J A Egido

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (55)122.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reversal of anticoagulation is recommended to correct the international normalised ratio (INR) for patients with intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) associated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). However, the validity of such treatment is debated. We sought to identify, prospectively, the prognostic effect of VKA-ICH treatment in a cohort of patients (n=71; median age 78 years, range 20-89; 57% males). Data collated were: baseline characteristics, treatments, baseline and post-treatment INR, haematoma volume, and haematoma enlargement. Treatment effects and prognostic factor assessment were in relation to mortality and functional outcomes. On admission, the patients had a median score of 9 [p25; p75 of 5; 20] on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and a mean INR of 2.7 (range: 0.9 - 10.8). Haematoma volume (34.6 cm3; SD: 24.9) correlated with NIHSS (r = 0.55; p<0.001) but not with INR. Anticoagulation reversal treatment was administered in 83% of patients. INR <1.5 was achieved in 60.7% of cases. Death or dependency at three months was 76%. Neither baseline INR, anticoagulation reversal nor haematoma enlargement were related to mortality or functional outcome. The only independent prognostic factor was clinical severity on admission. Baseline NIHSS predicted mortality (OR: 1.18; 95%CI: 1.09-1.27), independence (OR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.74-0.94) and neurological recovery (NIHSS 0-1) (OR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.95). The data indicate that VKA-ICH had a poor prognosis. Treatment and INR correction did not appear to affect outcomes.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2013; 110(20130912). · 6.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Acute stroke due to distal intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion has a poor natural history. Outcome in patients who receive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is also unsatisfactory. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endovascular treatment with retrievable stents in these patients. Methods: Data from a prospective register of patients with acute stroke treated with an endovascular procedure in a single centre were analysed. Results: A total of 20 patients with distal ICA occlusion were collected. Mean baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 18. Eight cases (40%) had received previous intravenous tPA. Mean time from stroke to recanalization was 393 min. Retrievable stents with proximal occlusion and aspiration were used in all cases. In 3 patients, 2 retrievable stents were used simultaneously. Complete recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b/3) was accomplished in 85% of cases. A favourable clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was achieved in 13 patients (65%). Mortality occurred in 2 cases (10%). Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of patients with distal ICA occlusion seems safe and effective. Retrievable stents may be the treatment of choice, although randomized clinical trials are necessary. The use of 2 retrievable stents at the same time could be an alternative technique useful in thrombi of larger size.
    European Neurology 08/2013; 70(3-4):159-164. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes; however it has a poor prognisis with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Neurological deterioration is often observed during the first hours after onset and determines poor prognosis. Intracerebral haemorrhage, therefore, is a neurological emergency which must be diagnosed and treated properly as soon as possible. In this guide we review the diagnostic procedures and factors that influence the prognosis of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and we establish recommendations for the therapeutic strategy, systematic diagnosis, acute treatment and secondary prevention for this condition.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 05/2013; 28(4):236–249. · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Ana Maria Garcia, Jose Antonio Egido
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 02/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many guidelines recommend urgent intervention for patients with two or more transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) within 7 days (multiple TIAs) to reduce the early risk of stroke. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether all patients with multiple TIAs have the same high early risk of stroke. METHODS: Between April 2008 and December 2009, we included 1255 consecutive patients with a TIA from 30 Spanish stroke centres (PROMAPA study). We prospectively recorded clinical characteristics. We also determined the short-term risk of stroke (at 7 and 90 days). Aetiology was categorised using the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. RESULTS: Clinical variables and extracranial vascular imaging were available and assessed in 1137/1255 (90.6%) patients. 7-Day and 90-day stroke risk were 2.6% and 3.8%, respectively. Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was confirmed in 190 (16.7%) patients. Multiple TIAs were seen in 274 (24.1%) patients. Duration <1 h (OR=2.97, 95% CI 2.20 to 4.01, p<0.001), LAA (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.72, p<0.001) and motor weakness (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.81, p=0.031) were independent predictors of multiple TIAs. The subsequent risk of stroke in these patients at 7 and 90 days was significantly higher than the risk after a single TIA (5.9% vs 1.5%, p<0.001 and 6.8% vs 3.0%, respectively). In the logistic regression model, among patients with multiple TIAs, no variables remained as independent predictors of stroke recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, multiple TIAs within 7 days are associated with a greater subsequent risk of stroke than after a single TIA. Nevertheless, we found no independent predictor of stroke recurrence among these patients.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 01/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Endovascular therapies (intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) after acute ischaemic stroke are being implemented in the clinical setting even as they are still being researched. Since we lack sufficient data to establish accurate evidence-based recommendations for use of these treatments, we must develop clinical protocols based on current knowledge and carefully monitor all procedures. Development After review of the literature and holding work sessions to reach a consensus among experts, we developed a clinical protocol including indications and contraindications for endovascular therapies use in acute ischaemic stroke. The protocol includes methodology recommendations for diagnosing and selecting patients, performing revascularisation procedures, and for subsequent patient management. Its objective is to increase the likelihood of efficacy and treatment benefit and minimise risk of complications and ineffective recanalisation. Based on an analysis of healthcare needs and available resources, a cooperative inter-hospital care system has been developed. This helps to ensure availability of endovascular therapies to all patients, a fast response time, and a good cost-to-efficacy ratio. It includes also a prospective register which serves to monitor procedures in order to identify any opportunities for improvement. Conclusions Implementation of endovascular techniques for treating acute ischaemic stroke requires the elaboration of evidence-based clinical protocols and the establishment of appropriate cooperative healthcare networks guaranteeing both the availability and the quality of these actions. Such procedures must be monitored in order to improve methodology.
    Neurología. 01/2013; 28(7):425–434.
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    ABSTRACT: Introducción El tratamiento endovascular (trombólisis farmacológica intraarterial y trombectomía mecánica) en el ictus isquémico agudo se está implantando en la práctica clínica cotidiana, aunque continúa en desarrollo su investigación. En ausencia de datos suficientes que permitan fundamentar sólidamente las recomendaciones para su uso, es necesario elaborar protocolos de actuación basados en el conocimiento acumulado, así como monitorizar las actuaciones. Desarrollo Tras revisión bibliográfica, en reuniones de trabajo de expertos para llegar a un consenso, se ha elaborado un protocolo de actuación que incluye indicaciones y contraindicaciones para la aplicación de tratamiento endovascular y recomendaciones referentes a la metodología de diagnóstico y selección de los pacientes, de los procedimientos de revascularización y manejo posterior, con el objetivo de incrementar las probabilidades de eficacia y beneficio del tratamiento y minimizar los riesgos de complicaciones y de recanalización fútil. En función del análisis de las necesidades asistenciales y los recursos disponibles se ha elaborado un sistema organizativo de colaboración interhospitalaria, para asegurar la accesibilidad al tratamiento garantizando el menor tiempo de respuesta y una relación coste/eficacia favorable. Incluye un registro prospectivo común con fines de monitorización para detectar oportunidades de mejora. Conclusiones Para la implantación de técnicas endovasculares de tratamiento del ictus isquémico agudo es imprescindible la elaboración de protocolos de actuación basados en las evidencias disponibles y el establecimiento de sistemas adecuados de organización asistencial para garantizar el rigor y la eficacia de las actuaciones. Es necesario monitorizar los procedimientos con el fin de optimizar la metodología.
    Neurología (English Edition). 01/2013; 28(7):425–434.
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke patients, because of their emergency qualities and the frequent involvement of neurological functions essential to freely give informed consent, pose some specific problems regarding the limits of patient autonomy. We review aspects of the Spanish legislation in this respect, the international recommendations, and we propose a fast bedside test to evaluate the acute loss of competence.
