Mao-Tsun Lin

Taipei Medical University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (131)338.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Astragalosides (AST) are reported to be neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemic models in vivo. In this study, the direct effect of AST against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) including neuronal injury and the underlying mechanisms in vitro were investigated. 5 h OGD followed by 24 h of reperfusion [adding back oxygen and glucose (OGD-R)] was used to induce in vitro ischemia reperfusion injury in differentiated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. AST (1, 100, and 200 µg/mL) were added to the culture after 5 h of the OGD ischemic insult and was present during the reoxygenation phases. A key finding was that OGD-R decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, autophagy, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in PC12 cells, all of which AST treatment significantly reduced. In addition, AST attenuated OGD-R-induced cell loss through P38 MAPK activation a neuroprotective effect blunted by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38 MAPK. Our data suggest that both apoptosis and autophagy are important characteristics of OGD-R-induced PC12 death and that treating PC12 cells with AST blocked OGD-R-induced apoptosis and autophagy by suppressing intracellular oxidative stress, functional impairment of mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our data provide identification of AST that can concomitantly inhibit multiple cells death pathways following OGD injuries in neural cells.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 05/2014; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy may cause excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. This study assessed whether repetitive or 2-4-day trials of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments daily for 2-4 consecutive days) provides better effects in reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats than did a 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments for 1 day). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; MCAO without HBO2 treatment; MCAO treated with 1-day trial of HBO2; and MCAO treated with 2-4-day trials of HBO2. One treatment of HBO2 (100% O2 at 253 kPa) lasted for 1 hour in a hyperbaric chamber. Therapy with the 2-4-day trials of HBO2 significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the MCAO-induced cerebral infarction and neurological deficits more than the 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy. The beneficial effects of repetitive HBO2 therapy were associated with: (1) reduced inflammatory status in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase activity); (2) decreased oxidative damage in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic pro-oxidants, but increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defenses); and (3) increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. The results provide the apparently contradictory finding that heightened oxygen tension reduced oxidative stress (and inflammation), which was reflected by increased antioxidant and decreased oxidant contents under focal cerebral ischemia.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 04/2014; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp (SHED) is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of SHED for the treatment of multiple organs (including brain or hypothalamus) injury in heat stroke mice. ICR male mice were exposed to whole body heating (WBH; 41.2?, relative humidity 50%~55%, for 1 hour) and then returned to normal room temperature (26?). We observed that intravenous administration of SHED immediately post-WBH exhibited the following therapeutic benefits for recovery after heat stroke: (a) inhibition of WBH-induced neurologic and thermoregulatory deficits; (b) reduction of WBH-induced ischemia, hypoxia, and oxidative damage to brain (or hypothalamus); (c) attenuation of WBH-induced increased plasma levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (d) improvement of WBH-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity (as reflected by enhanced plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone); and (e) attenuation of WBH-induced multiple organs apoptosis as well as lethality. In conclusion, post-WBH treatment with SHED reduced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals, enhanced plasma induction of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and improved lethality in mice heat stroke. The protective effect of SHED may be related to a decreased inflammatory response, a decreased oxidative stress, and an increased hypothalamo-pituitaryadrenocortical axis activity following the WBH injury.
