[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In fission yeast, the Rpa1-D223Y mutation provokes telomere shortening. Here, we show that this mutation impairs lagging-strand telomere replication and leads to the accumulation of secondary structures and recruitment of the homologous recombination factor Rad52. The presence of these secondary DNA structures correlates with reduced association of shelterin subunits Pot1 and Ccq1 at telomeres. Strikingly, heterologous expression of the budding yeast Pif1 known to efficiently unwind G-quadruplex rescues all the telomeric defects of the D223Y cells. Furthermore, in vitro data show that the identical D to Y mutation in human RPA specifically affects its ability to bind G-quadruplex. We propose that RPA prevents the formation of G-quadruplex structures at lagging-strand telomeres to promote shelterin association and facilitate telomerase action at telomeres.
The EMBO Journal 06/2015; 34(14). DOI:10.15252/embj.201490773 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA binding protein that plays an essential role in telomere maintenance. RPA binds to and unfolds G-quadruplex (G4) structures formed in telomeric DNA, thus facilitating lagging strand DNA replication and telomerase activity. To investigate the effect of G4 stability on the interactions with human RPA (hRPA), we used a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches. Our data revealed an inverse relationship between G4 stability and ability of hRPA to bind to telomeric DNA; notably small G4 ligands that enhance G4 stability strongly impaired G4 unfolding by hRPA. To gain more insight into the mechanism of binding and unfolding of telomeric G4 structures by RPA, we carried out photo-crosslinking experiments to elucidate the spatial arrangement of the RPA subunits along the DNA strands. Our results showed that RPA1 and RPA2 are arranged from 5' to 3' along the unfolded telomeric G4, as already described for unstructured single-stranded DNA, while no contact is possible with RPA3 on this short oligonucleotide. In addition, these data are compatible with a 5' to 3' directionality in G4 unfolding by hRPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo the DNA polymerases are responsible for replicative and repair DNA synthesis. These enzymes use the pre-existing 3'-OH group of a primer annealed to a single-stranded DNA template to incorporate monophosphate deoxynucleosides (dNMPs) in a sequential and directional manner. Although all DNA polymerases share a similar catalytic core constituted by a palm, a thumb and a fingers domain and a similar chemical mechanism of dNMP incorporation that requires two metal cations, they intrinsically differ by the nature of the step that controls the incorporation of dNMP and by their capacity to cope with lesions. Several factors, such as the size of the active site, the flexibility of the DNA in the active site or the presence of protein subdomains devoid of known catalytic activity but able to accommodate small DNA loops, control the fidelity of DNA polymerases. Auxiliary replication factors, such as the processivity factor or the single-stranded DNA binding protein, can also modulate the intrinsic properties of DNA polymerases and therefore fine-tune the.
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17(1):509-44. DOI:10.2741/3941 · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tah18-Dre2 is a recently identified yeast protein complex, which is highly conserved in human and has been implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress induced cell death and in cytosolic Fe-S proteins synthesis. Tah18 is a diflavin oxido-reductase with binding sites for flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which is able to transfer electrons to Dre2 Fe-S clusters. In this work we characterized in details the interaction between Tah18 and Dre2, and analysed how it conditions yeast viability. We show that Dre2 C-terminus interacts in vivo and in vitro with the flavin mononucleotide- and flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding sites of Tah18. Neither the absence of the electron donor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-binding domain in purified Tah18 nor the absence of Fe-S in aerobically purified Dre2 prevents the binding in vitro. In vivo, when this interaction is affected in a dre2 mutant, yeast viability is reduced. Conversely, enhancing artificially the interaction between mutated Dre2 and Tah18 restores cellular viability despite still reduced cytosolic Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. We conclude that Tah18-Dre2 interaction in vivo is essential for yeast viability. Our study may provide new insight into the survival/death switch involving this complex in yeast and in human cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Instability of repetitive sequences originates from strand misalignment during repair or replicative DNA synthesis. To investigate the activity of reconstituted T4 replisomes across trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) during leading strand DNA synthesis, we developed a method to build replication miniforks containing a TNR unit of defined sequence and length. Each minifork consists of three strands, primer, leading strand template, and lagging strand template with a 5' single-stranded (ss) tail. Each strand is prepared independently, and the minifork is assembled by hybridization of the three strands. Using these miniforks and a minimal reconstituted T4 replisome, we show that during leading strand DNA synthesis, the dNTP concentration dictates which strand of the structure-forming 5'CAG/5'CTG repeat creates the strongest impediment to the minimal replication complex. We discuss this result in the light of the known fluctuation of dNTP concentration during the cell cycle and cell growth and the known