[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an isoform of SOD normally found both intra- and extra-cellularly and accounting for most SOD activity in blood vessels. Here we explored the role of EC-SOD in protecting against brain damage induced by chronic hypoxia. EC-SOD Transgenic mice, were exposed to hypoxia (FiO2.1%) for 10 days (H-KI) and compared to transgenic animals housed in room air (RA-KI), wild type animals exposed to hypoxia (H-WT or wild type mice housed in room air (RA-WT). Overall brain metabolism evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET) showed that H-WT mice had significantly higher uptake of 18FDG in the brain particularly the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. H-KI mice had comparable uptake to the RA-KI and RA-WT groups. To investigate the functional state of the hippocampus, electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo hippocampal slices were performed and showed that H-KI had normal synaptic plasticity, whereas H-WT were severely affected. Markers of oxidative stress, GFAP, IBA1, MIF, and pAMPK showed similar values in the H-KI and RA-WT groups, but were significantly increased in the H-WT group. Caspase-3 assay and histopathological studies showed significant apoptosis/cell damage in the H-WT group, but no significant difference in the H-KI group compared to the RA groups. The data suggest that EC-SOD has potential prophylactic and therapeutic roles in diseases with compromised brain oxygenation.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108168. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108168 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by multiorgan inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders (NPSLE), and anti-nuclear antibodies. We previously identified a subset of anti-DNA antibodies (DNRAb) cross-reactive with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, present in 30% to 40% of patients, able to enhance excitatory post-synaptic potentials and trigger neuronal apoptosis. DNRAb+ mice exhibit memory impairment or altered fear response, depending on whether the antibody penetrates the hippocampus or amygdala. Here, we used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) microPET to plot changes in brain metabolism after regional blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach. In DNRAb+ mice, metabolism declined at the site of BBB breach in the first 2 weeks and increased over the next 2 weeks. In contrast, DNRAb- mice exhibited metabolic increases in these regions over the 4 weeks after the insult. Memory impairment was present in DNRAb+ animals with hippocampal BBB breach and altered fear conditioning in DNRAb+ mice with amygdala BBB breach. In DNRAb+ mice, we observed an inverse relationship between neuron number and regional metabolism, while a positive correlation was observed in DNRAb- mice. These findings suggest that local metabolic alterations in this model take place through different mechanisms with distinct time courses, with important implications for the interpretation of imaging data in SLE subjects.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 14 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.85.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 05/2014; 34(8). DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.85 · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) has significantly increased in past few years. Current approaches designed to treat NAS include replacement therapies with drugs like morphine and methadone. These drugs themselves are associated with significant side effects and have addictive liability. Despite implementation of these treatments, the length of stay has not significantly reduced. Objective: To test a novel prenatal strategy of using low dose GABA transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin (GVG), a non-addictive, non-narcotic GABAergic drug to attenuate naloxone induced withdrawal symptoms in neonatal rats. Method: Pregnant rats, starting from gestation day 2 were divided into morphine and saline groups. They continued to receive this therapy daily throughout gestation. The Morphine group either continued to receive morphine only, or received GVG for last five days of gestation in addition to morphine. GVG was given either at 25 mg/kg/day or 50 mg/kg/day. On post natal day 1, pups received naloxone challenge and withdrawal behaviors were video recorded. Locomotion, rolling, curling, and stretching of each pup were counted to obtain gross behavior scores, which were then compared between treatment groups. Daily weights of pregnant rats and neonates were also measured. Results: • Pups in all the groups had similar scores at baseline. On administration of naloxone, morphine group had markedly higher scores than saline group (p<0.05). In contrast, morphine + GVG50 group had significantly lower (attenuated) scores as compared to morphine alone (p<0.05). This difference was consistent across all time points. • Saline group pups had higher birth weight and better weight gain for first 3 weeks. For all remaining groups, birth weights and weight gain pattern was similar to each other. • Weight gain of pregnant rats in treatment groups were no different than each other. Conclusion: Prenatal administration of GVG to morphine dependent pregnant rats abolishes acute withdrawal behavior in pups. This prenatal GABAergic modulation can be an alternative to current treatment strategies. Objective To test a novel prenatal strategy of using low dose vigabatrin (GVG), a non-addictive, non-narcotic GABAergic drug to attenuate naloxone induced withdrawal symptoms in neonatal rats. Conclusions Prenatal administration of GVG to morphine dependent pregnant rats abolishes acute withdrawal behavior in pups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that hyperoxia, particularly at the time of birth, may result in neurological injury, in particular to the susceptible vasculature of these tissues. This study was aimed at determining whether overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is protective against brain injury induced by hyperoxia. Transgenic (TG) mice (with an extra copy of the human extracellular superoxide dismutase gene) and wild-type (WT) neonate mice were exposed to hyperoxia (95% of F(i) o(2) ) for 7 days after birth versus the control group in room air. Brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with fludeoxyglucose (FDG) isotope uptake was performed