    Revista Espanola de Medicina Legal 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To update the Spanish Society of Neurology's guidelines for subarachnoid haemorrhage diagnosis and treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review and analysis of the existing literature. Recommendations are given based on the level of evidence for each study reviewed. RESULTS: The most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is cerebral aneurysm rupture. Its estimated incidence in Spain is 9/100 000 inhabitants/year with a relative frequency of approximately 5% of all strokes. Hypertension and smoking are the main risk factors. Stroke patients require treatment in a specialised centre. Admission to a stroke unit should be considered for SAH patients whose initial clinical condition is good (Grades I or II on the Hunt and Hess scale). We recommend early exclusion of aneurysms from the circulation. The diagnostic study of choice for SAH is brain CT (computed tomography) without contrast. If the test is negative and SAH is still suspected, a lumbar puncture should then be performed. The diagnostic tests recommended in order to determine the source of the haemorrhage are MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and angiography. Doppler ultrasonography studies are very useful for diagnosing and monitoring vasospasm. Nimodipine is recommended for preventing delayed cerebral ischaemia. Blood pressure treatment and neurovascular intervention may be considered in treating refractory vasospasm. CONCLUSIONS: SAH is a severe and complex disease which must be managed in specialised centres by professionals with ample experience in relevant diagnostic and therapeutic processes.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 10/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic stress is associated with cardiovascular diseases, but the link with stroke has not been well established. Stress is influenced by life-style habits, personality type and anxiety levels. We sought to evaluate psycho-physical stress as a risk factor for stroke, while assessing gender influences. Case-control study. Cases: patients (n=150) aged 18-65, admitted consecutively to our Stroke Unit with the diagnosis of incident stroke. Controls: (n=300) neighbours (paired with case ±5 years) recruited from the census registry. Study variables: socio-demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, psychophysical scales of H&R (Holmes & Rahe questionnaire of life events), ERCTA (Recall Scale of Type A Behaviour), SF12 (QoL scale), GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire). Statistical analyses included conditional multiple logistic regression models. Mean age was 53.8 years (SD: 9.3). Compared with controls, and following adjustment for confounding variables, significant associations between stroke and stress were: H&R values >150 OR=3.84 (95% CI 1.91 to 7.70, p<0.001); ERCTA (values >24) OR=2.23 (95% CI 1.19 to 4.18, p=0.012); mental SF12 (values >50) OR=0.73 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.37, p=0.330); psychological SF12 (values >50) OR=0.66 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.30, p=0.229), male gender OR=9.33 (95% CI 4.53 to 19.22, p<0.001), high consumption of energy-providing beverages OR=2.63 (95% CI 1.30 to 5.31, p=0.007), current smoker OR=2.08 (95% CI 1.01 to 4.27, p=0.046), ex-smoker OR=2.35 (95% CI 1.07 to 5.12, p=0.032), cardiac arrhythmia OR=3.18 (95% CI 1.19 to 8.51, p=0.022) and Epworth scale (≥9) OR=2.83 (95% CI 1.03 to 7.78, p=0.044). Compared with healthy age-matched individuals, stressful habits and type A behaviour are associated with high risk of stroke. This association is not modified by gender.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 08/2012; 83(11):1104-11. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify possible differences in the early response to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or in stroke outcome at 3 months, based on stroke subtype in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (IS). METHODS: Multicenter stroke registry, with prospective inclusion of consecutive patients with acute IVT-treated IS in five acute stroke units. We compared clinical improvement (NIHSS) at 24 h and at day 7 as well as functional outcome at 3 months (Modified Rankin Scale, mRS) amongst the different stroke subtypes (ICD-10). RESULTS: One thousand four hundred and seventy-nine patients were included; 178 (12%) had large vessel disease (LVD) with carotid stenosis ≥ 50%, 175 (11.8%) had other LVD, 638 (43%) had cardioembolism, 60 (4.1%) had lacunar infarction, 72 (4.9%) were patients with IS of other/unusual cause and 356 (24.1%) were of unknown/multiple causes. Patients with lacunar infarction had lower stroke severity (median NIHSS 6) whilst cardioembolic IS was the most severe (median NIHSS 14) (P < 0.001). No differences in NIHSS improvement were found at 24 h. LVD patients with carotid stenosis (OR 0.544; 95% CI 0.383-0.772; P = 0.001) were less likely to improve at day 7 after adjustment for age, gender, vascular risk factors and stroke severity. However, adjusted multivariate analysis showed no influence of stroke subtype on stroke outcome (mRS) at 3 months. Age, systolic blood pressure on admission and stroke severity were independently associated with mRS > 2 at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Although LVD patients with arterial stenosis ≥ 50% improve less than the other aetiologies at day 7, stroke aetiological subtype does not determine differences in IS outcome at 3 months after IVT.
