[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether concomitant surgeries affected outcomes in a randomized trial comparing retropubic midurethral sling (MUS) vs transobturator MUS.
Subjects (n = 597) were stratified into 4 groups based on type of concomitant surgeries: group I had anterior/apical with or without posterior repairs (n = 79, 13%); group II had posterior repairs or perineorrhaphy only (n = 38, 6%); group III had nonprolapse procedures (n = 34, 6%); and group IV had no concomitant surgeries (n = 446, 75%). Complication rates, voiding dysfunction, objective and subjective surgical failure rates, and changes in urodynamic values (postop minus preop) were assessed and compared in these 4 groups.
There were no differences in complications, voiding dysfunction, and subjective failure outcomes between these 4 groups. Group I had lower odds ratio of objective surgical failure compared with group IV (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.81, P = .05). The OR of failure of all patients undergoing concomitant surgeries (groups I-III) was lower than group IV (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.95, P = .03). The change in Pdet@Qmax (from pressure-flow) was significantly higher in group III vs IV (P = .01). The change in Q(max.) (from uroflowmetry) was significantly less in groups I and II vs group IV (P = .046 and .04, respectively).
Concomitant surgeries did not increase complications. Subjects who underwent certain concomitant surgeries had lower failure rates than those undergoing slings only. These data support safety and efficacy of performing concomitant surgery at the time of MUS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the increased prevalence of obesity and pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), we estimated changes in prevalence, bother, and quality of life (QOL) for PFDs in obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. We hypothesized PFDs would improve after surgical weight loss.
The prevalence, bother, and QOL impact of PFDs were estimated using validated measures. McNemar's and paired t tests were used to compare pre- and postprocedural outcomes. Power calculations deemed that 90 individuals would achieve at least 80 % power to detect a decrease in prevalence of 12 %.
The baseline mean (± standard deviation) age and body mass index (BMI) of the 98 women were 43.3 ± 11.8 years and 39.7 ± 6.2 kg/m.(2) BMI decreased to 34.4 ± 5.8 at 6 months and 34.0 ± 5.6 at 12 months. Whereas the overall prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) decreased from 22/69 (32 %) at baseline to 10/69 (15 %) at 6 months (p = 0.006) and 14/69 (20 %) at 12 months (p = 0.027), there were no significant decreases in overall prevalence of other PFDs. However, for women with SUI, overactive bladder (OAB), and anal incontinence at baseline, 11/23 (48 %), 8/11 (73 %) and 4/20 (20 %) resolved at 12 months, respectively. Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire scores decreased from baseline to 12 months (p < 0.001). Mean visual analog scores for women with SUI, OAB, and anal incontinence decreased at 12 months.
Surgical weight loss resulted in resolution of symptoms in nearly half of women with SUI and three quarters of women with OAB and was associated with significant improvement in QOL.
International Urogynecology Journal 04/2012; 23(8):1111-6. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if differences exist in pelvic symptom distress and impact on women randomized to pessary versus behavioral therapy for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Change in symptom and condition-specific health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures were compared between pessary and behavioral groups 3 months after randomization in the Ambulatory Treatments for Leakage Associated With Stress Incontinence trial. Four hundred forty-six women with symptoms of SUI were randomized to continence pessary, behavioral therapy (pelvic floor muscle training and continence strategies) or combination therapy. Validated measures utilized included urinary, prolapse, and colorectal scales of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory; urinary, prolapse, and colorectal scales of the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire; and Stress and Urge scales of the Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis. Student t test and analysis of variance were used to compare scores within and between groups.
Mean age of participants was 49.8 (SD, 11.9) years; 84% were white, and 10% were African American. One hundred forty-nine were randomized to pessary, and 146 to behavioral therapy. Baseline symptoms and HRQOL scores were significantly reduced within treatment arms at 3 months after randomization, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups.
There was no difference in pelvic floor symptom bother and HRQOL between the pessary and behavioral therapy arms in women undergoing conservative treatment for SUI. Individualized preference issues should be considered in the approach to the nonsurgical treatment of SUI.
Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery 03/2012; 18(2):118-21.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare the outcomes of native tissue vs. biological graft-augmented repair in the posterior compartment. We hypothesized that the addition of graft would result in superior anatomic and functional outcomes.
