M Gianotti

University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain

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Publications (67)191.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the time-course response of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) insulin and adiponectin signaling pathway intermediates in relation to the systemic age-associated impairment of insulin sensitivity in male and female rats. The main markers of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways of the retroperitoneal WAT, as well as of the systemic insulin sensitivity profile of 3-, 9- and 18-month old Wistar rats of both sexes were determined. Our results indicate that age leads to a decrease in the insulin sensitivity in both sexes that agrees with the decline in the levels of the WAT insulin signaling pathway intermediates, the increase in the adiposity index and the rise in the serum insulin resistance markers. This is accompanied by a sex-dimorphism that involves a gradual insulin signaling pathway decrease in female rats and an earlier and acute decrease in males and suggests a better insulin responsiveness in female rats at any age group. Our results confirm the idea that in rats, the insulin signaling pathway of WAT is altered at earlier ages than that of skeletal muscle and also provides further evidence of the impairment of the WAT adiponectin signaling pathway.
    Biochimie 08/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study analysed the effect of three different benthic habitats, the maërl, Peyssonnelia red algal beds and sandy bottoms, on the condition of two nekto-benthic fish species: Serranus cabrilla and Trigloporus lastoviza. Sampling was conducted during the MEDITS 2010 and 2011 surveys around the Balearic Islands. The condition of the spawning females of both species was determined by using i) biochemical measurements of proteins and lipids in the muscle, liver and gonads, and ii) weight at length relationships based on eviscerated, liver, and gonad weights. Moreover, based on the total weight at length relationship, the mean somatic condition (SC) of the sexually inactive individuals of S. cabrilla and males of T. lastoviza was calculated. Lipid reserves were higher in the livers of S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza from the maërl beds. Additionally, S. cabrilla showed higher lipid reserves in the gonads both in the maërl and Peyssonnelia beds. The mean weights of the liver and gonads at a given individual length revealed the same pattern as the lipids, whereas the mean eviscerated weight was higher in the maërl beds but only for S. cabrilla. A positive correlation was detected between the SC and the biomass of the algal species characterizing the maërl beds for both S. cabrilla and T. lastoviza. The high habitat quality of the red algal beds off the Balearic Islands increased the condition of nekto-benthic fish. In oligotrophic areas, such as the archipelago, these “oases” could help fish to maintain healthy populations.
    Journal of Sea Research 08/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual dimorphism has been found in skeletal muscle mitochondrial features, with female rats showing greater mitochondrial mass and function compared to males. Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing adipokine whose expression has been related to mitochondrial function and that is also expressed in skeletal muscle, where it exerts local metabolic effects. The aim of this research is to elucidate the role of sex hormones on mitochondrial function modulation, as well as its relationship to adiponectin production in rat skeletal muscle. An in vivo study with ovariectomized Wistar rats supplemented or not with 17beta-estradiol (E2) (10μg/kg/48hr for 4 weeks) was performed, in parallel with an assay of cultured myotubes (L6E9) treated with E2 (10nM), progesterone (Pg) or testosterone (T) (1μM both). E2 upregulated markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, and also of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and L6E9. Although in vivo E2 supplementation only partially restored the decreased adiponectin expression levels induced by ovariectomy, these were enhanced by E2 and Pg treatment in cultured myotubes, whereas T showed no effects. Adiponectin receptor 1 expression was increased by E2-treatment both in vivo and in vitro, but T decreased it. In conclusion, our results are in agreement with the sexual dimorphism previously reported in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, and point to E2 as its main effector, as it enhances mitochondrial function and diminishes oxidative stress. Moreover, our data support the idea of the existence of a link between mitochondrial function and adiponectin expression in skeletal muscle, which could be modulated by sex hormones.
