B. C. Turner

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (32)248.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Differences in tumor behavior, ranging from indolent to aggressive, create a need for novel prognostic biomarkers. BAG-1 is a co-chaperone that regulates the activity of Hsp70, Bcl-2, Raf-1, growth factor, and steroid receptors (e.g., the Androgen Receptor). Using immunohistochemical method, we explored BAG-1 expression in prostate cancers and its association with clinicopathological parameters. BAG-1 immunostaining was elevated in prostate cancer compared to normal prostatic epithelium. Higher nuclear BAG-1 in hormone-refractory (n = 34) compared to localized untreated tumors (n = 58) (P < 0.0001) suggested that upregulation of the nuclear isoform may contribute to disease progression. In 64 early-stage patients (T2N0M0) treated with external-beam irradiation, cytosolic BAG-1 correlated with higher pretreatment levels of serum Prostate specific antigen (P = 0.04) and shorter time to disease progression (P = 0.00004). Increased cytosolic and nuclear BAG-1 expression may denote more aggressive variants of prostate cancer.
    The Prostate 06/2006; 66(8):801-10. DOI:10.1002/pros.20384 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family proteins are suppressors of apoptosis that have been implicated in apoptosis resistance in some cancers. Their expression and relevance to the prognosis of prostate cancer were investigated. The expression of four members of the IAP family (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2, X chromosome-linked IAP, and survivin) was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in human prostate cancers and in prostate tissues from transgenic mice expressing SV40 large T antigen under control of a probasin promoter. Tumor-associated elevations in the levels of all four IAP family members were common in prostate cancers of both humans and mice, suggesting concomitant up-regulation of multiple IAP family proteins. Compared with normal prostatic epithelium, increased IAP expression was often evident even in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (carcinoma in situ), suggesting that deregulation of IAP expression occurs early in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. IAP expression did not correlate with Gleason grade or prostate-specific antigen levels. The findings demonstrate that tumor- associated elevations in the expression of several IAP family proteins occur as a frequent and early event in the etiology of prostate cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2003; 9(13):4914-25. · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In various studies of sporadic breast cancers, 40-70% were strongly positive for fragile histidine triad (Fhit) protein expression, whereas only 18% of BRCA2 mutant breast cancers demonstrated strong Fhit expression, suggesting that the BRCA2 repair function may be necessary to retain intact fragile common chromosome fragile site 3B(FRA3B)/FHITloci. In the current study, 22 breast tumors with deleterious BRCA1 mutations were analyzed for Fhit expression by immunohistochemistry in a case-control matched pair analysis. Loss of Fhit expression was significantly more frequent in the BRCA1 cancers compared with sporadic breast tumors (9% Fhit positive versus 68% Fhit positive), suggesting that the BRCA1 pathway is also important in protecting the FRA3B/FHIT locus from damage. To investigate the relationship between repair gene deficiencies and induction of chromosome fragile sites in vitro, we have analyzed the frequency of aphidicolin induction of chromosome gaps and breaks in PMS2-, BRCA1-, MSH2-, MLH1-, FHIT-, and TP53-deficient cell lines. Each of the repair-deficient cell lines showed elevated expression of chromosome gaps and breaks, consistent with the proposal that proteins involved in mismatch and double-strand break repair are important in maintaining the integrity of common fragile regions. Correspondingly, genes at common fragile sites may sustain elevated levels of DNA damage in cells with deficient DNA repair proteins such as those mutated in several familial cancer syndromes.
    Cancer Research 08/2002; 62(14):4054-60. · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of early-stage breast cancer in young women with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 remains controversial. This study assessed the long-term risks of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer in a cohort of young women who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy. Between 1975 and 1998, 290 women with breast cancer diagnosed at age 42 years or younger underwent lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy at our hospital. We recruited 127 of these women for complete sequencing of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Demographic, clinical, pathological, and outcome data were recorded. The primary endpoints were rates of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer, in relation to germline BRCA1/2 status. 105 women were classified as having sporadic disease (94 with wild-type or known polymorphisms and 11 with variants of unclear significance) and 22 as having genetic predisposition (deleterious mutations in BRCA1 [15] or BRCA2 [seven]). At 12 years of follow-up, the genetic group had significantly higher rates of ipsilateral (49% vs 21%, p=0.007) and contralateral events (42% vs 9%, p=0.001) than the sporadic group. The majority of events were classified as second primary tumours. No patient in the genetic group had undergone oophorectomy or was taking prophylactic agents such as tamoxifen. Patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have a high risk of developing late ipsilateral and contralateral second primary tumours. With breast-conserving therapy, chemoprophylaxis or other interventions to reduce the rate of second cancers may be valuable. Alternatively, bilateral mastectomy may be considered, to minimise the risk of second tumours in the breasts.