concentration balance among individual dNTPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins are essential proteins of DNA metabolism. We characterized the binding of the bacteriophage T4 SSB, Escherichia coli SSB, human replication protein A (hRPA), and human hSSB1 proteins onto model miniforks and double-stranded-single-stranded (ds-ss) junctions exposing 3' or 5' ssDNA overhangs. T4 SSB proteins, E. coli SSB proteins, and hRPA have a different binding preference for the ss tail exposed on model miniforks and ds-ss junctions. The T4 SSB protein preferentially binds substrates with 5' ss tails, whereas the E. coli SSB protein and hRPA show a preference for substrates with 3' ss overhangs. When interacting with ds-ss junctions or miniforks, the T4 SSB protein, E. coli SSB protein, and hRPA can destabilize not only the ds part of a ds-ss junction but also the daughter ds arm of a minifork. The T4 SSB protein displays these unwinding activities in a polar manner. Taken together, our results position the SSB protein as a potential key player in the reversal of a stalled replication fork and in gap repair-mediated repetitive sequence expansion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mutated allele of the essential gene TAH18 was previously identified in our laboratory in a genetic screen for new proteins interacting with the DNA polymerase delta in yeast . The present work shows that Tah18 plays a role in response to oxidative stress. After exposure to lethal doses of H(2)O(2), GFP-Tah18 relocalizes to the mitochondria and controls mitochondria integrity and cell death. Dre2, an essential Fe/S cluster protein and homologue of human anti-apoptotic Ciapin1, was identified as a molecular partner of Tah18 in the absence of stress. Moreover, Ciapin1 is able to replace yeast Dre2 in vivo and physically interacts with Tah18. Our results are in favour of an oxidative stress-induced cell death in yeast that involves mitochondria and is controlled by the newly identified Dre2-Tah18 complex.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(2):e4376. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0004376 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small insertions and deletions of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) can occur by polymerase slippage and hairpin formation on either template or newly synthesized strands during replication. Although not predicted by a slippage model, deletions occur preferentially when 5'-CTG is in the lagging strand template and are highly favored over insertion events in rapidly replicating cells. The mechanism for the deletion bias and the orientation dependence of TNR instability is poorly understood. We report here that there is an orientation-dependent impediment to polymerase progression on 5'-CAG and 5'-CTG repeats that can be relieved by the binding of single-stranded DNA-binding protein. The block depends on the primary sequence of the TNR but does not correlate with the thermodynamic stability of hairpins. The orientation-dependent block of polymerase passage is the strongest when 5'-CAG is the template. We propose a "template-push" model in which the slow speed of DNA polymerase across the 5'-CAG leading strand template creates a threat to helicase-polymerase coupling. To prevent uncoupling, the TNR template is pushed out and by-passed. Hairpins do not cause the block, but appear to occur as a consequence of polymerase pass-over.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replicative DNA polymerases, such as T4 polymerase, possess both elongation and 3'-5' exonuclease proofreading catalytic activities. They arrest at the base preceding DNA damage on the coding DNA strand and specialized DNA polymerases have evolved to replicate across the lesion by a process known as TLS (translesion DNA synthesis). TLS is considered to take place in two steps that often require different enzymes, insertion of a nucleotide opposite the damaged template base followed by extension from the inserted nucleotide. We and others have observed that inactivation of the 3'-5' exonuclease function of T4 polymerase enables TLS across a single site-specific abasic [AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic)] lesion. In the present study we report a role for auxiliary replicative factors in this reaction. When replication is performed with a large excess of DNA template over DNA polymerase in the absence of auxiliary factors, the exo- polymerase (T4 DNA polymerase deficient in the 3'-5' exonuclease activity) inserts one nucleotide opposite the AP site but does not extend past the lesion. Addition of the clamp processivity factor and the clamp loader complex restores primer extension across an AP lesion on a circular AP-containing DNA substrate by the exo- polymerase, but has no effect on the wild-type enzyme. Hence T4 DNA polymerase exhibits a variety of responses to DNA damage. It can behave as a replicative polymerase or (in the absence of proofreading activity) as a specialized DNA polymerase and carry out TLS. As a specialized polymerase it can function either as an inserter or (with the help of accessory proteins) as an extender. The capacity to separate these distinct functions in a single DNA polymerase provides insight into the biochemical requirements for translesion DNA synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compare the activities of the wild-type (gp41WT) and mutant (gp41delta C20) forms of the bacteriophage T4 replication helicase. In the gp41delta C20 mutant the helicase subunits have been genetically truncated to remove the 20 residue C-terminal tail peptide domains present in the wild-type enzyme. Here, we examine the interactions of these helicase forms with the T4 gp59 helicase loader and the gp32 single-stranded DNA binding proteins, both of which are physically and functionally coupled with