    Journal of Endocrinology 03/2014; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual dimorphism has been found in both mitochondrial functionality and adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue, with female rats presenting more functional mitochondria than males and greater adiponectin expression. However, little is known about the role of sex hormones in this dimorphism. The aim was to elucidate the role of sex hormones in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and in adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes, and also to provide new evidence of the link between these processes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated and treated either with 17-β estradiol (E2; 10 nM), progesterone (Pg), testosterone (1 μM both), or a combination of Pg or testosterone with flutamide (FLT; 10 μM) or E2 (1 μM). The markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin expression were analyzed. E2 induced mitochondrial proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1, although testosterone showed opposite effects. Pg treatment stimulated proliferation but impaired differentiation. In concerns mitochondrial dynamics, these hormones promoted fusion over fission. FLT treatment indicated that Pg elicits its effects on mitochondrial dynamics through the androgen receptor. E2 coadministration with testosterone or Pg reversed its effects. In conclusion, our results show that E2 induces stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipocytes in vitro, especially in situations that imply an impairment of mitochondrial function, whereas testosterone would have opposite effects. Moreover, testosterone and Pg alter mitochondrial dynamics by promoting fusion over fission, while E2 stimulates both processes. All these alterations run in parallel with changes in adiponectin expression, thus suggesting the existence of a link between mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and adiponectin synthesis in white adipocytes.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 01/2014; 52(2):203-14. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine, in rats of both sexes, the effect of HF diet feeding on the expression of adipokines involved in inflammatory status and insulin sensitivity and on the levels of proteins involved in lipid handling of retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (2.9% w/w fat) or an HF diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and inflammatory marker mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of insulin receptor, glucose transporter 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid synthase, hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase were determined by Western blot. HF diet feeding did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain but did promote an increase in adiposity although only in male rats. HF diet impaired glucose tolerance and the expression of inflammatory and insulin sensitivity markers in adipose tissue of male rats, but not in female rats. Male rats seem to be more prone to disorders associated with an unbalanced composition of the diet, even in the absence of hyperphagia. In contrast, female rats counteract excessive fat intake by improving their ability to use lipid fuels, which limits adiposity and maintains insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 10/2012; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marked sex-dependent differences in mitochondrial function and redox status have been found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of control rats. Insulin also plays a role in the development and maintenance of this tissue. The aim was to investigate sexual dimorphism in the effects of diet-induced obesity on BAT mitochondrial function, as well as on insulin signaling pathway. 10-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet or a palatable high-fat diet for 26 weeks. Serum markers of insulin sensitivity were analyzed. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial oxidative activities, PGC-1α mRNA levels, as well as the protein levels of insulin receptor subunit β (IRβ), glucose transporter GLUT4, β(3)-adrenergic receptor (β(3)-AR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV), and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were measured in BAT. Obese females showed impaired systemic insulin sensitivity accompanied by diminished IRβ, GLUT4, and β(3)-AR protein levels in BAT. In addition, TFAM and COX IV protein and PGC-1α mRNA levels decreased in obese females, whereas mtDNA levels increased. In obese males, oxidative and thermogenic capacities rose and no significant changes were observed in the insulin signaling pathway elements. The reduction of the insulin signaling pathway in BAT of obese females may be responsible, at least partially, for the impaired biogenesis process, which could favor the increase of body weight found in this sex. In contrast, the enhanced mitochondrial functionality in the BAT of males would avoid increased oxidative damage and the impairment of insulin signaling.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 10/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been related to a chronic pro-inflammatory state affecting white adipose tissue (WAT), which has a great impact on carbohydrate, lipid and energy metabolism. In turn, the dysregulation of adipokine secretion derived from the accumulation of excess lipids in adipocytes further contributes to the development of insulin resistance and can be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether sexual dimorphism found in the systemic insulin sensitivity profile is related to sex differences in a high-fat diet (HFD) response of gonadal WAT at mitochondrial function and inflammatory profile levels. Wistar rats (10 weeks old) of both sexes were fed a control pelleted diet (3 % (w/w) fat; n 8 for each sex) or a HFD (24 % (w/w) fat; n 8 for each sex). Serum insulin sensitivity markers, mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and the protein content of insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways were analysed, as well as the levels of the main markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defence and oxidative damage. In the present study, the periovarian depot exhibits a greater expandability capacity, along with a lower hypoxic and pro-inflammatory state, without signs of mitochondrial dysfunction or changes in its dynamics. In contrast, epididymal fat has a much more pronounced pro-inflammatory, hypoxic and insulin-resistant profile accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics, probably associated with HFD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, this explains the worse serum insulin sensitivity profile of male rats.