A retrospective review of posterior repairs between 2001 and 2008 was performed to compare the anatomic and functional outcomes between native tissue and graft-augmented techniques. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used. Power calculation determined that 32 subjects were needed in each group.
One hundred twenty-four native tissue and 69 graft-augmented repairs were performed with a median follow-up of 35.8 months (range, 6 to 157 months). Anatomic success was similar for native tissue vs. graft (Bp < -1, 86% vs. 80% and Bp ≤ 0, 97% vs. 97%; all p > 0.05). Postoperative splinting and incomplete evacuation was greater in the graft group (splinting, 85% vs. 68%; p = 0.04 and incomplete evacuation, 85% vs. 64%; p = 0.03).
Long-term success of posterior repair is high. Graft augmentation does not appear to improve anatomic or functional outcomes.
International Urogynecology Journal 11/2011; 23(5):597-604. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: (1) to describe sexual function in women seeking treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); (2) to compare the impact on sexual function of three SUI treatments; and (3) to investigate whether non-surgical treatment of SUI is associated with improved sexual function. METHODS: Women with SUI were randomized to continence pessary, behavioral therapy (pelvic floor muscle training and continence strategies), or combination therapy. Sexual function was assessed at baseline and 3-months using short forms of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and the Personal Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ). Successful treatment of SUI was assessed with a patient global impression of improvement. ANOVA was used to compare scores between groups. RESULTS: At baseline, sexual function was worse among women with mixed incontinence compared to those with pure SUI. After therapy, successful treatment of SUI was associated with greater improvement in PISQ-12 score (2.26 ± 3.24 versus 0.48 ± 3.76, p=0.0007), greater improvement in incontinence with sexual activity (0.45 ± 0.84 versus 0.01 ± 0.71, p=0.0002), and greater reduction in restriction in sexual activity related to fear of incontinence (0.32 ± 0.76 versus -0.06 ± 0.78, p=0.0008). Among those successfully treated for SUI, improvement in continence during sexual activity was greater in both the combined therapy group (p=0.019) and the behavioral group (p=0.02) compared to the pessary group. CONCLUSIONS: Successful non-surgical treatment of SUI is associated with improvements in incontinence-specific measures of sexual function. Behavioral therapy may be preferred to pessary for treatment of SUI among women whose incontinence interferes with sexual function.
Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery 01/2011; 17(1):30-35.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.
A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%-70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4-5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5-10 years increase by approximately 30%-60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.
Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence.
Open Access Journal of Urology 01/2011; 3:123-132.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has the potential to decrease the burden of an operation on a patient. Limitations of the endoscopic platform require innovative solutions to provide retraction and create an operation comparable with the gold standard, laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Four patients underwent transvaginal cholecystectomy. All procedures were performed under laparoscopic vision to ensure safety. The endoscope and a long articulating RealHand instrument were placed via a 15-mm vaginal trocar. A magnetic retraction system was used to retract the gallbladder safely. Laparoscopic clips were used to ligate the cystic duct and artery. All four gallbladders were successfully removed. No complications occurred. The mean operating time was 102 min.
All four procedures were completed without complications. The four patients all were discharged shortly after surgery and reported normal sexual activity without pain.
Transvaginal cholecystectomy can be completed safely using current technology. Further studies are needed to determine the safety of the procedure and to determine whether it confers any benefits other than cosmesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the estimated prevalence of, risk factors for, and level of bother associated with subjectively reported and objectively measured pelvic organ prolapse in a racially diverse cohort.
The Reproductive Risks for Incontinence Study at Kaiser 2 is a population-based cohort study of 2,270 middle-aged and older women. Symptomatic prolapse was self-reported, and bother was assessed on a five-point scale. In 1,137 women, prolapse was measured with the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent association of prolapse and race while controlling for risk factors.
The participants' mean (standard deviation) age was 55 (9) years, and 44% were white, 20% were African American, 18% were Asian American, and 18% were Latina or other race. Seventy-four women (3%) reported symptomatic prolapse. In multivariable analysis, the risk of symptomatic prolapse was higher in white (prevalence ratio 5.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-15.12) and Latina (prevalence ratio 4.89, 95% CI 1.64-14.58) compared with African-American women. Race was not associated with report of moderate to severe bother. Degree of prolapse by POP-Q stage was similar across all racial groups; however, the risk of the leading edge of prolapse at or beyond the hymen was higher in white (prevalence ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.92) compared with African-American women.
