Kyeong-Min Lee

Kyungpook National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (13)62.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sustained elevations of glucose and free fatty acid concentration have deleterious effects on pancreatic beta cell function. One of the hallmarks of such glucolipotoxicity is a reduction in insulin gene expression, resulting from decreased insulin promoter activity. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), a lipogenic transcription factor, is related to the development of beta cell dysfunction caused by elevated concentrations of glucose and free fatty acid. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE), also known as Zhangfei, is a novel protein which interacts with SHP that mediates glucotoxicity in INS-1 rat insulinoma cells. Treatment of INS-1 cells with high concentrations of glucose and palmitate increased SREBP-1c and SMILE expression, and decreased insulin gene expression. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SREBP-1c in INS-1 cells induced SMILE expression. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SMILE (Ad-SMILE) in INS-1 cells impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as insulin gene expression. Ad-SMILE overexpression also inhibited the expression of beta-cell enriched transcription factors including pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1, beta cell E box transactivator 2 and RIPE3b1/MafA, in INS-1 cells. Finally, in COS-1 cells, expression of SMILE inhibited the insulin promoter activity induced by these same beta-cell enriched transcription factors. These results collectively suggest that SMILE plays an important role in the development of beta cell dysfunction induced by glucolipotoxicity.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(4):768-73. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in VSMCs. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP (Ad-SHP) in VSMCs inhibited angiotensin II- and TGF-β-stimulated PAI-1 expression. Ad-SHP also inhibited angiotensin II-, TGF-β- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity, and angiotensin II-stimulated AP-1 activity. The level of PAI-1 expression was significantly higher in VSMCs of SHP-/- mice than wild type mice. Moreover, loss of SHP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression after angiotensin II treatment. These results suggest that SHP inhibits PAI-1 expression in VSMCs through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 and AP-1 activity. Thus, agents that target the induction of SHP expression in VSMCs might help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 11/2009; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins is a common feature of fibrotic kidney diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that TGF-beta and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) promote the development of renal fibrosis by stimulating the generation and inhibiting the removal of matrix proteins. The small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver by inhibiting TGF-beta signaling, but whether SHP inhibits renal fibrosis is unknown. Here, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) markedly increased the expression of PAI-1, type I collagen, and fibronectin but decreased SHP gene expression. Moreover, in kidneys of SHP-/- mice, the expression of PAI-1, type I collagen, fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were higher compared with those in kidneys of wild-type mice. In addition, loss of SHP accelerated renal fibrosis after UUO. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP in cultured rat mesangial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells inhibited TGF-beta-stimulated expression of PAI-1, type I collagen, and fibronectin. SHP inhibited TGF-beta- and Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activities as well as TGF-beta-stimulated binding of Smad3 to its consensus response element on the PAI-1 promoter. Similarly, in vivo, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP in the kidney inhibited the expression of UUO-induced PAI-1, type I collagen, fibronectin, and alpha-SMA. In summary, SHP attenuates renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy, making its pathway a possible therapeutic target for chronic kidney disease.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2009; 20(10):2162-70. · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in vascular tissues is a potential factor linking diabetes to restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent studies have shown that cilostazol, a selective type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents neointimal hyperplasia and in-stent thrombosis in patients with diabetes after coronary angioplasty and stent implantation. However, the molecular mechanism of this drug has not been fully elucidated. We examined whether cilostazol inhibits PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointimal hyperplasia. We found that cilostazol effectively inhibits angiotensin II-, high glucose- and TGF-beta-stimulated PAI-1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Cilostazol attenuated PAI-1 expression in neointimal regions and inhibited neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury. Cilostazol inhibited PAI-1 expression by multiple mechanisms including downregulation of TGF-beta, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Cilostazol also inhibited transactivating activity at the PAI-1 promoter by Smad3, leading to a suppression of PAI-1 gene transcription. Taken together with its antiproliferative effect on VSMCs, this may explain how cilostazol exerts its antithrombogenic effects after angioplasty and stent implantation.