    The Lancet 05/2002; 359(9316):1471-7. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08434-9 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • B. C. Turner · M. B. Potoczek · M. Ottey · C. M. Croce · K. Huebner ·
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The Fhit gene was identified because it represents the most active constitutive chromosome fragile site and has functions often associated with a tumor suppressor gene. Mutations in the Fhit locus have been identified in many cancer-derived cell lines, primary human tumors including lung, head and neck, colon, breast, and esophagus, and are associated with tobacco-induced lung cancers. In this study, we examined the cellular response of mouse epithelial cells with complete loss of Fhit to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation and the prognostic importance of Fhit protein in early stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2001; 51(3):104-104. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(01)02015-6 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    K Huebner · B Turner · WW Hauck · N Popescu ·

    Breast Cancer Research 05/2001; 3:1-1. DOI:10.1186/bcr359 · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among women with early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy, 30% to 40% will develop metastatic disease, which is often fatal. A need exists therefore for biomarkers that distinguish patients at high risk of relapse. We performed a retrospective correlative analysis of BAG-1 protein expression in breast tumors derived from a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients. Archival paraffin blocks from 122 women with stages I to II breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and radiation therapy (median follow-up, 12.1 years) were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal antibodies recognizing BAG-1 and other biomarkers, including Bcl-2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, and HER2/Neu. Immunostaining data were correlated with distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS). Cytosolic immunostaining for BAG-1 was upregulated in 79 (65%) of 122 invasive breast cancers (P <.001) compared with normal breast. Elevated BAG-1 was significantly associated with longer DMFS and OS, overall (stages 1 and II) and in node-negative (stage I only) patients, on the basis of univariate and multivariate analyses (DMFS, P =.005; OS, P =.01, in multivariate analysis of all patients; DMFS, P =.005; OS, P =.001, in multivariate analysis of node-negative patients). All other biomarkers failed to reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Clinical stage was an independent predictor of OS (P =.04) and DMFS (P =.02). These findings provide preliminary evidence that BAG-1 represents a potential marker of improved survival in early-stage breast cancer patients, independent of the status of axillary lymph nodes.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2001; 19(4):992-1000. · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 50% of breast cancer families with more than four affected cases, whereas exonic mutations in p53, PTEN, CHK2 and ATM may account for a very small proportion. It was recently reported that an intronic variant of p53 - G13964C - occurred in three out of 42 (7.1%) 'hereditary' breast cancer patients, but not in any of 171 'sporadic' breast cancer control individuals (P = 0.0003). If this relatively frequent occurrence of G13964C in familial breast cancer and absence in control individuals were confirmed, then this would suggest that the G13964C variant plays a role in breast cancer susceptibility. Method We genotyped 71 familial breast cancer patients and 143 control individuals for the G13964C variant using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results Three (4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–8.9%) G13964C heterozygotes were identified. The variant was also identified in 5 out of 143 (3.5%; 95% CI 0.6–6.4%) control individuals without breast cancer or a family history of breast cancer, however, which is no different to the proportion found in familial cases (P = 0.9). Conclusion The present study would have had 80% power to detect an odds ratio of 4.4, and we therefore conclude that the G13946C polymorphism is not a 'high-risk' mutation for familial breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research 02/2001; 3(5). DOI:10.1186/bcr319 · 5.49 Impact Factor
  • B. C Turner · Q Ren · P Gupta · C Carbone · A Basu · S Krajewska · J. C Reed · S Haldar ·

    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2000; 48(3):162-162. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(00)80118-2 · 4.26 Impact Factor

  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2000; 48(3):142-143. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(00)80079-6 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Tanya E Smith · Daesung Lee · Bruce C Turner · Darryl Carter · Bruce G Haffty ·