Compared with African-American women, Latina and white women had four to five times higher risk of symptomatic prolapse, and white women had 1.4-fold higher risk of objective prolapse with leading edge of prolapse at or beyond the hymen.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2009; 114(6):1271-7. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared urinary incontinence severity measures and the impact of stress urinary incontinence in normal, overweight and obese women.
Baseline characteristics of subjects in the SISTEr (655) and the TOMUS (597) were analyzed. Body mass index was defined as normal (less than 25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25 to less than 30 kg/m(2)) and obese (30 kg/m(2) or greater). Independent urinary incontinence severity measures included a 3-day diary including incontinence episode frequency, Urogenital Distress Inventory scores and Valsalva leak point pressure from urodynamic testing. Impact was measured using the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire. Multivariable regression models were fit for each severity measure (Urogenital Distress Inventory, incontinence episode frequency, Valsalva leak point pressure and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) on weight category. Covariates included age, race, diabetes and variables significantly associated with body mass index on bivariate analysis.
Mean age (SD) of participants was 51.9 (10.3) in SISTEr and 52.9 (11.0) in TOMUS. In each trial 45% of subjects were obese. In SISTEr multivariable regression analyses showed that higher weight category was independently associated with higher mean Urogenital Distress Inventory score (p = 0.003), incontinence episode frequency (p <0.0001), Valsalva leak point pressure (p = 0.003) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire score (p = 0.0004). In TOMUS higher weight category was not associated with Urogenital Distress Inventory score (p = 0.24) but was associated with higher incontinence episode frequency (p = 0.0003), Valsalva leak point pressure (p = 0.0006) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire score (p <0.0001).
Obese women undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence report more incontinence episodes, more symptom distress and worse quality of life despite better measure of urethral function (higher Valsalva leak point pressure) on urodynamics.
The Journal of urology 12/2009; 183(2):622-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of defecatory dysfunction, and assess how defecatory dysfunction is associated with pelvic floor disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and anal incontinence.
Methods: The Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire assessed pelvic floor disorders and defecatory symptoms, including difficulty having a bowel movement and/or needing to push on the vagina or around the rectum to have or complete a bowel movement (splinting). Defecatory dysfunction was defined as having either difficulty having a bowel movement and/or splinting at least once per week. χ2 and Mann Whitney U tests were used to compare rates of defecatory dysfunction in women with and without pelvic floor disorders, and ANOVA used to compare mean visual analog scores across symptom frequency. Logistic regression assessed the relative impact of pelvic floor disorders on defecatory dysfunction.
Results: The prevalence of defecatory dysfunction was 20%. Among women with pelvic floor disorders, the prevalence of defecatory dysfunction was 60%, compared with 32% of unaffected women (P < 0.001). Mean degree of bother related to defecatory dysfunction increased linearly with frequency of symptoms (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, defecatory dysfunction was associated with (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) neurologic disease (4.45, 2.41-8.19), pelvic floor disorders (2.72, 2.20-3.35), depression (1.53, 1.20-1.95), pulmonary disease (1.42, 1.07-1.89), and pelvic surgery (1.41, 1.10-1.81).
Conclusions: Twenty percent of community-dwelling women suffer from defecatory dysfunction. Because it is common and associated with pelvic floor disorders and other comorbidities, providers caring for affected women should perform a thorough pelvic floor evaluation.
Journal of Pelvic Medicine and Surgery 06/2009; 15(4):179-187.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transvaginal cholecystectomy has been performed at several institutions using hybrid natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) techniques.
A 42-year-old woman with symptomatic cholelithiasis was taken to the operating room for transvaginal cholecystectomy after giving informed consent. A single 5-mm laparoscope was placed at the umbilicus, followed by a 15-mm trocar through the vaginal conduit. The endoscope and a long flexible RealHand surgical instrument (Novare, Cupertino, CA) were placed via the vaginal trocar. The cystic duct and artery were identified and clipped using laparoscopic clips from the umbilical port. The long articulating laparoscopic instrument provided stable retraction. Hook cautery was used to dissect the gallbladder, which was removed via the vaginal trocar. The vaginal incision was closed using a single figure-of-eight absorbable suture under direct vision. The procedure lasted 96 min.