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2009; 207(2):391-8. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are considered a risk factor for chronic liver disease in patients with hyperinsulinemia. Insulin increases the expression of PAI-1, and inactivates the forkhead box-containing protein FoxO1. We were interested in whether the inactivation of FoxO1 is involved in the activation of PAI-1 expression under conditions of insulin stimulation. Here, we examined whether adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active form of FoxO1 (Ad-CA-FoxO1) inhibited insulin-stimulated PAI-1 expression in human HepG2 hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells and mouse AML12 hepatocytes. Treatment of cells with insulin increased PAI-1 gene expression, and this effect was abolished by Ad-CA-FoxO1. Insulin also increased the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-induced expression of PAI-1 mRNA, and Ad-CA-FoxO1 inhibited this effect. Transient transfection assays using a reporter gene under the control of the PAI-1 promoter revealed that CA-FoxO1 inhibits Smad3-stimulated PAI-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our results indicate that FoxO1 inhibits PAI-1 expression through the inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad-mediated signaling pathways. Our data also suggest that in the hyperinsulinemic state, FoxO1 is inactivated by increased levels of insulin, and does not function as an inhibitor of TGF-beta-induced PAI-1 expression.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2009; 386(4):757-61. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SHP (small heterodimer partner) is a well-known NR (nuclear receptor) co-regulator. In the present study, we have identified a new SHP-interacting protein, termed SMILE (SHP-interacting leucine zipper protein), which was previously designated as ZF (Zhangfei) via a yeast two-hybrid system. We have determined that the SMILE gene generates two isoforms [SMILE-L (long isoform of SMILE) and SMILE-S (short isoform of SMILE)]. Mutational analysis has demonstrated that the SMILE isoforms arise from the alternative usage of initiation codons. We have confirmed the in vivo interaction and co-localization of the SMILE isoforms and SHP. Domain-mapping analysis indicates that the entire N-terminus of SHP and the middle region of SMILE-L are involved in this interaction. Interestingly, the SMILE isoforms counteract the SHP repressive effect on the transactivation of ERs (estrogen receptors) in HEK-293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large T-antigen of simian virus 40), but enhance the SHP-repressive effect in MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-435 cells. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression using siRNA (small interfering RNA) in MCF-7 cells increases ER-mediated transcriptional activity. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SMILE and SHP down-regulates estrogen-induced mRNA expression of the critical cell-cycle regulator E2F1. Collectively, these results indicate that SMILE isoforms regulate the inhibition of ER transactivation by SHP in a cell-type-specific manner and act as a novel transcriptional co-regulator in ER signalling.
    Biochemical Journal 12/2008; 416(3):463-73. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure of pancreatic beta-cells is a key factor in beta-cell function. Here we examined whether ER stress-induced activation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-6 impairs insulin gene expression via up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2), which has been shown to play a role in beta-cell dysfunction. We examined whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression, and this process is mediated by ATF6. A small interfering RNA that targeted SHP was used to determine whether the effect of ATF6 on insulin gene expression is mediated by SHP. We also measured the expression level of ATF6 in pancreatic islets in Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes. High glucose concentration (30 mmol/liter glucose) increased ER stress in INS-1 cells. ER stress induced by tunicamycin, thapsigargin, or dithiotreitol decreased insulin gene transcription. ATF6 inhibited insulin promoter activity, whereas X-box binding protein-1 and ATF4 did not. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of active form of ATF6 in INS-1 cells impaired insulin gene expression and secretion. ATF6 also down-regulated pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1 and RIPE3b1/MafA gene expression and repressed the cooperative action of pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1, RIPE3b1/MafA, and beta-cell E box transactivator 2 in stimulating insulin transcription. The ATF6-induced suppression of insulin gene expression was associated with up-regulation of SHP gene expression. Finally, we found that expression of ATF6 was increased in the pancreatic islets of diabetic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, compared with their lean, nondiabetic counterparts, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. Collectively, this study shows that ER stress-induced activation of ATF6 plays an important role in the development of beta-cell dysfunction.
