[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a poorly understood group of disorders caused by one or more genetic aberrations in the bone marrow-derived cell line responsible for hematopoiesis. Recent advances in genetic medicine have offered new insights into the epigenesis as well as the prognosis of MDS, but have not resulted in new or improved curative treatment options. Bone marrow transplantation, introduced before the advent of genetic medicine, is still the only potential cure. Advances in other medical and pharmaceutical areas have broadened the scope of supportive care and disease-modifying therapies, and treating physicians now have a broad range of disease management options depending on a patient's likely prognosis. There is now clear evidence that appropriate supportive care and therapeutic intervention can improve progression-free and overall survival of MDS patients.
Expert Review of Hematology 04/2013; 6(2):165-89. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency causes accumulation of mutant alpha-1 antitrypsin molecules in hepatocytes, and is attributed to severe liver injury even in heterozygous state. However, there is a question as to whether alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is only a cause of liver injury or has a worsening effect on the underlying liver disease. We aimed to determine the role of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in the ongoing chronic hepatitic process. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis by liver biopsy (36 chronic hepatitis B virus, 8 chronic hepatitis C virus, 7 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 2 primary biliary cirrhosis, and 1 autoimmune hepatitis) and 51 ageand sex-matched control subjects chosen from among healthy blood donors were included in the study. Isoelectric focusing for identifying alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes was performed in all patients and control subjects, whereas the histopathological examination was done only in patients. Results: Alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient variant was absent in patients and controls. The mean serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level was significantly lower in patients (157.4±33 mg/dl) than controls (134.8±30 mg/dl) (p<0.00). Histological activity index and fibrosis grade in the liver were not related to the serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level (p: 0.276 and 0.902, respectively). Additionally, the serum alpha-1 antitrypsin levels among normal variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin did not differ according to the underlying liver diseases (p: 0.928). Conclusions: This prospective case-control study could not define any additional effect of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency on liver histopathology in chronic hepatitis patients.
The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 23(5):569-73. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dasatinib is considered an effective treatment agent in imatinib-resistant and newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients. Patients receiving dasatinib 100 mg once daily regime suffered significantly fewer thrombocytopenia and pleural effusion events than those receving 70 mg twice daily. Effective molecular monitoring and the proper management of pleural effusion during the first-line dasatinib administration in CML are essential. Pleural effusion may develop any time of the treatment and is easily managed by treatment interruption, dose reduction and supportive therapy. In this article, we intended to assess the rational of managing CML and pleural effusion that successfully managed with dose reduction and supportive care.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective multicenter phase III clinical trial was designed to assess efficacy and safety of G-CSF as an adjunct to de novo AML remission induction therapy (www.clinicaltrials.gov. NCT00820976). Patients' characteristics were similar in both arms. G-CSF improved severity and duration of leukopenia. Three-year OS were similar (25.6 ± 5.1% vs. 31.8 ± 5.6%) in both arms except for patients with myeloblastic features. Significant factors for better survival were the use of G-CSF (p=0.049), female sex (p=0.05) and single induction cycle (p<0.001) in multivariate analysis. Female patients performed better than male patients. Better survival obtained among female AML patients needs to be validated within the context of cytogenetic analysis.
Leukemia research 03/2011; 35(3):340-5. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current treatment of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) consists of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, high-risk CML may present with an aggressive course which may result in blastic crisis or a "difficult-to-manage" state with available treatments. The aim of this paper is to report a patient with complicated CML resistant to treatment and progressed despite the administration of bosutinib, imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, dasatinib, interferon alpha 2a, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The striking point of this case story is that no Abl kinase domain mutation against TKIs has been detected during this very complicated disease course of CML. Meanwhile, challenging cases will always be present despite the hope and progress in CML in the TKI era.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder leading to the defective defence system against neutrophil elastasis in lung and accumulation of insoluble heterodimer AT molecules in hepatocytes. Knowledge of the prevalence of AT deficiency in each country is important to organize the public health policy. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of AT deficiency in Turkish population and to define the cutoff value of AT level in serum to detect heterozygous AT deficient subjects.
Serum samples from 1,203 healthy blood donors were used, attending the Blood Bank of Hacettepe Medical Faculty. Isoelectric focusing method for determining PIM, PIS, and PIZ alleles and rate immune nephelometry for measuring the level of AT in serum were used.