The cholecystectomy was successfully performed without spillage of bile. The patient was kept overnight for observation only as a precaution. She reported no pain and did not require a discharge prescription for narcotics.
The described technique for NOTES cholecystectomy results in a virtually scarless operation. The single 5-mm umbilical trocar allows for safe clipping of the cystic duct. Further work is needed to determine the efficacy of this approach.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has moved quickly from preclinical investigation to clinical implementation. However, several major technical problems limit clinical NOTES including safe access, retraction and dissection of the gallbladder, and clipping of key structures. This study aimed to identify challenges and develop solutions for NOTES during the initial clinical experience.
Under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol, patients consented to a natural orifice operation for removal of either the gallbladder or the appendix via either the vagina or the stomach using a single umbilical trocar for safety and assistance.
Nine transvaginal cholecystectomies, one transgastric appendectomy, and one transvaginal appendectomy have been completed to date. All but one patient were discharged on postoperative day 1 as per protocol. No complications occurred.
The limited initial evidence from this study demonstrates that NOTES is feasible and safe. The addition of an umbilical trocar is a bridge allowing safe performance of NOTES procedures until better instruments become available. The addition of a flexible long grasper through the vagina and a flexible operating platform through the stomach has enabled the performance of NOTES in a safe and easily reproducible manner. The use of a uterine manipulator has facilitated visualization of the cul de sac in women with a uterus to allow for safe transvaginal access.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural orifice surgery has evolved from a preclinical setting into a common occurrence at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). With close to 40 transvaginal cases, we have become comfortable with this technique and are exploring other indications. One of the perceived advantages in natural orifice surgery is the potential reduction in the incidence of hernia formation. Patients with abdominal wall hernias may be at increased risk of forming additional hernias at incision sites. In addition, patients with recurrent incisional hernias may, likewise, be at increased risk. We believe that reducing or eliminating abdominal wall incisions may be of benefit in the repair of abdominal wall hernias. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgical (NOTES) approach to the repair of an abdominal wall hernia.
The patient is a 38-year-old female with a painful recurrent umbilical hernia, previously repaired 8 years prior with a polypropylene-based mesh. The patient underwent a transvaginal recurrent umbilical hernia repair with one other 5-mm port in the abdomen for safety.
The patient had no intraoperative or postoperative complications. At 5 months follow up, the patient had no complaints, no evidence of hernia recurrence, and was very pleased with her result.
The repair of primary and incisional hernias of the ventral abdominal wall via a transvaginal approach is technically feasible, and the result of our initial case was exceptional. However, there are still significant obstacles which must be addressed before this approach can be widely utilized. These obstacles include safe entrance into the abdominal cavity via a transvaginal approach, the proper mesh to be placed during the repair, and the risk of infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to assess urinary frequency in community-dwelling women.
Voiding habits were assessed in 4061 women 25-84 years of age using survey responses from the Epidemiology of Prolapse and Incontinence Questionnaire. Bother related to daytime and nighttime frequency was assessed with 100-mm visual analog scales and compared using t tests and analysis of variance.
Median daytime frequency was every 3-4 hours. Urinary frequency every 2 hours or more occurred in 27% and was more bothersome than every 3-4 hours or less (51.7 +/- 30.1 mm vs 23.6 +/- 23.7 mm; P < .001). Nocturia was reported in 72%, whereas 33% had 2 or more voids per night. Bother increased with increasing nighttime frequency (27.3 +/- 26.3 for 1 time vs 57.3 +/- 28.5 for > or = 2 times; P < .001).