    Endocrinology 06/2008; 149(8):3832-41. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 02/2008; 79. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptor (LXR)alpha and LXRbeta play important roles in fatty acid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. Although the functional roles of LXR in the liver, intestine, fat, and macrophages are well established, its role in pancreatic beta-cells has not been clearly defined. In this study, we revealed that chronic activation of LXR contributes to lipotoxicity-induced beta-cell dysfunction. We observed significantly elevated expression of LXR in the islets of diabetic rodent models, including fa/fa ZDF rats, OLETF rats, and db/db mice. In primary pancreatic islets and INS-1 insulinoma cells, activation of LXR with a synthetic ligand, T0901317, stimulated expression of the lipogenic genes ADD1/SREBP1c, FAS, and ACC and resulted in increased intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, chronic LXR activation induced apoptosis in pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells, which was synergistically promoted by high glucose conditions. Taken together, we suggest lipid accumulation caused by chronic activation of LXR in beta-cells as a possible cause of beta-cell lipotoxicity, a key step in the development of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes 07/2007; 56(6):1534-43. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged elevations of glucose concentration have deleterious effects on beta-cell function. One of the hallmarks of such glucotoxicity is a reduction in insulin gene expression, resulting from decreased insulin promoter activity. Small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that inhibits nuclear receptor signaling in diverse metabolic pathways. In this study, we found that sustained culture of INS-1 cells at high glucose concentrations leads to an increase in SHP mRNA expression, followed by a decrease in insulin gene expression. Inhibition of endogenous SHP gene expression by small interfering RNA partially restored high-glucose-induced suppression of the insulin gene. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SHP in INS-1 cells impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as insulin gene expression. SHP downregulates insulin gene expression via two mechanisms: by downregulating PDX-1 and MafA gene expression and by inhibiting p300-mediated pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor 1-and BETA2-dependent transcriptional activity from the insulin promoter. Finally, the pancreatic islets of diabetic OLETF rats express SHP mRNA at higher levels than the islets from LETO rats. These results collectively suggest that SHP plays an important role in the development of beta-cell dysfunction induced by glucotoxicity.
    Diabetes 03/2007; 56(2):431-7. · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation induced by the proinflammatory cytokine/NF-kappaB pathway is one of the key mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays an important role in the prevention of arterial inflammation and formation of atherogenesis. Herein we examine the effects of a newly identified synthetic PPARgamma ligand, ascochlorin-6 (AS-6), on TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activity and inflammatory molecule expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). AS-6 successfully inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activity and inflammatory molecule expression, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and fractalkine (CX3CL1). Transient transfection with an [NF-kappaB]x4 luciferase reporter construct showed that AS-6 inhibition of TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation was PPARgamma-dependent. The effects of AS-6 on TNF-alpha-stimulated VCAM-1 and CX3CL1 expression were abolished in cells transfected with an adenovirus expressing dominant-negative PPARgamma and in cells treated with a PPARgamma specific inhibitor, GW9662, confirming again that the anti-inflammatory effect of AS-6 was PPARgamma-dependent. The inhibitory effects of AS-6 on TNF-alpha-stimulated inflammatory gene expression and NF-kappaB activation were more potent than those of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. This study shows that AS-6 reduces the inflammatory response to TNF-alpha in VSMCs. The data suggest the possibility that AS-6 can be used to prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
    Life Sciences 01/2007; 80(2):120-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation induced by the proinflammatory cytokine/NF-kappaB pathway is one of the key mechanisms in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Accumulating evidence suggests that a recently identified chemokine, fractalkine, is involved in arterial inflammation and atherogenesis. However, no study has examined the expression of neointimal fractalkine and the effects of pharmacological agents on this process. The purposes of this study were to measure neointimal fractalkine expression in the rat carotid artery following balloon injury and to determine if alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) inhibits fractalkine expression and neointimal hyperplasia. Balloon injury of the rat carotid artery induced fractalkine expression in the medial as well as neointimal regions. ALA inhibited this expression and consequently prevented neoinitmal hyperplasia in a balloon-injured rat carotid artery. Additionally, ALA inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated fractalkine expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a process which is mediated through the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition to fractalkine, ALA successfully inhibited TNF-alpha-stimulated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in cultured VSMCs. These data suggest that the cytokine-fractalkine system is involved in the pathogenesis of restenosis. The present study supports the possibility that ALA, which inhibits the NF-kappaB/fractalkine pathway, may be used to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty or stenting.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2006; 189(1):106-14. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neointimal formation, the leading cause of restenosis, is caused by proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Patients with diabetes mellitus have higher restenosis rates after coronary angioplasty than nondiabetic patients. Cilostazol, a selective type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is currently used to treat patients with diabetic vascular complications. Cilostazol is a potent antiplatelet agent that inhibits VSMC proliferation. In the present study, we examine whether the antiproliferative effect of cilostazol on VSMCs is mediated by inhibition of an important cell cycle transcription factor, E2F. Cilostazol inhibited the proliferation of human VSMCs in response to high glucose in vitro and virtually abolished neointimal formation in rats subjected to carotid artery injury in vivo. Moreover, the compound suppressed high-glucose-induced E2F-DNA binding activity, and the expression of E2F1, E2F2, cyclin A, and PCNA proteins. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of cilostazol on high-glucose-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs are mediated by the downregulation of E2F activity and expression of its downstream target genes, including E2F1, E2F2, cyclin A, and PCNA.
    Hypertension 05/2005; 45(4):552-6. · 7.63 Impact Factor