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion, which is involved in insulin resistance development. Taking into account the sex differences previously found both in mitochondrial function and for the insulin sensitivity profile in different tissues, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a sex-dependent effect of a long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding exists on WAT mitochondrial function. Indeed, HFD effects on the levels of the key components of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the consequences of these effects on the systemic profile of insulin sensitivity were also studied. Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or an HFD. Serum markers of insulin sensitivity, protein, and mRNA levels of the main elements of the insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways, and the markers of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, were measured. Our results indicate that different physiological strategies are adopted by male and female rats in response to HFD. In this regard, HFD induced mitochondrial proliferation in males and mitochondrial differentiation in females, as well as a greater retroperitoneal WAT expandability capacity, which allows them to preserve a better insulin sensitivity profile than male rats for both control and HFD groups. Moreover, female WAT showed a decrease in adiponectin and insulin signaling pathway element levels. This sexual dimorphism suggests that there are different strategies for retroperitoneal WAT to maintain the energetic and metabolic homeostasis in response to HFD feeding.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 03/2012; 61(8):1108-17. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual dimorphism has been previously found both in mitochondrial biogenesis and function and in adiponectin expression of retroperitoneal WAT. However, little is known about the E2 effects on WAT mitochondrial function. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine in greater depth the role of estrogens in sexual dimorphism. This was accomplished by studying the effects of ovariectomy and E2 replacement on retroperitoneal WAT mitochondrial function. Fourteen-week-old female and ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were used in this study. The ovariectomy was performed at 5 weeks of age and at 10 weeks of age OVX rats were divided into two experimental groups: OVX, and OVX treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) (OVX+E2). Subcutaneous injections of E2 (10 μg/kg/48 h) were administered to the OVX+E2 rats for 4 weeks previous to the sacrifice whereas OVX rats were treated only with the vehicle. Levels of the main markers for mitochondrial biogenesis and function and those representatives of the antioxidant defense system and insulin sensitivity were determined. Additionally, the mRNA levels of the α and β estrogen receptors and of some adipocyte differentiation markers were studied. Our results indicate that retroperitoneal WAT was able to adapt itself to ovariectomy without any changes in mitochondrial function markers or for the adiponectin levels. However, E2 supplementation led to an unexpected decrease in: TFAM protein levels, in LPL, PPARγ and adiponectin gene expression and in the systemic HMW adiponectin levels. This decrease is probably due to the down-regulation of the ERα mRNA expression to avoid an over-stimulation by E2.
    Steroids 02/2012; 77(6):659-65. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in the etiology of insulin resistance, in which skeletal muscle is the main tissue contributor. Sex differences in skeletal muscle insulin and antioxidant responses to high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding have been described. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is a sex dimorphism in the effects of HFD feeding on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and on the adiponectin signaling pathway, as well as the influence of the muscle type (oxidative or glycolytic). Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of male and female Wistar rats of 2 months of age fed with a high-fat-diet (HFD) or a low fat diet for 26 weeks were used. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage markers, oxidative capacity and antioxidant defences were analyzed. Serum insulin sensitivity parameters and the levels of proteins involved in adiponectin signaling pathway were also determined. HFD feeding induced mitochondrial biogenesis in both sexes, but to a higher degree in male rats. Although HFD female rats showed greater antioxidant protection and maintained a better insulin sensitivity profile than their male counterparts, both sexes showed an impaired response to adiponectin, which was more evident in gastrocnemius muscle. We conclude that HFD rats may induce skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis as an attempt to compensate the deleterious consequences of adiponectin and insulin resistance on oxidative metabolism, and that the effects of HFD feeding are sex-dependent and muscle-type specific.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 02/2012; 9:15. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ectopic deposition of lipids in liver and other extrahepatic tissues alters their function and occurs once adipose tissue fat storage capacity is exceeded. We investigated sexual dimorphism in the effects of dietary obesity on the liver insulin signaling pathway, as well as its connection to differences in hepatic fat accumulation. Ten-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 26 weeks. Insulin, adipokine levels, and glucose tolerance were measured. Lipid content, PPARα mRNA expression and protein levels of insulin receptor subunit β (IRβ), IR substrate 2 (IRS-2), Ser/Thr kinase A (Akt), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4) were measured in liver. In control rats, serum parameters and hepatic levels of IRβ, IRS-2, and Akt proteins pointed to a profile of better insulin sensitivity in females. In response to dietary treatment, female rats exhibited a greater increase in body mass and adiposity and lower liver fat accumulation than males, but maintained better glucose tolerance. The reduced insulin signaling capacity in the liver of obese female rats seems to prevent lipid accumulation and probably lipotoxicity-associated hepatic disorders.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 01/2012; 90(2):164-72. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    Rocío Guevara, Magdalena Gianotti, Jordi Oliver, Pilar Roca