Bothersome urinary frequency is common and occurs when frequency is at least every 2 hours by day and more than once per night.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 02/2009; 200(5):552.e1-7. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the prevalence and bother from pelvic floor disorders (PFD) by obesity severity, hypothesizing that both would increase with higher degrees of obesity. We performed a secondary analysis of 1,155 females enrolled in an epidemiologic study that used a validated questionnaire to identify PFD. Prevalence and degree of bother were compared across three obesity groups. Logistic regression assessed the contribution of degree of obesity to the odds of having PFD. Prevalence of any PFD was highest in morbidly (57%) and severely (53%) obese compared to obese women (44%). Regression models demonstrated higher prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and any PFD in morbidly compared to obese women and higher prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in severely obese compared to obese women. Degree of bother did not vary by degree of obesity. Prevalence of PFD increases with higher degrees of obesity.
International Urogynecology Journal 12/2008; 20(3):289-94. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between pelvic floor disorders and sexual activity and satisfaction.
Information on pelvic floor disorders, sexual activity, and satisfaction as measured by 100-mm visual analog scale was obtained by questionnaire from 4106 women. Proportions of sexually active women were compared by the presence of each pelvic floor disorder with the use of chi-square tests. Satisfaction was compared with the use of t-tests. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between each pelvic floor disorder and sexual activity and satisfaction.
Eighty-six percent of women with a partner (n = 1486) were sexually active. Women with pelvic floor disorders were less likely to be sexually active and to have lower mean satisfaction scores than unaffected women (P < .001). After regression analyses, pelvic floor disorders were not associated significantly with sexual activity or satisfaction.
In community-dwelling women, sexual activity and satisfaction are independent of pelvic floor disorders.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 08/2007; 197(1):88.e1-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence (UI) in overweight and obese women.
A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted among overweight and obese women experiencing at least 4 UI episodes per week. Women were randomly assigned to a 3-month liquid diet weight reduction program (24 in the immediate intervention group) or a wait-list delayed intervention group (24 in the wait-list control group). Participants in the wait-list control group began the weight reduction program in month 3 of the study. All women were followed for 6 months after completing the weight reduction program. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare intergroup differences in change in weekly UI episodes and quality of life scores.
A total of 48 women were randomized and 40 were assessed 3 months after randomization. Median (with 25% to 75% interquartile range [IQR]) baseline age was 52 years (IQR 47 to 59), weight was 97 kg (IQR 87 to 106) and UI episodes were 21 weekly (IQR 11 to 33). Women in the immediate intervention group had a 16 kg (IQR 9 to 20) weight reduction compared with 0 kg (IQR -2 to 2) in the wait-list control group (p <0.0001). The immediate intervention group experienced a 60% reduction (IQR 30% to 89%) in weekly UI episodes compared with 15% (IQR -9% to 25%) in the wait-list control group (p <0.0005) and had greater improvement in quality of life scores. Stress (p =0.003) and urge (p =0.03) incontinent episodes decreased in the immediate intervention vs wait-list control group. Following the weight reduction program the wait-list control group experienced a similar median reduction in weekly UI episodes (71%). Among all 40 women mean weekly UI episodes decreased 54% (95% CI 40% to 69%) after weight reduction and the improvement was maintained for 6 months.
Weight reduction is an effective treatment for overweight and obese women with UI. Weight loss of 5% to 10% has an efficacy similar to that of other nonsurgical treatments and should be considered a first line therapy for incontinence.
The Journal of Urology 07/2005; 174(1):190-5. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight reduction on urinary incontinence in moderately obese women. This prospective cohort study enrolled moderately obese women experiencing four or more incontinence episodes per week. BMI and a 7-day urinary diary were collected at baseline and on the completion of weight reduction. The study included 10 women with a mean (+/-SD) baseline BMI of 38.3 (+/-10.1) kg/m2 and 13 (+/-10) incontinent episodes per week. Participants had a mean BMI reduction of 5.3 (+/-6.2) kg/ m2 (P < 0.03). Among women achieving a weight loss of > or = 5%, 6/6 had > or = 50% reduction in incontinence frequency compared to 1 in 4 women with < 5% weight loss (P < 0.03). Incontinence episodes decreased to 8 (+/-10) per week following weight reduction (P < 0.07). The study demonstrated an association between weight reduction and improved urinary incontinence. Weight reduction should be considered for moderately obese women as part of non-surgical therapy for incontinence.
International Urogynecology Journal 01/2002; 13(1):40-3. · 2.17 Impact Factor