[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiorgan inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders (NPSLE), and anti-nuclear antibodies. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies (DNRAb) cross-reactive with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, present in 30% to 40% of patients, able to enhance excitatory post-synaptic potentials and trigger neuronal apoptosis. DNRAb+ mice exhibit memory impairment or altered fear response, depending on whether the antibody penetrates the hippocampus or amygdala. Here, we used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) microPET to plot changes in brain metabolism after regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach. In DNRAb+ mice, metabolism declined at the site of BBB breach in the first 2 weeks and increased over the next 2 weeks. In contrast, DNRAb- mice exhibited metabolic increases in these regions over the 4 weeks after the insult. Memory impairment was present in DNRAb+ animals with hippocampal BBB breach and altered fear conditioning in DNRAb+ mice with amygdala BBB breach. In DNRAb+ mice, we observed an inverse relationship between neuron number and regional metabolism, while a positive correlation was observed in DNRAb- mice. These findings suggest that local metabolic alterations in this model take place through different mechanisms with distinct time courses, with important implications for the interpretation of imaging data in SLE subjects.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 14 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.85.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 05/2014; · 5.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that hyperoxia, particularly at the time of birth, may result in neurological injury, in particular to the susceptible vasculature of these tissues. This study was aimed at determining whether overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is protective against brain injury induced by hyperoxia. Transgenic (TG) mice (with an extra copy of the human extracellular superoxide dismutase gene) and wild-type (WT) neonate mice were exposed to hyperoxia (95% of F(i) o(2) ) for 7 days after birth versus the control group in room air. Brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with fludeoxyglucose (FDG) isotope uptake was performed after exposure. To assess apoptosis induced by hyperoxia exposure, caspase 3 ELISA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were performed. Quantitative western blot for the following inflammatory markers was performed: glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, macrophage-inhibiting factor, and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase. PET scanning with FDG isotope uptake showed significantly higher uptake in the WT hyperoxia neonate brain group (0.14 ± 0.03) than in both the TG group (0.09 ± 0.01) and the control group (0.08 ± 0.02) (P< 0.05). Histopathological investigation showed more apoptosis and dead neurons in hippocampus and cerebellum brain sections of WT neonate mice after exposure to hyperoxia than in TG mice; this finding was also confirmed by TUNEL staining. The caspase 3 assay confirmed the finding of more apoptosis in WT hyperoxia neonates (0.814 ± 0.112) than in the TG hyperoxic group (0.579 ± 0.144) (P < 0.05); this finding was also confirmed by TUNEL staining. Quantitative western blotting for the inflammatory and metabolic markers showed significantly higher expression in the WT group than in the TG and control groups. Thus, overexpression of EC-SOD in the neonate brain offers significant protection against hyperoxia-induced brain damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115, compound 1) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. By use of in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and microPET imaging techniques, 1 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens at (1)/(300) to (1)/(600) the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose (1)/(300) that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with 1, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, 1 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction with a significantly reduced risk of visual field defects.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2011; 55(1):357-66. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ΔE) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ΔE mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2011; 108(16):6638-43. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ((18)F, (11)C, (13)N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them.
Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides (18)F, (11)C and (13)N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission).
Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean±S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59±1.1%, 64±4.4% and 67±1.9% for (18)F, (11)C and (13)N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15.
The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 02/2011; 38(2):191-200. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.
Neurobiology of Disease 04/2010; 39(1):85-97. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a serine protease expressed in different areas of the mammalian brain. It has been used clinically to dissolve clots and shown to have a role in neurodegeneration. Early studies suggested that tPA plays an important role in the processes of learning and memory, demonstrated at the level of behavior and synaptic plasticity. Herein, we extend the behavioral characterization of these mice to the related dimension of exploratory-related behavior using an extensive battery of behavioral tests as well as the neurotransmitter metabolism associated with the behavioral measures. Our results indicate a behavior tendency in these mice consistent with "impulsivity" or reduced exploratory inhibition. These patterns are accompanied by decreased levels of serotonin in several brain regions important in behavioral regulation in the tPA(-/-) mice compared to control animals. Systemic administration of fluoxetine reversed the behavioral disinhibition of tPA(-/-) mice, further supporting an important alteration in behavior regulation mediated by serotonin systems as underappreciated but important element of the behavioral phenotype of these animals.
Brain research 02/2010; 1326:135-42. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cocaine dependence is associated with severe medical, psychiatric, and social morbidity, but no pharmacotherapy is approved for its treatment in the United States. The atypical antiepileptic vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) has shown promise in animal studies and open-label trials. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of vigabatrin for short-term cocaine abstinence in cocaine-dependent individuals.