the helicase in the T4 DNA replication complex. We show that the wild-type and mutant forms of the helicase do not differ in their ability to assemble into dimers and hexamers, nor in their interactions with gp61 (the T4 primase). However they do differ in their gp59-stimulated unwinding activities and in their abilities to translocate along a ssDNA strand that has been coated with gp32. We demonstrate that functional coupling between gp59 and gp41 involves direct interactions between the C-terminal tail peptides of the helicase subunits and the loading protein, and measure the energetics and kinetics of these interactions. This work helps to define a gp41-gp59 assembly pathway that involves an initial interaction between the C-terminal tails of the helicases and the gp59 loader proteins, followed by a conformational change of the helicase subunits that exposes new interaction surfaces, which can then be trapped by the gp59 protein. Our results suggest that the gp41-gp59 complex is then poised to bind ssDNA portions of the replication fork. We suggest that one of the important functions of gp59 may be to aid in the exposure of the ssDNA binding sites of the helicase subunits, which are otherwise masked and regulated by interactions with the helicase carboxy-terminal tail peptides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we have investigated the consequences of the loss of proof-reading exonuclease function on the ability of the replicative T4 DNA polymerase (gp43) to elongate past a single abasic site located on model DNA substrates. Our results show that wild-type T4 DNA polymerase stopped at the base preceding the lesion on two linear substrates having different sequences, whereas the gp43 D219A exonuclease-deficient mutant was capable of efficient bypass when replicating the same substrates. The structure of the DNA template did not influence the behavior of the exonuclease-proficient or deficient T4 DNA polymerases. In fact, when replicating a damaged "minicircle" DNA substrate constructed by circularizing one of the linear DNA, elongation by wild-type enzyme was still completely blocked by the abasic site, while the D219A mutant was capable of bypass. During DNA replication, the T4 DNA polymerase associates with accessory factors whose combined action increases the polymerase-binding capacity and processivity, and could modulate the behavior of the enzyme towards an abasic site. We thus performed experiments measuring the ability of wild-type and exonuclease-deficient T4 DNA polymerases, in conjunction with these replicative accessory proteins, to perform translesion DNA replication on linear or circular damaged DNA substrates. We found no evidence of either stimulation or inhibition of the bypass activities of the wild-type and exonuclease-deficient forms of T4 DNA polymerase following addition of the accessory factors, indicating that the presence or absence of the proof-reading activity is the major determinant in dictating translesion synthesis of an abasic site by T4 DNA polymerase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this essay, we consider helicases, defined as enzymes that use the free energies of binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive the unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids, and ask how they function within, and are "coupled" to, the macromolecular machines of gene expression. To illustrate the principles of the integration of helicases into such machines, we consider the macromolecular complexes that direct and control DNA replication and DNA-dependent RNA transcription, and use these systems to illustrate how machines centered around coupled polymerase-helicase systems can be regulated by small changes in the interactions of their functional components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complexes formed between DNA polymerase and genomic DNA at the replication fork are key elements of the replication machinery. We used sedimentation velocity, fluorescence anisotropy, and surface plasmon resonance to measure the binding interactions between bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (gp43) and various model DNA constructs. These results provide quantitative insight into how this replication polymerase performs template-directed 5' --> 3' DNA synthesis and how this function is coordinated with the activities of the other proteins of the replication complex. We find that short (single- and double-stranded) DNA molecules bind a single gp43 polymerase in a nonspecific (overlap) binding mode with moderate affinity (Kd approximately 150 nm) and a binding site size of approximately 10 nucleotides for single-stranded DNA and approximately 13 bp for double-stranded DNA. In contrast, gp43 binds in a site-specific (nonoverlap) mode and significantly more tightly (Kd approximately 5 nm) to DNA constructs carrying a primer-template junction, with the polymerase covering approximately 5 nucleotides downstream and approximately 6-7 bp upstream of the 3'-primer terminus. The rate of this specific binding interaction is close to diffusion-controlled. The affinity of gp43 for the primer-template junction is modulated specifically by dNTP substrates, with the next "correct" dNTP strengthening the interaction and an incorrect dNTP weakening the observed binding. These results are discussed in terms of the individual steps of the polymerase-catalyzed single nucleotide addition cycle and the replication complex assembly process. We suggest that changes in the kinetics and thermodynamics of these steps by auxiliary replication proteins constitute a basic mechanism for protein coupling within the replication complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Part I of this review [Delagoutte & von Hippel, Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics (2002) 35, 431-478] we summarized what is