after exposure. To assess apoptosis induced by hyperoxia exposure, caspase 3 ELISA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were performed. Quantitative western blot for the following inflammatory markers was performed: glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, macrophage-inhibiting factor, and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase. PET scanning with FDG isotope uptake showed significantly higher uptake in the WT hyperoxia neonate brain group (0.14 ± 0.03) than in both the TG group (0.09 ± 0.01) and the control group (0.08 ± 0.02) (P< 0.05). Histopathological investigation showed more apoptosis and dead neurons in hippocampus and cerebellum brain sections of WT neonate mice after exposure to hyperoxia than in TG mice; this finding was also confirmed by TUNEL staining. The caspase 3 assay confirmed the finding of more apoptosis in WT hyperoxia neonates (0.814 ± 0.112) than in the TG hyperoxic group (0.579 ± 0.144) (P < 0.05); this finding was also confirmed by TUNEL staining. Quantitative western blotting for the inflammatory and metabolic markers showed significantly higher expression in the WT group than in the TG and control groups. Thus, overexpression of EC-SOD in the neonate brain offers significant protection against hyperoxia-induced brain damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115, compound 1) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. By use of in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and microPET imaging techniques, 1 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens at (1)/(300) to (1)/(600) the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose (1)/(300) that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with 1, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, 1 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction with a significantly reduced risk of visual field defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ΔE) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ΔE mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2011; 108(16):6638-43. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1016445108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET imaging in plants is receiving increased interest as a new strategy to measure plant responses to environmental stimuli and as a tool for phenotyping genetically engineered plants. PET imaging in plants, however, poses new challenges. In particular, the leaves of most plants are so thin that a large fraction of positrons emitted from PET isotopes ((18)F, (11)C, (13)N) escape while even state-of-the-art PET cameras have significant partial-volume errors for such thin objects. Although these limitations are acknowledged by researchers, little data have been published on them.
Here we measured the magnitude and distribution of escaping positrons from the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum for the radionuclides (18)F, (11)C and (13)N using a commercial small-animal PET scanner. Imaging results were compared to radionuclide concentrations measured from dissection and counting and to a Monte Carlo simulation using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission).
Simulated and experimentally determined escape fractions were consistent. The fractions of positrons (mean±S.D.) escaping the leaf parenchyma were measured to be 59±1.1%, 64±4.4% and 67±1.9% for (18)F, (11)C and (13)N, respectively. Escape fractions were lower in thicker leaf areas like the midrib. Partial-volume averaging underestimated activity concentrations in the leaf blade by a factor of 10 to 15.
The foregoing effects combine to yield PET images whose contrast does not reflect the actual activity concentrations. These errors can be largely corrected by integrating activity along the PET axis perpendicular to the leaf surface, including detection of escaped positrons, and calculating concentration using a measured leaf thickness.
Nuclear Medicine and Biology 02/2011; 38(2):191-200. DOI:10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.08.004 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.
Neurobiology of Disease 04/2010; 39(1):85-97. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.04.001 · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a serine protease expressed in different areas of the mammalian brain. It has been used clinically to dissolve clots and shown to have a role in neurodegeneration. Early studies suggested that tPA plays an important role in the processes of learning and memory, demonstrated at the level of behavior and synaptic plasticity. Herein, we extend the behavioral characterization of these mice to the related dimension of exploratory-related behavior using an extensive battery of behavioral tests as well as the neurotransmitter metabolism associated with the behavioral measures. Our results indicate a behavior tendency in these mice consistent with "impulsivity" or reduced exploratory inhibition. These patterns are accompanied by decreased levels of serotonin in several brain regions important in behavioral regulation in the tPA(-/-) mice compared to control animals. Systemic administration of fluoxetine reversed the behavioral disinhibition of tPA(-/-) mice, further supporting an important alteration in behavior regulation mediated by serotonin systems as underappreciated but important element of the behavioral phenotype of these animals.
Brain research 02/2010; 1326:135-42. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.12.095 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cocaine dependence is associated with severe medical, psychiatric, and social morbidity, but no pharmacotherapy is approved for its treatment in the United States. The atypical antiepileptic vigabatrin (gamma-vinyl gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) has shown promise in animal studies and open-label trials. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of vigabatrin for short-term cocaine abstinence in cocaine-dependent individuals.
Participants were treatment seeking parolees who were actively using cocaine and had a history of cocaine dependence. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed titration of vigabatrin (N=50) or placebo (N=53) in a 9-week double-blind trial and 4-week follow-up assessment. Cocaine use was determined by directly observed urine toxicology testing twice weekly. The primary endpoint was full abstinence for the last 3 weeks of the trial.