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to classify all ipsilateral breast tumor relapses (IBTR) in patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS+RT) as either new primary tumors (NP) or true local recurrences (TR) and to assess the prognostic and therapeutic implications of this classification. Of the 1152 patients who have been treated at Yale-New Haven Hospital before 1990, 136 patients have experienced IBTR as their primary site of failure. These relapses were classified as either NP or TR. Specifically, patients were classified as NP if the recurrence was distinctly different from the primary tumor with respect to the histologic subtype, the recurrence location was in a different location, or if the flow cytometry changed from aneuploid to diploid. This information was determined by a detailed review of each patient's hospital and/or radiotherapy record, mammograms, and pathologic reports. As of 2/99, with a mean follow-up of 14. 2 years, the overall ipsilateral breast relapse-free rate for all 1152 patients was 86% at 10 years. Using the classification scheme outlined above, 60 patient relapses were classified as TR, 70 were classified as NP and 6 were unable to be classified. NP patients had a longer mean time to breast relapse than TR patients (7.3 years vs. 3.7 years, p < 0.0001) and were significantly younger than TR patients (48.9 years vs. 54.5 years, p < 0.01). Patients developed both TR and NP at similar rates until approximately 8 years, when TR rates stabilized but NP rates continued to rise. By 15 years following original diagnosis, the TR rate was 6.8% compared to 13.1% for NP. Of the patients who had been previously tested for BRCA1/2 mutations, 17% (8/52) had deleterious mutations. It is noteworthy that all patients with deleterious mutations had new primary IBTR, while patients without deleterious mutations had both TR and NP (p = 0.06). Ploidy was evenly distributed between TR and NP but NP had a significantly lower S phase fraction (NP 13.1 vs. TR 22.0, p < 0.05). The overall survival following breast relapse was 64% at 10 years and 49% at 15 years. With a mean follow-up of 10.4 years following breast relapse, patients with NP had better 10-year overall survival (TR 55% vs. NP 75%, p < 0.0001), distant disease-free survival (TR 41% vs. NP 85%, p < 0.0001), and cause-specific survival (TR 55% vs. NP 90%, p < 0.0001). It appears that a significant portion of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor relapse following conservative surgery and radiation therapy have new primary tumors as opposed to true local recurrences. True recurrence and new primary tumor ipsilateral breast tumor relapses have different natural histories, different prognoses, and, in turn, different implications for therapeutic management.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2000; 48(5):1281-9. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(00)01378-X · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of cyclin D1 (cycD1) levels in ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) following lumpectomy and radiation therapy. A total of 98 patients (49 patients with IBTR and 49 matched cases without IBTR) selected from our conservatively treated breast cancer population served as the patient population for the current study. All patients were treated with lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy to the intact breast to a total median dose of 64 Gy. The patients were followed in our clinic with a median follow-up of 13 years. Immunohistochemical analysis of cycD1 in these 98 early-stage breast cancer patients was performed using a polyclonal antibody generated against the human cycD1 protein. All clinical, pathologic, and molecular variables were entered into a computerized data base for statistical analysis. Low levels of immunohistochemically detected cycD1 protein correlated with IBTR (p = 0.001), but there was no association between cycD1 protein levels and metastatic disease, axillary lymph node involvement, distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS). Subgroup analysis revealed that for early breast tumor relapses (within 4 years of initial breast tumor diagnosis), low levels of cycD1 were associated with IBTR (p = 0.004), but cycD1 expression was not prognostic for IBTR from breast cancer patients with late relapses (p = NS). These studies provide in vivo evidence for the prognostic and biologic significance of cycD1 expression in determining response to radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2000; 47(5):1169-76. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(00)00525-3 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • B C Turner · AA Gumbs · C J Carbone · D Carter · P M Glazer · B G Haffty ·