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are the main source of free radical species and the most direct target for their damaging effects, which especially affect the brain mitochondrial function, which is better maintained by females than males. The aim of this work was to investigate the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial oxidative status focusing on sex differences. Male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Oxidative damage accumulates in rat brain throughout aging, related to the increasing activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and failure of several antioxidant defenses. The aging effect was less marked in females, which accumulated less oxidative damage than males due in part to their greater antioxidant capacity, such as higher GPx activity and higher UCP5 level. This sexual dimorphism gradually increased during aging.
    Experimental gerontology 08/2011; 46(11):923-8. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.
    Pancreas 07/2011; 40(5):682-8. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taking into account the sexual dimorphism previously reported regarding mitochondrial function and biogenesis in brown adipose tissue, the aim of the present study was to go further into these differences by investigating the effect of ovariectomy and 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement on brown adipose tissue mitochondrial function. In this study, fourteen-week-old control female and ovariectomized female Wistar rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized at 5 weeks of age and were treated every 2 days with placebo (OVX group) or E2 (10 μg/kg) (OVX+E2 group) for 4 weeks before sacrifice. We studied the levels of oxidative capacity, antioxidant defence and oxidative damage markers in brown adipose tissue. Moreover, the levels of key elements of mitochondrial biogenesis as well as UCP1 protein levels, as an index of mitochondrial thermogenic capacity, were also determined. In response to ovariectomy, mitochondrial proliferation increased, resulting in less functional mitochondria, since oxidative capacity and antioxidant defences decreased. Although E2 supplementation was able to restore the serum levels of E2 shown by control rats, the treatment reverted the effects of the ovariectomy only in part, and oxidative and antioxidant capacities in OVX+E2 rats did not reach the levels shown by control females. Taking these results into account, we suggest that ovarian hormones are responsible, at least in part, for the sexual dimorphism in BAT mitochondrial function. However, other signals produced by ovary, rather than E2, would play an important role in the control of mitochondrial function in BAT.
    Steroids 04/2011; 76(10-11):1051-6. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Rocío Guevara, Magdalena Gianotti, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is responsible for the decline in the function of mitochondria and their increase in size and number--adaptive mechanism to restore mitochondrial function. Estrogens increase mitochondrial function, especially in female rats. The aim of this study was to determine the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function focusing on sex differences. Cellular and mitochondrial protein and DNA content, mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylative function in male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Mitochondria protein/DNA content decreased with aging shifting toward lesser mitochondrial functional capacity and the mitochondria number increased. A sex dimorphism was determined, with female rat brain showing mitochondria with greater functional capacity than males. These sex differences gradually increased during aging.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 27(3-4):201-6. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with a progressive decline of skeletal muscle function and insulin sensitivity. Sex differences in the insulin response to different physiological situations have been found, leading to the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in insulin sensitivity with age in male and female rats and to elucidate whether there are sex differences in the alteration profiles of systemic insulin sensitivity parameters, adiposity, skeletal muscle oxidative damage, and the insulin signaling pathway. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of male and female rats of 3, 9, and 18 months of age were used. The decrease of insulin sensitivity with age was higher in female than in male rats. However, the increase of both serum insulin levels and adiposity with age shows a different profile in both sexes and suggests an earlier onset of age-related impairment of insulin sensitivity in male than in female rats. Sex differences in insulin signaling key protein levels were found mainly in the most aged rats, suggesting that sex differences in these proteins would be manifested at more advanced ages than differences in the insulin-sensitivity serum profile. In addition, the gastrocnemius muscle showed more age-associated oxidative damage and insulin resistance impact than the soleus in both sexes. These results suggest the sex differences found in the impairment of insulin sensitivity of aged rats would not be attributable to differences between sexes in the time course of the levels of key proteins of the skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathway, at least in the first 18 months of life.
