[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new family of pi-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) donor-acceptor chromophores has been synthesized by [2+2] cycloaddition of TCNE with exTTF substituted alkynes, and subsequent cycloreversion. X-ray data and theoretical calculations, performed at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, show that the new chromophores exhibit highly distorted non-planar molecular structures with largely twisted 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene (TCBD) units. The electronic and optical properties, investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements, are significantly modified when the TCBD acceptor unit is substituted with a donor phenyl group, which increases the twisting of the TCBD units and reduces the conjugation between the two dicyanovinyl subunits. The introduction of phenyl substituents hampers the oxidation and reduction processes and, at the same time, largely increases the optical band gap. An effective electronic communication between the donor and acceptor units, although limited by the distorted molecular geometry, is evidenced both in the ground and in the excited electronic states. The electronic absorption spectra are characterized by low- to medium-intense charge-transfer bands that extend to the near-infrared.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 11/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations is used to describe the structural and spectroscopic properties of the different isomeric cations of diferrocenyl quaterthiophenes. Isomerisation of the thienyl β-positions provides site selective oxidation, which gives rise to species that can interconvert by moving the charge over the bridge. The spectroscopic study allows us to describe a sequence of stationary trapped cationic, either ferrocenyl or thienyl, states which constitutes an energy cascade of accessible sites through which the charge transfer can proceed.
The Journal of chemical physics 12/2011; 135(23):234705. · 3.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work investigates the evolution of the molecular, vibrational, and optical properties within a family of carbonyl-functionalized quaterthiophenes: 5,5'''-diheptanoyl-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene (1), 5,5'''-diperfluorohexylcarbonyl-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene (2), and 2,7-[bis(5-perfluorohexylcarbonylthien-2-yl)]-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']-dithiophene-4-one (3). The analysis is performed by Raman and UV/Vis absorption/excitation/fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with density functional calculations. Theoretical calculations show that substitution with carbonyl groups and perfluorohexyl chains induces progressive quinoidization of the π-conjugated backbone in comparison to the carbonyl-free compound 5,5'''-dimethyl-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene (DM-4T) used as reference. Raman spectra are dominated by a strong Raman line which mainly corresponds to a combination of C-C/C=C stretching vibrations spreading over the whole thiophene core. This band undergoes a remarkable downshift as a consequence of the structural changes induced by the electron-withdrawing groups on the π-conjugated backbone. The band splitting on incorporation of a central carbonyl bridge evidences the formation of two structural domains in the molecule. The excitation and fluorescence spectra recorded at low temperature show well-resolved vibronic structures associated with the most intense collective C-C/C=C stretching mode. Optical absorption and fluorescence bands exhibit remarkable bathochromic dispersion on carbonyl functionalization, indicative of extension of π conjugation. TDDFT calculations enable a detailed description of the trends observed in the absorption spectra. Resonance Raman spectra reflect the structural changes predicted for the S(0)→S(1) electronic transition and evidence the cross-conjugated character that the central carbonyl group confers on 3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New push-pull dyes featuring π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF) as the donor group and tricyanofuran (TCF) as the acceptor group were synthesized and characterized. Their broad absorption covers the entire visible spectral range and enters the near-infrared region. Electrochemistry and theoretical calculations provided an understanding of these singular electronic properties. The new dyes are appealing candidates as light harvesters in photovoltaic devices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of backbone rigidity on the optical properties of thiophene-based compounds is studied by analyzing in detail the geometrical, electronic, optical and vibronic features of a family of oligothienoacenes (nTAs) in comparison to non-fused α-oligothiophenes (nTs) by means of quantum-chemical calculations. Ring fusion in nTAs provokes a greater conjugation in the ground state. However, the change in the bond length alternation upon electronic excitation is very similar in both systems, which is also reflected in a similar evolution of the first optical transition energy with increasing oligomer size. Larger transition energies in nTAsvs.nTs arise from an electronic effect rather than from a structural one. nTAs present a normal mode predicted at ca. 500 cm(-1) which displays significantly higher Franck-Condon activity compared to nTs and which leads to pronounced differences in the optical spectra. Due to the rigid structure of nTAs, persistent mirror symmetry of absorption and emission is observed, very different to nTs.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2011; 13(4):1457-65. · 3.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents an analysis of the structural, electrochemical, and optical properties of a family of triisopropylsilyl end-capped oligothienoacenes (TIPS-Tn-TIPS, n=4-8) by combining cyclic voltammetry, spectroscopic techniques, and quantum-chemical calculations. TIPS-Tn-TIPS compounds form stable radical cations, and dications are only obtained for the longest oligomers (n=7 and 8). Oxidation leads to the quinoidization of the conjugated backbone, from which electrons are mainly extracted. The absorption and fluorescence spectra show partially resolved vibronic structures even at room temperature, due to the rigid molecular geometry. Two well-resolved vibronic progressions are observed at low temperatures due to the vibronic coupling, with normal modes showing wavenumbers of approximately 1525 and approximately 480 cm(-1). Optical absorption bands display remarkable bathochromic dispersion with the oligomer length, indicative of the extent of pi conjugation. The optical properties of the oxidized compounds are characterized by in situ UV/Vis/NIR spectroelectrochemistry. The radical cation species show two intense absorption bands emerging at energies lower than in the neutral compounds. The formation of the dication is only detected for the heptamer and the octamer, and shows a new band at intermediate energies. Optical data are interpreted with the help of density functional theory calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, both for the neutral and the oxidized compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of quinoidal oligothiophenes, from the dimer to the hexamer, with fused bis(butoxymethyl)cyclopentane groups has been extensively investigated by means of electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements, and density functional calculations. The latter predict that the electronic ground state always corresponds to a singlet state and that, for the longest oligomers, this state has biradical character that increases with increasing oligomer length. The shortest oligomers display closed-shell quinoidal structures. Calculations also predict the existence of very low energy excited triplet states that can be populated at room temperature. Aromatization of the conjugated carbon backbone is the driving force that determines the increasing biradical character of the ground state and the appearance of low-lying triplet states. UV/Vis, Raman, IR, and electrochemical experiments support the aromatic biradical structures predicted for the ground state of the longest oligomers and reveal that population of the low-lying triplet state accounts for the magnetic activity displayed by these compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we study the pi-conjugational properties of a homologous series of all-anti oligothienoacenes containing four to eight fused thiophene rings by means of FT Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The theoretical analysis of the spectroscopic data provides evidence that selective enhancement of a very limited number of Raman scatterings is related to the occurrence in these oligothienoacenes of strong vibronic coupling between collective nu(C=C) stretching modes in the 1600-1300 cm(-1) region and the HOMO/LUMO frontier orbitals (HOMO=highest occupied molecular orbital; LUMO=lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). The correlation of the Raman spectroscopic data and theoretical results for these all-anti oligothienoacenes with those previously collected for a number of all-syn oligothienohelicenes gives further support to the expectation that cross-conjugation is dominant in heterohelicenes. Fully planar all-anti oligothienoacenes display linear pi conjugation which seemingly does not reach saturation with increasing number of annulated thiophene rings in the oligomeric chain at least up to the octamer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We employ a combination of urea-urea hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking interactions to obtain soluble self-assembled nanotubes decorated with electron-donor TTF derivatives on the periphery. We have investigated the structure and stability of the nanotubes with a combination of experiments and high-level DFT calculations. We also demonstrate that the association process can be controlled by changes in the hydrogen-bonding ability of the solvent and electrochemically.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The [Ir(ppy-F2)2Me4phen]+1 complex, where ppy-F2 is 2-(2′,4′-fluorophenyl)pyridine and Me4phen is 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, has been theoretically investigated by means of DFT calculations. The molecular and electronic properties calculated for [Ir(ppy-F2)2Me4phen]+1 are compared with those obtained for the simpler [Ir(ppy)(bpy)]+1 complex. The introduction of fluorine substituents in the ppy ligands and the use of phenanthroline instead of 2,2′-bipyridine as the diimine ligand increase the HOMO–LUMO energy gap and blue-shift the emission colour. The phenanthroline ligand causes the appearance of two nearly-degenerate LUMO orbitals of different symmetry in [Ir(ppy-F2)2Me4phen]+1 and determines that two almost isoenergetic doublet states are obtained for the reduced complex. Calculations predict three lowest-energy triplet excited states of different nature in an energy difference of only 0.10eV. Emission from the 3LC π–π* state takes place at higher energies and accounts for the structured blue emission observed in solution. Emission from the lowest-energy 3MLCT state occurs in the green region and explains the structureless broad band observed in solid films.
Journal of Molecular Structure-theochem - J MOL STRUC-THEOCHEM. 01/2009; 912(1):21-26.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report a theoretical study of four types of thiophene-based oligomers showing the same number of CC double bonds and very different molecular structures. The comparative study has been performed on the basis of B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ calculations. The way the thiophene rings are linked together has a remarkable influence on the molecular and electronic properties. Linear quaterthiophene and heptathienoacene show similar aromatic structures but a loss of π-conjugation is detected for the latter due to the condensation of thiophene rings. A blue shift of the most intense electronic transition is predicted for fused heptathienoacene compared with non-fused quaterthiophene. Cyclic quaterthiophene exhibits quinoid thiophene rings folded in an envelope shape and should be visualized as a sulphur-bridged, cis-transoid polyenic chain. Circularly-fused sulflower presents a loss of π-conjugation with respect to linear systems due to its highly-branched conjugated backbone. The loss of conjugation and the high symmetry of the molecule determine that sulflower shows no optical absorption in the visible or near-UV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative contributions of several weak intermolecular forces to the overall stability of the complexes formed between structurally related receptors and fullerene are compared, revealing a discernible contribution from concave-convex complementarity.
Chemical Communications 11/2008; · 6.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant improvement in the stability of a light emitting electrochemical cell was achieved by utilizing a novel iridium(III) complex: 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline-bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) hexafluorophosphate. The enhanced device stability is correlated by means of DFT studies to be related to a more efficient shielding of the reactive LUMO of the complex.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 12/2006; 128(46):14786-7. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The magnetic and conductive properties of a series of quinoidal oligothiophenes, that is, bis-(dicyanomethylene)oligothiophenes (TnCN4, n) 2-4), have been investigated in the solid state and (for magnetic analysis) in solution, and the results have been compared with those from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Solution electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of radical cations and anions are characterized by hyperfine structures due to coupling with nitrogen and thiophene hydrogen atoms. Neutral solutions are ESR active, indicating a significant presence of diradical species with no hyperfine structure. ESR spectra of powder samples at room temperature give a concentration of radical species up to 1 mol % (T3CN4), that is, 0.5% of the compound exists in a diradical state. The percentage decreases dramatically from T3CN4 to T2CN4, as a result of the decreased number of aromatic rings. The diradical concentration increases with temperature according to activation energies which are higher for the shorter members and in very good agreement with DFT calculations. Tetrahexyl-substituted T4CN4 is redox conducting at the neutral-polaron mixed oxidation level with a maximum conductivity of 0.03 S cm -1 , about two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with an aromatic tetrahexyl-substituted octathiophene.