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    ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that is thought to be important to cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and that also may regulate induction of apoptosis by ionizing radiation. Somatic p53 gene mutations occur in 30-50% of breast carcinomas and are associated with poor prognosis. Mutations in the p53 gene result in prolonged stability of the protein that can be detected by immunohistochemical techniques. In a matched case-control study of breast carcinoma patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) following lumpectomy and radiation therapy, the authors investigated the frequency and prognostic significance of somatic p53 mutations as well as the clinical characteristics of patients with these mutations. Between 1973 and 1995, there were 121 breast carcinoma patients with IBTR following lumpectomy and radiation therapy, and the authors identified 47 patients in whom the paraffin embedded tissue blocks from the primary breast tumors were available for further molecular analysis. Forty-seven control breast carcinoma patients from the breast carcinoma data base were individually matched to the index cases who did not have IBTR for age, treatment date, follow-up, histology, margin status, radiation dose, and adjuvant treatment. Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to mutant p53 protein was used to determine mutant p53 protein overexpression in breast tumors and appropriately scored. A total of 12 of 47 tumor specimens (26%) from index patients with breast tumor relapses demonstrated mutant p53 protein overexpression, whereas only 4 of 47 specimens from controls (9%) demonstrated high mutant p53 immunoreactivity (P = 0.02). The authors found that 9 of 23 patients (39%) with early breast tumor recurrences (recurrences within 4 years of diagnosis) had overexpression of mutant p53 protein, whereas only 1 of 23 control cases (4%) had high mutant p53 protein immunoreactivity (P = 0.003). In contrast, index cases from patients with late breast tumor relapses (more than 4 years after diagnosis), which are more likely to represent de novo breast tumors, and control cases from the breast carcinoma data base without IBTR had similar levels of mutant p53 protein overexpression (P = not significant). The 10-year distant disease free survival for patients with mutant p53 protein was 48%, compared with 67% for breast carcinoma patients without detection of mutant p53 protein (P = 0. 08). The authors found that 13 of 14 primary breast tumors (93%) with mutant p53 protein overexpression were estrogen receptor negative (P = 0.01) and 11 of 14 (79%) were progesterone receptor negative (P = not significant). In a matched case-control study, overexpression of mutant p53 protein has prognostic significance with respect to IBTR following lumpectomy and radiation therapy. Breast tumors with p53 mutations are generally estrogen receptor negative and are associated with compromised distant disease free survival.
    Cancer 04/2000; 88(5):1091-8. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000301)88:53.3.CO;2-P · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • S S Yoo · D Carter · B C Turner · C T Sasaki · Y H Son · L D Wilson · P M Glazer · B G Haffty ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that cyclin D1 levels (cycD1) can influence radiosensitivity. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of cycD1 for local recurrence in early-stage larynx cancer treated with primary radiation therapy. The study was conducted using a matched case-control design in 60 early-stage (T1-T2/N0) larynx cancer patients. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and were treated with primary radiation to a total median dose of 66 Gy in daily fractions of 2 Gy, without surgery or chemotherapy. Thirty patients who suffered a local relapse in the larynx after treatment served as the index case population. These 30 cases were matched by age, sex, site (glottic vs. supraglottic), radiation therapy technique/dose, and follow-up, to 30 control patients who did not experience a local relapse. Immunohistochemical staining from cycD1 was performed on the paraffin-embedded specimens. The pathologist, blinded to the clinical information, scored each of the specimens on a four-point intensity scale (0 = no stain, 1 = faint, 2 = moderate, 3 = strong) and percent distribution. Patients were considered to be positive for cyclin D1 if the staining was 2+ or greater with a percent distribution of at least 5%. By design of the study, the two groups were evenly balanced with respect to age, sex, stage, radiation dose, and follow-up. CycD1 levels correlated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels. Low levels of cycD1 significantly correlated with local relapse; 19/30 (63%) of the index cases stained negative, while only 10/30 (33%) of the control cases stained negative (P = 0.03). These data suggest that low levels of cycD1 correlate with relatively radioresistant early-stage larynx carcinoma. With larger more confirmatory clinical and laboratory data, this data may have significant clinical implications. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 22-28 (2000).