    European Journal of Neurology 06/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small clinical series have reported the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke related to extracranial internal carotid dissection. However, no studies specifically analyzing the effects on stroke outcome are available. Aims Our goal was to evaluate whether patients with ischemic stroke related to extracranial internal carotid dissection obtain any benefit from intravenous thrombolysis. Multicenter, prospective and observational study conducted in four university hospitals from the Madrid Stroke Network. Consecutive ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous thrombolysis were included, as well as patients with extracranial internal carotid dissection regardless of intravenous thrombolysis treatment. Stroke severity (NIHSS) and three-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale) were compared between the following groups: (1) intravenous thrombolysis-treated patients with ischemic stroke related to extracranial internal carotid dissection vs. other causes of stroke; (2) intravenous thrombolysis-treated extracranial internal carotid dissection patients vs. nonintravenous thrombolysis treated. Outcome was rated at three-months using the modified Rankin Scale. A good outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2. A total of 625 intravenous thrombolysis-treated patients were included; 16 (2·56%) had extracranial internal carotid dissection. Besides, 27 patients with extracranial internal carotid dissection and ischemic stroke who did not receive intravenous thrombolysis were also included. As compared with other etiologies, patients with extracranial internal carotid dissection were younger, had similar stroke severity and showed less improvement in their NIHSS score at Day 7 (1·38; (95% CI -3·77 to 6·54) vs. 6·81; (95% CI -5·99 to 7·63) P=0·004), but without differences in good outcomes at three-months (43·8% vs. 58·2%; NS). Extracranial internal carotid dissection intravenous thrombolysis-treated patients had more severe strokes at admission than those who were nonintravenous thrombolysis treated (median NIHSS: 15 vs. 7; P=0·031). Intravenous thrombolysis was safe in extracranial internal carotid dissection with no symptomatic hemorrhagic events; however, without differences in good outcome compared with the natural course of extracranial internal carotid dissection (nonintravenous thrombolysis treated) after adjustment for stroke severity (46·7% vs. 64·3%; NS). As compared with other etiologies, stroke due to extracranial internal carotid dissection seems to obtain similar benefits from intravenous thrombolysis in outcome at three-months. Although intravenous thrombolysis is safe in stroke attributable to extracranial internal carotid dissection, no differences in outcome were found when comparing intravenous thrombolysis treated with nonintravenous thrombolysis-treated patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity.
    International Journal of Stroke 01/2012; 7(1):7-13. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose. Intravenous thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator is safe and probably effective in patients >80 years old. Nevertheless, its safety has not been specifically addressed for the oldest old patients (≥85 years old, OO). We assessed the safety and effectiveness of thrombolysis in this group of age. Methods. A prospective registry of patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Patients were divided in two groups (<85 years and the OO). Demographic data, stroke aetiology and baseline National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were recorded. The primary outcome measures were the percentage of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) and functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). Results. A total of 1,505 patients were registered. 106 patients were OO [median 88, range 85-101]. Female sex, hypertension, elevated blood pressure at admission, cardioembolic strokes and higher basal NIHSS score were more frequent in the OO. SICH transformation rates were similar (3.1% versus 3.7%, P = 1.00). The probability of independence at 3 months (mRS 0-2) was lower in the OO (40.2% versus 58.7%, P = 0.001) but not after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.37; P = 0.455). Three-month mortality was higher in the OO (28.0% versus 11.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Intravenous thrombolysis for stroke in OO patients did not increase the risk of SICH although mortality was higher in this group.
    Stroke research and treatment. 01/2012; 2012:923676.
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    ABSTRACT: Several clinical scales have been developed for predicting stroke recurrence. These clinical scores could be extremely useful to guide triage decisions. Our goal was to compare the very early predictive accuracy of the most relevant clinical scores [age, blood pressure, clinical features and duration of symptoms (ABCD) score, ABCD and diabetes (ABCD2) score, ABCD and brain infarction on imaging score, ABCD2 and brain infarction on imaging score, ABCD and prior TIA within 1 week of the index event (ABCD3) score, California Risk Score, Essen Stroke Risk Score and Stroke Prognosis Instrument II] in consecutive transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. Between April 2008 and December 2009, we included 1,255 consecutive TIA patients from 30 Spanish stroke centers (PROMAPA study). A neurologist treated all patients within the first 48 h after symptom onset. The duration and typology of clinical symptoms, vascular risk factors and etiological work-ups were prospectively recorded in a case report form in order to calculate established prognostic scores. We determined the early short-term risk of stroke (at 7 and 90 days). To evaluate the performance of each model, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cox proportional hazards multivariate analyses determining independent predictors of stroke recurrence using the different components of all clinical scores were calculated. We calculated clinical scales for 1,137 patients (90.6%). Seven-day and 90-day stroke risks were 2.6 and 3.8%, respectively. Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was observed in 190 patients (16.7%). We could confirm the predictive value of the ABCD3 score for stroke recurrence at the 7-day follow-up [0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.77] and 90-day follow-up (0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.70), which improved when we added vascular imaging information and derived ABCD3V scores by assigning 2 points for at least 50% symptomatic stenosis on carotid or intracranial imaging (0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.81, and 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.69, respectively). When we evaluated each component of all clinical scores using Cox regression analyses, we observed that prior TIA and LAA were independent predictors of stroke recurrence at the 7-day follow-up [hazard ratio (HR) 3.97, 95% CI 1.91-8.26, p < 0.001, and HR 3.11, 95% CI 1.47-6.58, p = 0.003, respectively] and 90-day follow-up (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.28-4.31, p = 0.006, and HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.21, p = 0.018, respectively). Conclusion: All published scores that do not take into account vascular imaging or prior TIA when identifying stroke risk after TIA failed to predict risk when applied by neurologists. Clinical scores were not able to replace extensive emergent diagnostic evaluations such as vascular imaging, and they should take into account unstable patients with recent prior transient episodes.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 01/2012; 33(2):182-9. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune encephalitis related to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies can occur as a complication of cancer but, more frequently, as a non-paraneoplastic disorder. The prompt recognition and treatment could mitigate the morbidity associated with this entity, but the broad-spectrum of neurological manifestations often makes the diagnosis a challenge. The authors describe, here, a unique case of autoimmune encephalitis related to VGKC antibodies preceded by an ischaemic stroke. Conditions associated with the stroke (infection, seizures, metabolic disturbances) had delayed the diagnosis. The authors suggest that autoimmune encephalitis needs to be taken into consideration as part of a differential diagnosis in patients with prolonged encephalopathy following an ischaemic stroke. Infection may trigger an inflammatory response. In addition, the rupture of blood brain barrier that occurs in stroke may have a pathogenic role by allowing antibodies to gain access to the central nervous system.
    Case Reports 01/2012; 2012.
  • Ana Maria Garcia, Jose Antonio Egido, Patricia Simal
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical hallmark of viral encephalitis is an acute febrile illness, but stroke-like presentations have been rarely described. We report a patient who arrived at A&E with an acute right middle cerebral artery syndrome, without fever. Following thrombolytic treatment, clinical deficit almost disappeared and a critical ipsilateral carotid stenosis was identified. Stenting was implemented and 7&emsp14;days later the patient started with high fever and reappearance of the initial deficit. Hyperperfusion syndrome and pneumonia were initially considered as the diagnosis but herpetic encephalitis (HE) was the final diagnosis. A very good response to antiviral treatment was achieved. We discuss whether the patient suffered from an unusual sudden stroke-like onset HE without encephalitic features or whether a stroke led to delayed HE.