known about the properties, mechanisms, and structures of the various helicases that catalyze the unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids. Here, in Part II, we consider these helicases as tightly integrated (or coupled) components of the various macromolecular machines within which they operate. The biological processes that are considered explicitly include DNA replication, recombination, and nucleotide excision repair, as well as RNA transcription and splicing. We discuss the activities of the constituent helicases (and their protein partners) in the assembly (or loading) of the relevant complex onto (and into) the specific nucleic acid sites at which the actions of the helicase-containing complexes are to be initiated, the mechanisms by which the helicases (and the complexes) translocate along the nucleic acids in discharging their functions, and the reactions that are used to terminate the translocation of the helicase-containing complexes at specific sites within the nucleic acid 'substrate'. We emerge with several specific descriptions of how helicases function within the above processes of genetic expression which, we hope, can serve as paradigms for considering how helicases may also be coupled and function within other macromolecular machines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicases are proteins that harness the chemical free energy of ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids. These enzymes have been much studied in isolation, and here we review what is known about the mechanisms of the unwinding process. We begin by considering the thermally driven 'breathing' of double-stranded nucleic acids by themselves, in order to ask whether helicases might take advantage of some of these breathing modes. We next provide a brief summary of helicase mechanisms that have been elucidated by biochemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic studies, and then review in detail recent structural studies of helicases in isolation, in order to correlate structural findings with biophysical and biochemical results. We conclude that there are certainly common mechanistic themes for helicase function, but that different helicases have devised solutions to the nucleic acid unwinding problem that differ in structural detail. In Part II of this review (to be published in the next issue of this journal) we consider how these mechanisms are further modified to reflect the functional coupling of these proteins into macromolecular machines, and discuss the role of helicases in several central biological processes to illustrate how this coupling actually works in the various processes of gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair, the UvrB-DNA preincision complex plays a key role, linking adduct recognition to incision. We previously showed that the efficiency of the incision is inversely related to the stability of the preincision complex. We postulated that an isomerization reaction converts [UvrB-DNA], stable but incompetent for incision, into the [UvrB-DNA]' complex, unstable and competent for incision. Here, we identify two parameters, negative supercoiling and presence of a nick at the fifth phosphodiester bond 3' to the lesion, that accelerate the isomerization leading to an increasing incision efficiency. We also show that the [UvrB-DNA] complex is more resistant to a salt concentration increase than the [UvrB-DNA]' complex. Finally, we report that the [UvrB-DNA]' is recognized by UvrC. These data suggest that the isomerization reaction leads to an exposure of single-stranded DNA around the lesion. This newly exposed single-stranded DNA serves as a binding site and substrate for the UvrC endonuclease. We propose that the isomerization reaction is responsible for coupling UvrB and UvrC activities and that this reaction corresponds to the binding of ATP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Processive strand-displacement DNA synthesis with the T4 replication system requires functional "coupling" between the DNA polymerase (gp43) and the helicase (gp41). To define the physical basis of this functional coupling, we have used analytical ultracentrifugation to show that gp43 is a monomeric species at physiological protein concentrations and that gp41 and gp43 do not physically interact in the absence of DNA, suggesting that the functional coupling between gp41 and gp43 depends significantly on interactions modulated by the replication fork DNA. Results from strand-displacement DNA synthesis show that a minimal gp41-gp43 replication complex can perform strand-displacement synthesis at approximately 90 nts/s in a solution containing poly(ethylene glycol) to drive helicase loading. In contrast, neither the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I nor the T7 DNA polymerase, both of which are nonprocessive polymerases, can carry out strand-displacement DNA synthesis with gp41, suggesting that the functional helicase-polymerase coupling may require the homologous system. However, we show that a heterologous helicase-polymerase pair can work if the polymerase is processive. Strand-displacement DNA synthesis using the gp41 helicase with the T4 DNA polymerase holoenzyme or the phage T7 DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex, both of which are processive, proceeds at the rate of approximately 250 nts/s. However, replication fork assembly is less efficient with the heterologous helicase-polymerase pair. Therefore, a processive (homologous or heterologous) "trailing" DNA polymerase is sufficient to improve gp41 processivity and unwinding activity in the elongation stage of the helicase reaction, and specific T4 helicase-polymerase coupling becomes significant only in the assembly (or initiation) stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article we present a general framework that can