Out of 1,203 healthy blood donors enrolled, 1,164 (%96.8) had normal variant PI MM allelee, 9 (%0.7) PI MZ, 7 (%0.6) PI MS, 6 (%0.5) MF, and 17 (%1.4) PI M? (unidentified variants with existing standards). Most individuals (89.6%) with low AT level (cutoff <100 mg/dl) in serum were positive for PI MM allele. The cutoff value to investigate PI MZ was 100.5 mg/dl, which had PPV and NPV of 5.0 and 99.9%, respectively. AT deficiency is a rare hereditary disorder in asymptomatic healthy Turkish blood donors. Although the cutoff value of 100.5 mg/dl for AT level in serum was able to detect heterozygous AT deficiency in the healthy population, this finding should be conformed to case-control studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation in bone marrow in an autocrine-paracrine manner, and it modulates normal and neoplastic haematopoietic cell proliferation. This study aimed to assess expressions of the RAS components, renin, angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), during imatinib mesylate treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Expressions of RAS components were studied in patients with CML at the time of diagnosis (n = 83) and at 3, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis (n = 35) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. De novo CML patients had increased ACE, angiotensinogen and renin mRNA levels and these expression levels decreased following administration of imatinib. The RAS activities were significantly different among Sokal risk groups of CML, highlighting the altered biological activity of RAS in neoplastic disorders. The results of this study confirm that haematopoietic RAS affects neoplastic cell production, which may be altered via administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate.
The Journal of international medical research 08/2009; 37(4):1018-28. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest an enhanced endothelial and platelet nitric oxide (NO) generation after statin treatment, possibly due to increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and protein levels. In parallel with experimental research, statins were shown to increase the forearm blood flow independently of serum cholesterol in humans. However, it was not possible to correlate blood flow changes with eNOS levels in these studies due to limitations in obtaining arterial samples. Hence, we investigated changes in eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels after statin treatment in human platelets, which are readily accessible unlike arteries.
In vitro bleeding times were measured in 22 patients by stimulating platelets with collagen-epinephrine or collagen-ADP. To assess platelet eNOS activity, the bleeding times were also determined after incubating platelets with L-arginine. The measurements were repeated following 14 days of pravastatin (40 mg/day) treatment. Platelet-rich plasma was collected before and after statin treatment to evaluate eNOS mRNA (semiquantitative RT-PCR) and protein levels (Western blotting).
The basal bleeding time was prolonged by 24 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE) when the samples were incubated with 500 microM of L-arginine. The NOS inhibitor L-N(5)-(I-iminoethyl)ornithine reversed this effect, suggesting that it was mediated by NO. After statin treatment, the NO-mediated prolongation of the bleeding time with 500 microM of L-arginine was significantly potentiated (to 44 +/- 10%). Despite enhanced eNOS activity, there was no significant change in platelet eNOS mRNA and protein levels after statin treatment.
These data demonstrate that platelet eNOS activity is potentiated after statin treatment in humans in parallel with experimental studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether elevated levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) may contribute to thrombotic risk for patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to investigate the possible correlations between TAFI activity level and other conventional risk factors.
Ninety patients with RVO (cases), except those receiving medication affecting the study parameters, those undergoing a surgical procedure within the last week, and those with kidney and/or liver failure, were enrolled in the study. The control group included similar patients matched for age and sex. After written informed consent was obtained, parameters including TAFI activity levels, conventional risk factors, results of routine hematological examination, and factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were evaluated by analysis of blood samples obtained after an 8-hour fast.
Although TAFI activity levels were slightly elevated in cases (190.5 +/- 43.8) compared with controls (183.9 +/- 41.8), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). According to evaluation of TAFI activity in subgroups (>200%, 150-200%, and 0-150%), 36.7% with central RVO, 40.0% with branch RVO, and 30% of controls were found to have TAFI activity of >200% (P = 0.83). TAFI activity levels did not correlate with age, sex, demographics, clinical status, and hematological variables. Finally, in stepwise regression analysis, TAFIa (carboxypeptidase U) activity was not found to be an important risk factor for RVO.
On the basis of these data, TAFI activity was not found to be a new risk factor for either type of RVO. However, further larger studies may better identify the exact role of TAFI in the pathogenesis of RVO.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the systemic and thrombophilic risk factors for retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to determine whether the elevated level of soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) is a risk factor for thrombosis.
In this case-control study, 56 patients with central RVO (CRVO), 26 patients with branch RVO (BRVO) and 78 healthy sex- and age-matched subjects were enrolled. Following ophthalmological examination, venous blood was analysed for glucose, lipid profile, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, factor VIII, protein C activity, protein S activity, activated protein C resistance, antithrombin III activity, lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibody, anti-phospholipid antibody, sEPCR, factor V Leiden mutation and prothrombin G20210A mutation.
Apart from hypertension, glaucoma, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine and factor VIII, elevated levels of sEPCR were found to be a risk factor for CRVO (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.028; P = 0.001). Patients with CRVO had significantly higher levels of sEPCR than those with BRVO and controls (respectively, 160.1 +/- 83.8, 116.8 +/- 65.2 and 111.3 +/- 60.5; P = 0.005). Moreover, 39% of patients with CRVO had levels of sEPCR more than 200 ng/mL, and only 5% of controls and 11% of patients with BRVO had similar high levels.
Besides known classical risk factors, elevated levels of sEPCR seem to be an important candidate risk factor for especially CRVO.
Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 01/2006; 34(4):305-11. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of the HFE gene, C282Y and H63D mutations have been reported as significantly correlated with clinically manifested hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). As the other genes involved in iron metabolism have been described, non-HFE cases of HH have been identified. Since in the general Turkish population, the C282Y mutation is not found and the H63D mutation is of high frequency, we aimed to determine mutations in the HFE genes in our patients with HH. The HFE gene of the five patients with HH were sequenced. C282Y mutation was absent, and all HH patients were heterozygote for H63D mutation. No other mutation was found in HFE gene by sequencing. Although the higher allele frequency of the H63D mutation in Turkish HH patients than in the general population implies a role of the H63D mutation in iron overload, there is a strong possibility that Turkish HH patients have non-HFE hemochromatosis.
Annals of Hematology 11/2005; 84(10):646-9. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local bone marrow (BM) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an autocrine-paracrine system affecting normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. Angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptors are present on the CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Angiotensin II stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of the HSC populations through the activation of AT1 receptors on HSC. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of HSC. The existence of a complete local UCB RAS has not been previously investigated. In this study, local synthesis of the major RAS components, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), renin, and angiotensinogen, was identified by demonstrating their corresponding mRNAs using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in human UCB. Local RAS could regulate cellular growth in a variety of tissues including the BM. Major RAS peptides can exert significant effects on primitive pluripotential HSC populations. Further studies should focus on the interactions between possible autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and intracrine actions of the local UCB RAS and growth, engraftment, differentiation, and plasticity functions of HSC of UCB origin.
Annals of Hematology 06/2005; 84(5):277-81. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An elevated platelet count is a common finding in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Thrombosis and bleeding complications are more frequently observed in patients with clonal thrombocytosis than secondary thrombocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviors of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), the inhibitor of fibrinolysis; and thromboxane A2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, the products of endoperoxides, in 16 patients affected with clonal thrombocytemia as compared with 16 patients with reactive thrombocytosis and 15 normal controls. In the clonal thrombocytemia group, plasma levels of PAI-1 antigen and activity were significantly higher than both reactive thrombocytosis and control group. Plasma levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha were significantly higher in the clonal thrombocytemia group than the other two groups and also higher in the reactive thrombocytosis group than the control group, which was also significant. This study confirms that arachidonate metabolism is frequently deranged in patients with thrombocytosis and hypofibrinolysis due to increased PAI-1 plasma levels as shown in the clonal thrombocytosis group. This may explain the thrombotic tendency in myeloproliferative disorders.
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 05/2005; 11(2):197-201. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia represents a major problem in the management of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The data regarding the alterations of endogenous thrombopoietin (TPO) regulation during the clinical course of AML are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate endogenous TPO dynamics in association with platelets during the clinical course of AML. We serially measured both TPO and platelets concurrently over the entire treatment period of newly diagnosed patients receiving both remission induction and consolidation chemotherapies. The median concentration of TPO in AML patients at the initial diagnosis was 469.71 pg/ml and increased significantly during the aplastic period due to remission induction chemotherapy (median: 1085.33 pg/ml) but then decreased to a level (median: 45.26 pg/ml) encountered in the healthy control subjects (median: 56.90 pg/ml). In the cytopenic period due to consolidation treatment, TPO level again increased significantly to a high level (median: 891.38 pg/ml) during the platelet nadir, but decreased toward normal (median: 100.75 pg/ml) after the thrombocytopenic period had elapsed. In conclusion, endogenous TPO levels exhibit an inverse fluctuation in relation to platelet counts during the clinical course of AML. Pharmacological stimulation of thrombopoiesis in AML with novel molecules, including the recombinant thrombopoietins and the small peptide agonists, should be based on a critical administration strategy that must consider the endogenous levels of TPO. TPO levels in distinct AML disease states may explain the unsuccessful recombinant TPO trials and could help to design better strategies for 'pharmacological stimulation of thrombopoiesis' in AML.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C282Y and H63D mutations of HFE gene are associated with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), the most common autosomal recessive disorder in European population. This is the first Turkish population study of, the prevalence of these mutations.
2677 healthy volunteer blood donors were screened by means of transferrin saturation (TS) with the cutoff value of 45. As study group, 86 donors with a TS 45 or higher and as control group 57 donors with TS less than 45 were tested for these mutations, ferritin, and alanin aminotransferase (ALT) levels.
The mean age of donors were 33+/-9 and 94.1% of them were male. The number of donors with TS 45 or higher was 265 (9.9%). C282Y mutation was not detected. The frequency of H63D mutation in the study, control and general groups were 27.32%, 21.05%, and 24.83%, respectively. As a result, the H63D mutation was present in 60 out of 143 participants in whom 49 were heterozygote (frequency of heterozygote allele 49/286 = 17.13%), 11 were homozygote (frequency of homozygote allele 22/286 = 7.69%). Serum ALT and TS were not affected from the type of H63D mutation. There was no difference in ferritin levels according to type of H63D mutations among 143 blood donors.
This study revealed the absence of C282Y mutation in our population. Although the frequency of H63D heterozygosity seems to be higher than the other population, the genetic screening for the HFE gene mutation is inadequate and the phenotypic screening with TS and ferritin seems to be preferable in Turkish population.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10/2004; 38(8):671-5. · 3.20 Impact Factor