Participants were treatment seeking parolees who were actively using cocaine and had a history of cocaine dependence. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed titration of vigabatrin (N=50) or placebo (N=53) in a 9-week double-blind trial and 4-week follow-up assessment. Cocaine use was determined by directly observed urine toxicology testing twice weekly. The primary endpoint was full abstinence for the last 3 weeks of the trial.
Full end-of-trial abstinence was achieved in 14 vigabatrin-treated subjects (28.0%) versus four subjects in the placebo arm (7.5%). Twelve subjects in the vigabatrin group and two subjects in the placebo group maintained abstinence through the follow-up period. The retention rate was 62.0% in the vigabatrin arm versus 41.5% in the placebo arm. Among subjects who reported prestudy alcohol use, vigabatrin, relative to placebo, was associated with superior self-reported full end-of-trial abstinence from alcohol (43.5% versus 6.3%). There were no differences between the two groups in drug craving, depressed mood, anxiety, or Clinical Global Impression scores, and no group differences in adverse effects emerged.
This first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial supports the safety and efficacy of short-term vigabatrin treatment of cocaine dependence.
American Journal of Psychiatry 09/2009; 166(11):1269-77. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography studies in drug-addicted patients have shown that exposure to drug-related cues increases striatal dopamine, which displaces binding of the D(2) ligand, [(11)C]-raclopride. However, it is not known if animals will also show cue-induced displacement of [(11)C]-raclopride binding. In this study, we use [(11)C]-raclopride imaging in awake rodents to capture cue-induced changes in dopamine release associated with the conditioned place preference model of drug craving. Ten animals were conditioned to receive cocaine in a contextually distinct environment from where they received saline. Following conditioning, each animal was tested for preference and then received two separate [(11)C]-raclopride scans. For each scan, animals were confined to the cocaine and/or the saline-paired environment for the first 25 min of uptake, after which they were anesthetized and scanned. [(11)C]-raclopride uptake in the saline-paired environment served as a within-animal control for uptake in the cocaine-paired environment. Cocaine produced a significant place preference (p = 0.004) and exposure to the cocaine-paired environment decreased [(11)C]-raclopride binding relative to the saline-paired environment in both the dorsal (20%; p < 0.002) and ventral striatum (22%; p < 0.05). The change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding correlated with preference in the ventral striatum (R(2) = -0.87; p = 0.003). In this region, animals who showed little or no preference exhibited little or no change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding in the cocaine-paired environment. This noninvasive procedure of monitoring neurochemical events in freely moving, behaving animals advances preclinical molecular imaging by interrogating the degree to which animal models reflect the human condition on multiple dimensions, both biological and behavioral.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(19):6176-85. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preventing relapse poses a significant challenge to the successful management of methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Although no effective medication currently exists for its treatment, racemic gamma vinyl-GABA (R,S-GVG, vigabatrin) shows enormous potential as it blocks both the neurochemical and behavioral effects of a variety of drugs, including METH, heroin, morphine, ethanol, nicotine, and cocaine. Using the reinstatement of a conditioned place preference (CPP) as an animal model of relapse, the present study specifically investigated the ability of an acute dose of R,S-GVG to block METH-triggered reinstatement of a METH-induced CPP. Animals acquired a METH CPP following a 20-day-period of conditioning, in which they received 10 pairings of alternating METH and saline injections. During conditioning, rats were assigned to one of four METH dosage groups: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg (i.p., n = 8/group). Animals in all dosage groups demonstrated a robust and consistent CPP. This CPP was subsequently extinguished in each dosage group with repeated saline administration. Upon extinction, all groups reinstated following an acute METH challenge. On the following day, an acute dose of R,S-GVG (300 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 2.5 h prior to an identical METH challenge. R,S-GVG blocked METH-triggered reinstatement in all four groups. Given that drug re-exposure may potentiate relapse to drug-seeking behavior, the ability of R,S-GVG to block METH-triggered reinstatement offers further support for its use in the successful management of METH dependence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the growing obesity epidemic, pressure to develop an effective pharmacologic treatment is mounting. Following the completion of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial as well as two small open label trials, gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) has been shown to be safe and effective for treating cocaine and/or methamphetamine dependence. In an extension of these findings, the present study examined whether GVG could produce weight loss in adolescent as well as genetically obese animals. Specifically, adolescent Sprague Dawley and adolescent and adult Zucker fatty rats received GVG at various doses (75-300 mg/kg, i.p., racemic) for treatment periods lasting no longer than 14 consecutive days. GVG produced significant weight loss in a dose dependent fashion in all groups. These effects were marked, as average decreases of 12-20% of original body weight were observed. These findings suggest that GVG may be useful as a treatment for obesity. Further, that these results occurred in genetically obese animals offers the possibility that GVG may even help manage severe obesity resulting from binge-eating, a disorder involving food consumption in a pattern similar to the compulsive drug-seeking behavior observed in cocaine and methamphetamine dependent subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated an imaging strategy that provides simultaneous measurements of