    Rejuvenation Research 01/2011; 14(2):153-61. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-fat (HF) diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat) or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat) for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2011; 10:52. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is linked to systemic oxidative stress and, although brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a crucial role in energy balance, BAT redox status effects on obesity have not been studied previously. Female rats exhibit a greater BAT thermogenic capacity, attributed to enhanced mitochondrial differentiation, than males. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mitochondrial sexual dimorphism is related to differences in BAT redox status and to assess its role in the regulation of body weight gain in response to chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. Ten-week-old Wistar rats of both genders were fed a pelleted control diet or HFD for 26 weeks. Although mitochondria of female rats produced higher levels of hydrogen peroxide than those of males, females exhibited lower oxidative damage, attributed to greater glutathione peroxidase activity and higher glutathione content. In response to HFD, body weight increased markedly in females, but oxidative capacity increased only in males, thus maintaining improved BAT redox status compared with females. In conclusion, the sexual dimorphism in BAT redox status found in control animals is attenuated by the HFD. The enhanced oxidative capacity of HFD males can be related to their greater resistance to body weight gain.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10/2010; 14(2):174-84. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial biogenesis includes both mitochondrial proliferation and differentiation and its regulation under different physiological conditions is not clear. Given the sexual dimorphism previously found in mitochondrial function, the aim of this study was to investigate the gender-dependent effect of chronic high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding on rat liver mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Ten-week old male and female rats were fed a HFD (26% fat) or a control diet (2.9% fat) for 26 weeks. Mitochondrial morphology was studied. Mitochondrial DNA and protein content, hydrogen peroxide production, oxidative capacity, antioxidant defenses, as well as markers of oxidative damage and mitochondrial biogenesis were analyzed. Female rats showed higher levels of mitochondrial protein and an enhanced oxidative capacity per mitochondrion than males. In both genders, HFD feeding increased mtDNA content and decreased mitochondrial differentiation markers. In comparison to male rats, females show higher oxidative capacity as a consequence of their greater mitochondrial differentiation under both control and obese status. In response to HFD feeding, the oxidative capacity of the whole mitochondrial population is maintained in both genders. This is obtained by means of an enhancement of mitochondrial proliferation, which counteracts the diet-induced impairment of the function of each mitochondrion.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 26(3):291-302. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Females show lower incidences of several neurodegenerative diseases related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction than males. In addition, female rats show more differentiated mitochondria than males in several tissues. The aim of this work was to investigate the existence of sex-dependent differences in brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative balance in aged rats. Results showed that aged female rat brain had a lower mitochondria content than aged male brain but with a greater differentiation degree given the higher mitochondrial protein content and mitochondrial complex activities in females. Female rat brain also showed a better oxidative balance than that of males, reflected by the fact that higher mitochondrial respiratory chain function is accompanied by a similar ROS production and greater antioxidant enzyme activities, which could be responsible for the lesser oxidative damage observed in proteins and lipids in this sex. Interestingly, levels of UCP4 and UCP5--proteins related to a decrease in ROS production--were also higher in females. In conclusion, aged female rat brain had more differentiated mitochondria than male brain and showed a better control of oxidative stress balance, which could be due, in part, to the neuroprotective effect of UCPs.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2008; 46(2):169-75. · 5.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

668 Citations
191.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2014
    • University of the Balearic Islands
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology (LBNB)
      • • Department of Fundamental Biology and Health Sciences
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
  • 2007
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain