have demonstrated pathogenic mutations of the genes encoding type IV collagen alpha3, 4 and/or 5 chain [alpha3, 4 and/or 5(IV)]. Previous immunohistochemical studies indicated that these antigens were absent from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in Alport syndrome, whilst a normal labeling pattern was maintained in TBMD. In order to understand the role of the alpha3, 4 and/or 5(IV) antigens in TBMD, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to examine cryosections of renal biopsies from 12 children with TBMD and 11 control children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) without proteinuria. All tissue sections were stained with a mixture of FITC-conjugated rat monoclonal antibodies directed against human alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV) or alpha5(IV) and a Texas red-conjugated rat monoclonal antibody raised against human alpha2(IV). CLSM was performed and quantitative analysis of the ratio of the staining signal for alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV) or alpha5(IV) to alpha2(IV) [alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV) or alpha5(IV)/alpha2(IV)] along the GBM was determined. The average number of pixels for alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV) or alpha5(IV)/alpha2(IV) was 3.52 +/- 1.49, 3.54 +/- 1.25 and 1.09 +/- 0.49 in TBMD and 3.62 +/- 1.46, 3.99 +/- 1.53 and 1.77 +/- 0.47 in control subjects, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that alpha5(IV)/alpha2(IV) ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in children with TBMD compared to controls. These findings raise the possibility that TBMD might be caused by an abnormality of the alpha5(IV) antigen along the GBM.
    Nephron 11/2002; 92(2):271-8. · 13.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the hemostasis system using biochemical techniques in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has previously been restricted to in vitro assays. The recent introduction of measurement of shear stress-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has facilitated detailed investigation of the hemostatic system in vivo. In order to further analyze the etiology of the thrombotic tendency exhibited by patients with childhood MCNS, we investigated SIPA at both low shear stress (L-SIPA) and high shear stress (H-SIPA) in 14 children with MCNS using PRP collected weekly after commencing prednisolone therapy. Seven patients were newly diagnosed cases of MCNS (ND) whereas the remainder had suffered a disease relapse (DR). Prior to prednisolone therapy L-SIPA, which was thought to be affected by fibrinogen (Fbg) levels, was significantly increased in both patient groups compared to normal controls (17.4 +/- 4.1% vs. 3.6 +/- 0.7%, ND vs control, p < 0.01: 11.7 +/- 3% vs. 2 +/- 0.7%, DR vs control, p < 0.01) with values declining at weekly intervals thereafter. Plasma Fbg levels in simultaneously collected samples followed a similar course. In contrast, H-SIPA, which was thought to be affected by von Willebrand factor (VWF), was significantly enhanced in MCNS patients after 1 week of prednisolone therapy compared to the controls (45 +/- 5.1% vs. 26.3 +/- 3.5%, ND vs normal, p < 0.05: 36.9 +/- 3.3% vs. 25.5 +/- 1.6%, DR vs. normal, p < 0.05). Plasma ristocetin cofactor and VWF antigen levels in simultaneously collected samples followed a similar course, whereas thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels remained constant. These results indicate that SIPA is enhanced in the acute stage of childhood MCNS, especially L-SIPA prior to the initiation of prednisolone therapy and H-SIPA after 1 week of prednisolone therapy, and that these phenomena may be affected by plasma Fbg and VWF levels, respectively. The enhanced SIPA may play an important thrombogenic role in the acute phase of childhood MCNS.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 05/2002; 44(4):380-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Frasier syndrome (FS) is characterised by male pseudohermaphroditism, slowly progressing nephropathy and frequent development of gonadoblastoma. The Wilms' tumour suppressor gene (WT1 gene) plays an important role in the development of the urogenital system and the gonads. A splice mutation in intron 9 of the WT1 gene was recently described in patients with FS. We analysed the WT1 gene of a Japanese patient with male pseudohermaphroditism, steroid resistant-nephr-opathy and gonadoblastoma by the polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing and detected a heterozygous point mutation in intron 9. CONCLUSION: analysis of the Wilms' tumour suppressor gene in a patient with Frasier syndrome by the polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing detected a + 5G -->A transition at a position of the second alternative splice region of exon 9, important for predicting the risk of the occurrence of Wilms' tumour.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 03/2002; 161(2):81-3. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) and Alport syndrome, two forms of childhood nephritis, have generally been considered to be hereditary diseases. In Alport syndrome, several reports have demonstrated pathogenic mutations of the genes encoding type IV collagen α3, 4 and/or 5 chain [α3, 4 and/or 5(IV)]. Previous immunohistochemical studies indicated that these antigens were absent from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in Alport syndrome, whilst a normal labeling pattern was maintained in TBMD. In order to understand the role of the α3, 4 and/or 5(IV) antigens in TBMD, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to examine cryosections of renal biopsies from 12 children with TBMD and 11 control children with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) without proteinuria. All tissue sections were stained with a mixture of FITC-conjugated rat monoclonal antibodies directed against human α3(IV), α4(IV) or α5(IV) and a Texas red-conjugated rat monoclonal antibody raised against human α2(IV). CLSM was performed and quantitative analysis of the ratio of the staining signal for α3(IV), α4(IV) or α5(IV) to α2(IV) [α3(IV), α4(IV) or α5(IV)/α2(IV)] along the GBM was determined. The average number of pixels for α3(IV), α4(IV) or α5(IV)/α2(IV) was 3.52 ± 1.49, 3.54 ± 1.25 and 1.09 ± 0.49 in TBMD and 3.62 ± 1.46, 3.99 ± 1.53 and 1.77 ± 0.47 in control subjects, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that α5(IV)/α2(IV) ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in children with TBMD compared to controls. These findings raise the possibility that TBMD might be caused by an abnormality of the α5(IV) antigen along the GBM.
    Nephron 01/2002; 92(2):271-278. · 13.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Analysis of glomerular anionic charge in human renal biopsy specimens has been restricted previously to staining of sites at the electron microscopic level, which is a product that needs skills and precludes a wide observable area. The introduction of a new tool, confocal laser scanning microscopy together with FITC conjugated poly-L-lysine as a cationic tracer, which demonstrates fixed anionic sites in thin sections from routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded renal biopsy tissue, has now enabled glomerular charge at light microscopic level. In this method, the patterns of staining in tissue showing minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) indicate that the intensity of anionic charge in 4 children with heavy proteinuria was significantly less than that in 7 children without proteinuria at remission, supporting previous observations using electron microscopy. Furthermore, staining the serial sections after methylation or saponification revealed that carboxyl components such as sialic acid may be responsible for proteinuria. We anticipate that this method may facilitate the investigation of the participation of charged components in the pathogenesis of MCNS and their role in relation to glomerular proteinuria.
    Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi 02/2000; 42(1):16-23.