radiotracer binding and behavior in awake, freely moving animals. In this strategy, animals are injected intravenously (i.v.) through a catheterized line and permitted to move freely for 30 min during uptake of the imaging agent, in this case 11C-raclopride. After this Awake Uptake period, animals are anesthetized and scanned for 25 min. We tested the utility of this strategy for measuring changes in striatal 11C-raclopride binding under control conditions (awake and freely moving in the home cage) and with several drug challenges: a loading dose of unlabeled raclopride, pretreatment with methamphetamine (METH) or pretreatment with gamma-vinyl-GABA [S+-GVG] followed by METH. An additional group of animals underwent a stress paradigm that we have previously shown increases brain dopamine. For drug challenge experiments, the change in 11C-raclopride binding was compared to data from animals that were anesthetized for the uptake period ("Anesthetized Uptake") and full time activity curves were used to calculate 11C-raclopride binding. Regardless of the drug treatment protocol, there was no difference in 11C-raclopride striatum to cerebellum ratio between the Awake versus the Anesthetized Uptake conditions. Awake and Anesthetized groups demonstrated over 90% occupancy of dopamine receptors with a loading dose of cold raclopride, both groups demonstrated approximately 30% reduction in 11C-raclopride binding from METH pretreatment and this effect was modulated to the same degree by GVG under both uptake conditions. Restraint during Awake Uptake decreased 11C-raclopride binding by 29%. These studies support a unique molecular imaging strategy in which radiotracer uptake occurs in freely moving animals, after which they are anesthetized and scanned. This imaging strategy extends the applicability of small animal PET to include functional neurotransmitter imaging and the neurochemical correlates of behavioral tasks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetone is an ubiquitous ingredient in many household products (e.g., glue solvents, air fresheners, adhesives, nail polish, and paint) that is putatively abused; however, there is little empirical evidence to suggest that acetone alone has any abuse liability. Therefore, we systematically investigated the conditioned response to inhaled acetone in a place conditioning apparatus.
Three groups of male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acetone concentrations of 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 ppm for 1 h in a conditioned place preference apparatus alternating with air for 6 pairing sessions. A place preference test ensued in an acetone-free environment. To test the preference of acetone as a function of pairings sessions, the 10,000 ppm group received an additional 6 pairings and an additional group received 3 pairings. The control group received air in both compartments. Locomotor activity was recorded by infrared photocells during each pairing session.
We noted a dose response relationship to acetone at levels 5000-20,000 ppm. However, there was no correlation of place preference as a function of pairing sessions at the 10,000 ppm level. Locomotor activity was markedly decreased in animals on acetone-paired days as compared to air-paired days.
The acetone concentrations we tested for these experiments produced a markedly decreased locomotor activity profile that resemble CNS depressants. Furthermore, a dose response relationship was observed at these pharmacologically active concentrations, however, animals did not exhibit a positive place preference.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 04/2008; 89(1):101-5. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse to drug use is a core feature of addiction. Previous studies demonstrate that γ-vinyl GABA (GVG), an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, attenuates the acute rewarding effects of cocaine and other addictive drugs. We here report that systemic administration of GVG (25–300 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibits cocaine- or sucrose-induced reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior in rats. In vivo microdialysis data indicated that the same doses of GVG dose-dependently elevate extracellular GABA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, GVG, when administered systemically or locally into the NAc, failed to inhibit either basal or cocaine-priming enhanced NAc dopamine in either naïve rats or cocaine extinction rats. These data suggest that: (1) GVG significantly inhibits cocaine- or sucrose-triggered reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior; and (2) a GABAergic-, but not dopaminergic-, dependent mechanism may underlie the antagonism by GVG of cocaine-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior, at least with respect to GVG's action on the NAc.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 01/2008; · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used 2-week and 4-week citalopram infusion (10 mg/kg/day) to determine how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) would alter 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) uptake and neurotransmitter tissue levels in male Sprague-Dawley rodents. A weekly time course of 18FDG uptake altered by chronic citalopram treatment was determined in vivo with small animal positron emission tomography (microPET). Additionally, end of study monoamine levels were measured ex vivo using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and amino acid levels were determined ex vivo with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMRS). We found increased striatal 18FDG uptake, reduced tissue levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in the striatum and prefrontal cortex, and increased striatal gamma-amino-butyric acid following 4-week citalopram infusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 11/2007; 34(7):833-47. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methamphetamine molecule has a chiral center and exists as 2 enantiomers, d-methamphetamine (the more active enantiomer) and l-methamphetamine (the less active enantiomer). d-Methamphetamine is associated with more intense stimulant effects and higher abuse liability. The objective of this study was to measure the pharmacokinetics of d-methamphetamine for comparison with both l-methamphetamine and (-)-cocaine in the baboon brain and peripheral organs and to assess the saturability and pharmacologic specificity of binding.
d- and l-methamphetamine and (-)-cocaine were labeled with (11)C via alkylation of the norprecursors with (11)C-methyl iodide using literature methods. Six different baboons were studied in 11 PET sessions at which 2 radiotracer injections were administered 2-3 h apart to determine the distribution and kinetics of (11)C-d-methamphetamine in brain and peripheral organs. Saturability and pharmacologic specificity were assessed using pretreatment with d-methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and tetrabenazine. (11)C-d-Methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were compared with (11)C-l-methamphetamine and (11)C-(-)-cocaine in both brain and peripheral organs in the same animal.
(11)C-d- and l-methamphetamine both showed high uptake and widespread distribution in the brain. Pharmacokinetics did not differ between enantiomers, and the cerebellum peaked earlier and cleared more quickly than the striatum for both. (11)C-d-Methamphetamine distribution volume ratio was not substantially affected by pretreatment with methamphetamine, methylphenidate, or tetrabenazine. Both enantiomers showed rapid, high uptake and clearance in the heart and lungs and slower uptake and clearance in the liver and kidneys. A comparison of (11)C-d-methamphetamine and (11)C-(-)-cocaine showed that (11)C-d-methamphetamine peaked later in the brain than did (11)C-(-)-cocaine and cleared more slowly. The 2 drugs showed similar behavior in all peripheral organs examined except the kidneys and pancreas, which showed higher uptake for (11)C-d-methamphetamine.
Brain pharmacokinetics did not differ between d-and l-methamphetamine and thus cannot account for the more intense stimulant effects of d-methamphetamine. Lack of pharmacologic blockade by methamphetamine indicates that the PET image represents nonspecific binding, though the fact that methamphetamine is both a transporter substrate and an inhibitor may also play a role. A comparison of (11)C-d-methamphetamine and (11)C-(-)-cocaine in the same animal showed that the slower clearance of methamphetamine is likely to contribute to its previously reported longer-lasting stimulant effects relative to those of (-)-cocaine. High kidney uptake of d-methamphetamine or its labeled metabolites may account for the reported renal toxicity of d-methamphetamine in humans.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 11/2007; 48(10):1724-32. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medically refractory seizures cause inflammation and neurodegeneration. Seizure initiation thresholds have been linked in mice to the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); mice lacking tPA exhibit resistance to seizure induction, and the ensuing inflammation and neurodegeneration are similarly suppressed. Seizure foci in humans can be examined using PET employing 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ((18)FDG) as a tracer to visualize metabolic dysfunction. However, there currently exist no such methods in mice to correlate measures of brain activation with behavior. Using a novel method for small animal PET data analysis, we examine patterns of (18)FDG uptake in wild-type and tPA(-/-) mice and find that they correlate with the severity of drug-induced seizure initiation. Furthermore, we report unexpected activations that may underlie the tPA modulation of seizure susceptibility. The methods described here should be applicable to other mouse models of human neurological disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small-animal PET provides the opportunity to image brain activation during behavioral tasks in animal models of human conditions. The present studies aimed to simplify behavioral imaging procedures without a loss of quantitation by using an intraperitoneal route of administration (no cannulation, no anesthesia) and using a standardized uptake value (SUV) to reduce scan duration.
Sixteen animals with carotid artery cannulations were studied with 18F-FDG small-animal PET accompanied by serial arterial blood sampling. Ten of these animals were anesthetized and were inside the tomograph during 18F-FDG uptake, whereas 6 animals were awake in their home cages and scanned after 60 min of uptake. Of the 10 anesthetized animals, 6 received intraperitoneal 18F-FDG, whereas 4 received intravenous 18F-FDG, and all 6 awake animals received intraperitoneal 18F-FDG. Intravenously injected animals were positioned far enough inside the tomograph to obtain region-of-interest-based measures from the heart and the brain. In all animals, a full arterial input function and plasma glucose levels were obtained. To establish the optimal time during 18F-FDG uptake for blood sampling when using an SUV, a Patlak kinetic model was used to derive absolute rates of glucose metabolism and compared with SUVs calculated using different plasma points from the arterial input function.
A single plasma point taken at 60 min after injection for intraperitoneal injections or 45 min after injection for intravenous injections provides a sensitive index of glucose metabolic rate with the highest correlation with data obtained from a fully quantitative input function.
These studies support an experimental protocol in which animals can receive the 18F-FDG tracer injection intraperitoneally, away from the small-animal tomograph and with minimal impact on behavior. Further, animals can occupy the tomograph bed for a 10- to 30-min scan with a consequent increase in animal throughput.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2007; 48(2):277-87. · 5.77 Impact Factor