    Case Reports 01/2012; 2012.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Update of Acute Ischaemic Stroke Treatment Guidelines of the Spanish Neurological Society based on a critical review of the literature. Recommendations are made based on levels of evidence from published data and studies. DEVELOPMENT: Organized systems of care should be implemented to ensure access to the optimal management of all acute stroke patients in stroke units. Standard of care should include treatment of blood pressure (should only be treated if values are over 185/105mmHg), treatment of hyperglycaemia over 155mg/dl, and treatment of body temperature with antipyretic drugs if it rises above 37.5°C. Neurological and systemic complications must be prevented and promptly treated. Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA should be administered within 4.5hours from symptom onset, except when there are contraindications. Intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis can be considered within 6hours, and mechanical thrombectomy within 8hours from onset, for anterior circulation strokes, while a wider window of opportunity up to 12-24hours is feasible for posterior strokes. There is not enough evidence to recommend routine use of the so called neuroprotective drugs. Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as possible. CONCLUSION: Treatment of acute ischaemic stroke includes management of patients in stroke units. Systemic thrombolysis should be considered within 4.5hours from symptom onset. Intra-arterial approaches with a wider window of opportunity can be an option in certain cases. Protective and restorative therapies are being investigated.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 12/2011; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alteplase licensing approval in Europe does not advocate intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for diabetic ischaemic stroke (IS) patients with previous cerebral infarction (PCI). Our aim was to assess whether concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and PCI are associated with symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) and poor outcome after IVT. Multicentre prospective registry, which included consecutive IVT-treated, acute IS patients from January 2003 to December 2010. The frequency of SICH (SITS-MOST criteria) and 3-month outcomes (mRS) were compared between the following groups: (i) diabetic patients with PCI (DM+/PCI+); (ii) diabetic patients without PCI (DM+/PCI-); (iii) non-diabetic patients with PCI (DM-/PCI+); and (iv) patients without diabetes or PCI (DM-/PCI-). A total of 1475 patients were included. Thirty-four patients (2.3%) had known DM and PCI, 258 (17.5%) were diabetics without PCI, and 119 (8.1%) had a PCI and no DM. Thirty-six patients (2.6%) developed SICH, with no differences between groups (P = 985). Fifteen (40.9%) DM+/PCI+ patients, 113 (46.5%) DM+/PCI- patients, 47 (42%) DM-/PCI+ patients and 414 (40.9%) DM-/PCI- patients had mRS ≥ 3 at 3 months (P = 427). The presence neither of DM nor of PCI, nor their combination, had any impact on the risk of SICH or on outcome at 3 months after adjusting for age, stroke severity and glucose levels on admission. Acute IS diabetic patients with PCI who were treated with IVT had similar outcomes to patients without such history, with no increase in the rates of SICH. Thus, they should not be excluded from IVT only on the basis of DM and PCI.
    European Journal of Neurology 11/2011; 19(4):587-93. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To update the ad hoc Committee of the Cerebrovascular Diseases Study Group of The Spanish Neurological Society guidelines on prevention of ischemic stroke (IS) and Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA). METHODS: We reviewed the available evidence on ischaemic stroke and TIA prevention according to aetiological subtype. Levels of evidence and recommendation levels are based on the classification of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: In atherothrombotic IS, antiplatelet therapy and revascularization procedures in selected cases of ipsilateral carotid stenosis (70-99%) reduce the risk of recurrences. In cardioembolic IS (atrial fibrillation, valvular diseases, prosthetic valves and myocardial infarction with mural thrombus) prevention is based on the use of oral anticoagulants. Preventive therapies for uncommon causes of IS will depend on the aetiology. In the case of cerebral venous thrombosis oral anticoagulation is effective. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with recommendations for clinical practice in prevention of IS according to the aetiological subtype presented by the patient.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 09/2011; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To update the ad hoc Committee of the Cerebrovascular Diseases Study Group of The Spanish Neurological Society guidelines on prevention of ischaemic stroke (IS) and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). METHODS: We reviewed available evidence on risk factors and the measures for their modification to prevent ischaemic stroke and TIA. Levels of evidence and recommendation grades are based on the classification of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: In this first part the recommendations for action on the following factors are summarised: blood pressure, diabetes, lipids, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity, cardio-embolic diseases, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, hormone replacement therapy and contraceptives, hyperhomocysteinemia, prothrombotic states and sleep apnea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The change in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, according to criteria of primary and secondary prevention, are recommended in preventing ischemic stroke.
    Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain) 09/2011; · 1.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

324 Citations
248 Downloads
3k Views
122.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2013
    • Hospital Clínico San Carlos
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2012
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • Hospital Universitario La Paz
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2009–2010
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006
    • Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999
    • King Juan Carlos University
      • Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud
      Móstoles, Madrid, Spain