highly processive, efficient, specific for the type (DNA be used to describe the molecular mechanisms whereby or RNA) of ssNA substrate (lattice) to which they bind, ATP-driven helicases separate and rearrange the com- and directional (59!39 or 39!59) in their movements plementary strands of double helical nucleic acids. This along the target ssNA lattice (for a general review of framework also permits us to consider how these heli- helicase mechanisms see Lohman and Bjornson, 1996). cases might be functionally coupled to other compo- The processivity of a helicase at a given lattice (e.g., nents within the macromolecular machines that carry template) position is defined as the probability that the out physiological processes. We then proceed to define helicase at that position will continue to translocate for- parameters that can be used to quantify helicase func- ward by one step along the NA substrate, divided by tion and derive simple thermodynamic equations that the probability that the helicase will dissociate from the describe helicase reactions in isolation and in coupled substrate lattice at that position. The processivity of a systems. helicase is often regulated by additional protein compo- Aspects of the molecular mechanisms of helicase nents or "coupling" factors, which may interact with the function are then developed using known systems of helicase either directly, or indirectly via the nucleic acid increasing complexity. We begin by considering simple components of the system (see Table 1 and below). DNA "melting proteins" that can—under some condi- Such processivity coupling factors can be operationally tions—open DNA without binding or hydrolyzing ATP. defined as components that interact functionally with We then discuss the cargo-carrying molecular motors the helicase to "trap" intermediate ssNA reaction prod- that, like helicases, use the chemical free energy of ATP ucts of the dsNA opening reaction and facilitate their hydrolysis to translocate directionally along specific cy- subsequent use (e.g., as an ssNA template) by the mac- romolecular machine within which the helicase operates toplasmic "tracks" but do not, of course, "open" the
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The UvrABC excinuclease is involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Sequence-dependent differences in repair efficiency have been reported for many different lesions, and it is often suggested that sites with poor repair contribute to the occurrence of mutation hot spots. However, guanine bases modified by N-2-acetylaminofluorence (AAF) within the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') are incised by the UvrABC excinuclease with different efficiencies in a pattern not correlated with the potency of mutation induction. To gain insight into the mechanism of sequence-dependent modulation of NER, we analyzed the formation, the structure and the stability of UvrB-DNA pre-incision complexes formed at all three positions of the AAF-modified NarI site. We show that the efficiency of release of UvrA2 from specific UvrA2B-DNA complexes is sequence-dependent and that the efficiency of incision is inversely related to the stability of the pre-incision complex. We propose that the pre-incision complex, [UvrB-DNA], when formed upon dissociation of UvrA2, undergoes a conformational change (isomerization step) giving rise to an unstable but incision-competent complex that we call [UvrB-DNA]'. The [UvrB-DNA] complex is stable and unable to form an incision-competent complex with UvrC. As the release of UvrA2, this isomerization step is sequence-dependent. Both steps contribute to modulate NER efficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous in vivo studies involving sequence 5'-CCCG1G2G3-3' (SmaI site) have demonstrated that adducts of N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to any of the three guanine residues of the SmaI sequence induce, with different efficiencies, two classes of -1 frameshift events, namely -G and -C mutations, referred to as targeted and semitargeted mutations, respectively. It has been proposed that both events occur during replication as a consequence of slippage events involving slipped mutagenic intermediates (SMIs). In order to evaluate the potential role of the UvrABC excinuclease in frameshift mutagenesis, we have studied the interaction of this enzyme with DNA molecules mimicking SMIs in vitro. In all of our constructions, when present, the AAF adduct was located on the third guanine residue of the SmaI site (5'-CCCG1G2G3-3'). This strand was referred to as the top strand, the complementary strand being the bottom strand. Double-stranded heteroduplexes mimicking the targeted and semitargeted SMIs contained a deletion of a C and a G within the SmaI sequence in the bottom strand and were designated deltaC/3 and deltaG/3 when modified with the AAF on the third guanine residue in the top strand or deltaC/O and deltaG/O when unmodified. The modified homoduplex was designated SmaI/3. deltaC/O and deltaG/O were weakly recognized by UvrA2B, but not incised. All three AAF-modified substrates were recognized with similar efficiency and much more efficiently than unmodified heteroduplexes. With AAF-monomodified substrates, dissociation of UvrA2 from the UvrA2B-DNA complex occurred more readily in heteroduplexes than in the homoduplex. SmaI/3 and deltaC/3 were incised with equal efficiency, while deltaG/3 was less incised. The position of the AAF lesion dictated the position of the incised phosphodiester bonds, suggesting that the presence of a bulge can modulate the yield but not the incision pattern of AAF-modified substrates. The finding that UvrABC excinuclease acts on substrates that mimic SMIs suggests that the nucleotide excision repair pathway may help in fixing frameshift mutations before the following round of replication.