Full end-of-trial abstinence was achieved in 14 vigabatrin-treated subjects (28.0%) versus four subjects in the placebo arm (7.5%). Twelve subjects in the vigabatrin group and two subjects in the placebo group maintained abstinence through the follow-up period. The retention rate was 62.0% in the vigabatrin arm versus 41.5% in the placebo arm. Among subjects who reported prestudy alcohol use, vigabatrin, relative to placebo, was associated with superior self-reported full end-of-trial abstinence from alcohol (43.5% versus 6.3%). There were no differences between the two groups in drug craving, depressed mood, anxiety, or Clinical Global Impression scores, and no group differences in adverse effects emerged.
This first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial supports the safety and efficacy of short-term vigabatrin treatment of cocaine dependence.
American Journal of Psychiatry 09/2009; 166(11):1269-77. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08121811 · 13.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cue-elicited craving is modeled in rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, however it is not known whether
this CPP produces a pattern of brain activations homologous to those reported in humans. To test the hypothesis that similar
neural circuits underlie cue-elicited craving in rodents and humans, we used behavioral neuroimaging with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in freely moving rats during the expression of place preference to methamphetamine
(METH). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) correlated preference with regional changes in brain activation. We observed
increased relative FDG uptake compared to baseline in the cerebellum, thalamus, frontal, sensory and motor cortices. There
were significant decreases in the insular cortex and throughout the hippocampus. Covariate analysis revealed circuitry in
the dorsal and ventral striatum, cingulate gyrus and amygdala where relative FDG uptake correlated with individual differences
in preference. These findings demonstrate a strong overlap in those areas activated by the expression of place preference
in rodents and distinct patterns of brain activation observed with expectancy and cue-induced craving in humans. We conclude
that neuroimaging in animals enriches, and is enriched by, the field of Pavlovian conditioning as well as other fields of
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography studies in drug-addicted patients have shown that exposure to drug-related cues increases striatal dopamine, which displaces binding of the D(2) ligand, [(11)C]-raclopride. However, it is not known if animals will also show cue-induced displacement of [(11)C]-raclopride binding. In this study, we use [(11)C]-raclopride imaging in awake rodents to capture cue-induced changes in dopamine release associated with the conditioned place preference model of drug craving. Ten animals were conditioned to receive cocaine in a contextually distinct environment from where they received saline. Following conditioning, each animal was tested for preference and then received two separate [(11)C]-raclopride scans. For each scan, animals were confined to the cocaine and/or the saline-paired environment for the first 25 min of uptake, after which they were anesthetized and scanned. [(11)C]-raclopride uptake in the saline-paired environment served as a within-animal control for uptake in the cocaine-paired environment. Cocaine produced a significant place preference (p = 0.004) and exposure to the cocaine-paired environment decreased [(11)C]-raclopride binding relative to the saline-paired environment in both the dorsal (20%; p < 0.002) and ventral striatum (22%; p < 0.05). The change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding correlated with preference in the ventral striatum (R(2) = -0.87; p = 0.003). In this region, animals who showed little or no preference exhibited little or no change in [(11)C]-raclopride binding in the cocaine-paired environment. This noninvasive procedure of monitoring neurochemical events in freely moving, behaving animals advances preclinical molecular imaging by interrogating the degree to which animal models reflect the human condition on multiple dimensions, both biological and behavioral.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(19):6176-85. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5221-08.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the growing obesity epidemic, pressure to develop an effective pharmacologic treatment is mounting. Following the completion of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial as well as two small open label trials, gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) has been shown to be safe and effective for treating cocaine and/or methamphetamine dependence. In an extension of these findings, the present study examined whether GVG could produce weight loss in adolescent as well as genetically obese animals. Specifically, adolescent Sprague Dawley and adolescent and adult Zucker fatty rats received GVG at various doses (75-300 mg/kg, i.p., racemic) for treatment periods lasting no longer than 14 consecutive days. GVG produced significant weight loss in a dose dependent fashion in all groups. These effects were marked, as average decreases of 12-20% of original body weight were observed. These findings suggest that GVG may be useful as a treatment for obesity. Further, that these results occurred in genetically obese animals offers the possibility that GVG may even help manage severe obesity resulting from binge-eating, a disorder involving food consumption in a pattern similar to the compulsive drug-seeking behavior observed in cocaine and methamphetamine dependent subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse to drug use is a core feature of addiction. Previous studies demonstrate that γ-vinyl GABA (GVG), an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, attenuates the acute rewarding effects of cocaine and other addictive drugs. We here report that systemic administration of GVG (25–300 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibits cocaine- or sucrose-induced reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior in rats. In vivo microdialysis data indicated that the same doses of GVG dose-dependently elevate extracellular GABA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, GVG, when administered systemically or locally into the NAc, failed to inhibit either basal or cocaine-priming enhanced NAc dopamine in either naïve rats or cocaine extinction rats. These data suggest that: (1) GVG significantly inhibits cocaine- or sucrose-triggered reinstatement of reward-seeking behavior; and (2) a GABAergic-, but not dopaminergic-, dependent mechanism may underlie the antagonism by GVG of cocaine-triggered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior, at least with respect to GVG's action on the NAc.