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2000; 90(1):22-8. · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have determined that the frequency of germ-line p53 mutations in familial breast cancer patients is 1% or less, but these reports have not investigated the importance of polymorphic intron base changes in the p53 gene. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of both exon and intron germ-line p53 base changes in 42 breast cancer patients with a strong family history of breast cancer. The mean age of presentation of these patients was 44.0 years (range, 29-69), and 12 of 42 (29%) were of known Ashkenazi ancestry. Purified DNA obtained from the 42 index cases was screened for germ-line p53 mutations in exons 2-11 and surrounding introns using a combination of intron based primers for PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, direct sequencing, and microarray sequencing using the Affymetrix p53 gene chip methodology. Morphological analysis of apoptosis and cell survival determination were performed on EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines from two patients with the p53 intron 6 mutation. A germ-line mutation in the p53 gene at nucleotide 13964 with a G to C base change (13964GC) was identified in 3 of 42 (7.1%) hereditary breast cancer patients. Two patients were heterozygous for this mutation, and one patient had a homozygous mutation. In comparison, 0 of 171 (0%) of sporadic breast cancer patients had the p53 13964GC mutation (P = 0.0003). We found that 0 of 42 (0%) of these hereditary breast cancer patients had other germ-line p53 mutation in exons 2-11. However, pedigree analysis demonstrated that all three patients had strong family histories of multiple types of cancers consistent with Li-Fraumeni syndrome but with late age of onset. Comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 nucleotide analysis from patients with the p53 13964GC mutation revealed no concomitant deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, although they were found in the other hereditary breast cancer patients. Functional analysis of two immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with the p53 13964GC mutation demonstrated prolonged in vitro survival in response to cisplatinum treatment and showed decreased chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tumors from these patients revealed high levels of mutant p53 protein, suggesting a functional mutation in the p53 gene. In summary, we have identified a single p53 intron mutation in familial breast cancer patients that is present at elevated frequency and has functional activity.
    Cancer Research 03/2000; 60(4):1062-9. · 9.33 Impact Factor

  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/1999; 45(3):228-228. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(99)90174-8 · 4.26 Impact Factor

  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/1999; 45(3):195-195. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(99)90111-6 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • T. E. Smith · D. Lee · B. C. Turner · D. Carter · B. G. Haffy ·

    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/1999; 45(3):232-232. DOI:10.1016/S0360-3016(99)90182-7 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    B C Turner · P M Glazer · B G Haffty ·

    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/1999; 17(11):3689. · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer patients treated conservatively with lumpectomy and radiation therapy (LRT) have an estimated lifetime risk of local relapse (ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence [IBTR]) of 10% to 15%. For breast cancer patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations, the outcome of treatment with LRT with respect to IBTR has not been determined. In this study, we estimate the frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations in a study of breast cancer patients with IBTR treated with LRT. Between 1973 and 1994, there were 52 breast cancer patients treated with LRT who developed an IBTR within the prior irradiated breast and who were willing to participate in the current study. From our database, we also identified 52 control breast cancer patients treated with LRT without IBTR. The control patients were individually matched to the index cases with respect to multiple clinical and pathologic parameters. Lymphocyte DNA specimens from all 52 locally recurrent patients and 15 of the matched control patients under age 40 were used as templates for polymerase chain reaction amplification and dye-primer sequencing of exons 2 to 24 of BRCA1, exons 2 to 27 of BRCA2, and flanking intron sequences. After LRT, eight (15%) of 52 breast cancer patients had IBTR with deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. By age, there were six (40%) of 15 patients with IBTR under age 40 with BRCA1/2 mutations, one (9.0%) of 11 between ages 40 and 49, and one (3.8%) of 26 older than age 49. In comparison to the six (40%) of 15 of patients under age 40 with IBTR found to have BRCA1/2 mutations, only one (6.6%) of 15 matched control patients without IBTR and had a BRCA1/2 mutation (P =.03). The median time to IBTR for patients with BRCA1/2 mutations was 7.8 years compared with 4.7 years for patients without BRCA1/2 mutations (P =.03). By clinical and histologic criteria, these relapses represented second primary tumors developing in the conservatively treated breast. All patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and IBTR underwent successful surgical salvage mastectomy at the time of IBTR and remain alive without evidence of local or systemic progression of disease. In this study, we found an elevated frequency of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations in breast cancer patients treated with LRT who developed late IBTR. The relatively long time to IBTR, as well as the histologic and clinical criteria, suggests that these recurrent cancers actually represent new primary breast cancers. Early onset breast cancer patients experiencing IBTR have a disproportionately high frequency of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. This information may be helpful in guiding management in BRCA1 or BRCA2 patients considering breast-conserving therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/1999; 17(10):3017-24. · 18.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
248.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2006
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000-2002
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1999
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1997-1998
    • Yale University
      • Department of Therapeutic Radiology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States