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 10/2008; 97(3-97):216-225. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.10.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated an imaging strategy that provides simultaneous measurements of radiotracer binding and behavior in awake, freely moving animals. In this strategy, animals are injected intravenously (i.v.) through a catheterized line and permitted to move freely for 30 min during uptake of the imaging agent, in this case 11C-raclopride. After this Awake Uptake period, animals are anesthetized and scanned for 25 min. We tested the utility of this strategy for measuring changes in striatal 11C-raclopride binding under control conditions (awake and freely moving in the home cage) and with several drug challenges: a loading dose of unlabeled raclopride, pretreatment with methamphetamine (METH) or pretreatment with gamma-vinyl-GABA [S+-GVG] followed by METH. An additional group of animals underwent a stress paradigm that we have previously shown increases brain dopamine. For drug challenge experiments, the change in 11C-raclopride binding was compared to data from animals that were anesthetized for the uptake period ("Anesthetized Uptake") and full time activity curves were used to calculate 11C-raclopride binding. Regardless of the drug treatment protocol, there was no difference in 11C-raclopride striatum to cerebellum ratio between the Awake versus the Anesthetized Uptake conditions. Awake and Anesthetized groups demonstrated over 90% occupancy of dopamine receptors with a loading dose of cold raclopride, both groups demonstrated approximately 30% reduction in 11C-raclopride binding from METH pretreatment and this effect was modulated to the same degree by GVG under both uptake conditions. Restraint during Awake Uptake decreased 11C-raclopride binding by 29%. These studies support a unique molecular imaging strategy in which radiotracer uptake occurs in freely moving animals, after which they are anesthetized and scanned. This imaging strategy extends the applicability of small animal PET to include functional neurotransmitter imaging and the neurochemical correlates of behavioral tasks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetone is an ubiquitous ingredient in many household products (e.g., glue solvents, air fresheners, adhesives, nail polish, and paint) that is putatively abused; however, there is little empirical evidence to suggest that acetone alone has any abuse liability. Therefore, we systematically investigated the conditioned response to inhaled acetone in a place conditioning apparatus.
Three groups of male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acetone concentrations of 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 ppm for 1 h in a conditioned place preference apparatus alternating with air for 6 pairing sessions. A place preference test ensued in an acetone-free environment. To test the preference of acetone as a function of pairings sessions, the 10,000 ppm group received an additional 6 pairings and an additional group received 3 pairings. The control group received air in both compartments. Locomotor activity was recorded by infrared photocells during each pairing session.
We noted a dose response relationship to acetone at levels 5000-20,000 ppm. However, there was no correlation of place preference as a function of pairing sessions at the 10,000 ppm level. Locomotor activity was markedly decreased in animals on acetone-paired days as compared to air-paired days.
The acetone concentrations we tested for these experiments produced a markedly decreased locomotor activity profile that resemble CNS depressants. Furthermore, a dose response relationship was observed at these pharmacologically active concentrations, however, animals did not exhibit a positive place preference.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preventing relapse poses a significant challenge to the successful management of methamphetamine (METH) dependence. Although no effective medication currently exists for its treatment, racemic gamma vinyl-GABA (R,S-GVG, vigabatrin) shows enormous potential as it blocks both the neurochemical and behavioral effects of a variety of drugs, including METH, heroin, morphine, ethanol, nicotine, and cocaine. Using the reinstatement of a conditioned place preference (CPP) as an animal model of relapse, the present study specifically investigated the ability of an acute dose of R,S-GVG to block METH-triggered reinstatement of a METH-induced CPP. Animals acquired a METH CPP following a 20-day-period of conditioning, in which they received 10 pairings of alternating METH and saline injections. During conditioning, rats were assigned to one of four METH dosage groups: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg (i.p., n = 8/group). Animals in all dosage groups demonstrated a robust and consistent CPP. This CPP was subsequently extinguished in each dosage group with repeated saline administration. Upon extinction, all groups reinstated following an acute METH challenge. On the following day, an acute dose of R,S-GVG (300 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 2.5 h prior to an identical METH challenge. R,S-GVG blocked METH-triggered reinstatement in all four groups. Given that drug re-exposure may potentiate relapse to drug-seeking behavior, the ability of R,S-GVG to block METH-triggered reinstatement offers further support for its use in the successful management of METH dependence.