    Cell Transplantation 03/2014; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy may cause excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. This study assessed whether repetitive or 2–4-day trials of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments daily for 2–4 consecutive days) provides better effects in reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats than did a 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy (2 treatments for 1 day). Methods Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; MCAO without HBO2 treatment; MCAO treated with 1-day trial of HBO2; and MCAO treated with 2–4-day trials of HBO2. One treatment of HBO2 (100% O2 at 253 kPa) lasted for 1 hour in a hyperbaric chamber. Results Therapy with the 2–4-day trials of HBO2 significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the MCAO-induced cerebral infarction and neurological deficits more than the 1-day trial of HBO2 therapy. The beneficial effects of repetitive HBO2 therapy were associated with: (1) reduced inflammatory status in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase activity); (2) decreased oxidative damage in ischemic brain tissues (evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic pro-oxidants, but increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defenses); and (3) increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. Conclusion The results provide the apparently contradictory finding that heightened oxygen tension reduced oxidative stress (and inflammation), which was reflected by increased antioxidant and decreased oxidant contents under focal cerebral ischemia.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at investigating the effect of honokiol on heatstroke in an experimental rat model. Sprogue-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: normothermic diabetic rats treated with vehicle solution (NTDR+V), heatstroke-diabetic rats treated with vehicle (HSDR+V), and heatstroke rats treated with konokiol (0.5-5 mg/ml/kg) (HSDR+H). Sixty minutes before the start of heat stress, honokiol or vehicle solution was administered. (HSDR+H) significantly (a) attenuated hyperthermia, hypotension and hypothalamic ischemia, hypoxia, and neuronal apoptosis; (b) reduced the plasma index of the toxic oxidizing radicals; (c) diminished the indices of hepatic and renal dysfunction; (d) attenuated the plasma systemic inflammatory response molecules; (e) promoted plasma levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine; (f) reduced the index of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the serum; and (g) promoted the survival time fourfold compared with the (HSDR+V) group. In conclusion, honokiol protected against the outcome of heatstroke by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated multiple organ dysfunction in diabetic rats.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2014; 2014:134575. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:685683.
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    ABSTRACT: Alternating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mechanisms would lead to multiple organs dysfunction or failure. Herein, we attempt to assess whether hypothalamic inflammation and ischemic and oxidative damage that occurred during heatstroke (HS) can be affected by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In this study, anesthetized diabetic rats, immediately after the onset of HS, were divided into two major groups and given the normobaric air (21% O2 at 1.0 atmospheres absolute) or HBO2 (100% O2 at 2.0 atmospheres absolute). HS was induced by exposing the animals to heat stress (43°C). Another group of anesthetized diabetic rats was kept at normothermic state and used as controls. The survival time values for the HBO2-treated HS-diabetic rats increased form the control values of 78-82 minutes to new values of 184-208 minutes. HBO2 therapy caused a reduction of HS-induced cellular ischemia (e.g., increased cellular levels of glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio), hypoxia (e.g., decreased cellular levels of PO2), inflammation (e.g., increased cellular levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase), and oxidative damage (e.g., increased values of nitric oxide, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, glycerol, and neuronal damage score) in the hypothalamus of the diabetic rats. Our results suggest that, in diabetic animals, HBO2 therapy may improve outcomes of HS in part by reducing heat-induced activated inflammation and ischemic and oxidative damage in the hypothalamus and other brain regions.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 08/2013; 112(8):454-62. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: We sought to assess whether heat-induced autophagy, apoptosis and cell damage in H9c2 cells can be affected by pre-inducing HSP70 (heat shock protein 70). Materials and methods: Cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide staining and a lactate dehydrogenase assay. Apoptosis was evidenced using both flow cytometry and counting caspase-3 positive cells, whereas autophagy was evidenced by the increased LC3-II expression and lysosomal activity. Results: The viability of H9c2 cells was temperature-dependently (40-44 °C) and time-dependently (90-180 min) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by severe heat, which caused cell damage, apoptosis and autophagy. Heat-induced cell injury could be attenuated by pretreatment with 3-methylademine (an autophagy inhibitor) or Z-DEVD-FMK (a caspase-3 inhibitor). Neither apoptosis nor autophagy over the levels found in normothermic controls was induced in heat-shock preconditioned controls (no subsequent heat injury). The beneficial effects of mild heat preconditioning (preventing heat-induced cell damage, apoptosis and autophagy) were significantly attenuated by inhibiting HSP70 overexpression with triptolide (Tripterygium wilfordii) pretreatment. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-inducing HSP70 attenuates heat-stimulated cell autophagy, apoptosis and damage in the heart. However, this requires in vivo confirmation.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 05/2013; 29(3):239-247. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to ascertain whether heat-induced acute lung edema, inflammation, and ischemic damage can be affected by heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70)-mediated exercise preconditioning (EP) in rats. Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following four groups: the non-EP + nonheated group, the non-EP + heated group, the EP + heated group, and the EP + HSP-70 antibodies + heated group. EP groups of animals were subjected to a protocol of running on a treadmill for 30 minutes at 20 m/min, 30 minutes at 30 m/min, and 60 minutes at 30 m/min after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of training, respectively. Heated group of animals, under general anesthesia, were put in a folded heating pad of 43°C for 68 minutes. Then, the heated animals were allowed to recover at room temperature. HSP-70 antibodies were injected intravenously 24 hours before heat exposure. As compared with the non heated + non-EP rats, the heated + non-EP rats had significantly higher scores of alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and hemorrhage, acute pleurisy, and increased bronchoalveolar fluid levels of proinflammatory cytokines and ischemic and oxidative damage markers. EP, in addition to inducing overexpression of HSP-70 in lung tissues, significantly attenuated heat-induced acute pulmonary edema, inflammation, and ischemic and oxidative damage in the lungs. HSP-70 antibodies, in addition to reducing HSP-70 expression in the lungs, significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of EP in reducing acute lung inflammation and injury. EP may attenuate the occurrence of pulmonary edema, inflammation, as well as ischemic and oxidative damage caused by heatstroke by up-regulating HSP-70 in the lungs.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 04/2013; 74(4):1052-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothalamus may be involved in regulating homeostasis, motivation, and emotional behavior by controlling autonomic and endocrine activity. The hypothalamus communicates input from the thalamus to the pituitary gland, reticular activating substance, limbic system, and neocortex. This allows the output of pituitary hormones to respond to changes in autonomic nervous system activity. Environmental heat stress increases cutaneous blood flow and metabolism, and progressively decreases splanchnic blood flow. Severe heat exposure also decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), increases intracranial pressure (ICP), and decreases cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP = MAP - ICP), all of which lead to cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. Compared with normothermic controls, rodents with heatstroke have higher hypothalamic values of cellular ischemia (e.g., glutamate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio) and damage (e.g., glycerol) markers, pro-oxidant enzymes (e.g., lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation), proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide, and an indicator for the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (e.g., myeloperoxidase activity), as well as neuronal damage (e.g., apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy) after heatstroke. Hypothalamic values of antioxidant defenses (e.g., glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), however, are lower. The ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus during heatstroke may cause multiple organ dysfunction or failure through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mechanisms. Finding the link between the signaling and heatstroke-induced hypothalamic oxidative and ischemic damage might allow us to clinically attenuate heatstroke. In particular, free radical scavengers, heat shock protein-70 inducers, hypervolemic hemodilution, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, progenitor stem cells, flutamide, estrogen, interleukin-1 receptor antagonists, glucocorticoid, activated protein C, and baicalin mitigate preclinical heatstroke levels.
    Current Neuropharmacology 03/2013; 11(2):129-40. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The best analgesic drugs for neuropathic pain have a long duration of action, can be given via multiple routes, and can be used preemptively. We evaluated the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of subcutaneously injected amitriptyline base (AMT-Base) (in oil). A plantar test in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain in rats showed that typical amitriptyline HCl (AMT-HCl) (in saline) and AMT-Base had a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect: the antinociceptive duration of a single 100μmol/kg injection of AMT-HCl was 5h and of AMT-Base was 24h when given 7 days after a SNL, and of a single 200μmol/kg injection of AMT-Base was 39 days when given 1h before and 4 days when given 7 days after a SNL. The post-ligation antinociceptive duration of AMT-Base was 4.8 times that of AMT-HCl, but the duration of preemptive (pre-ligation) AMT-Base treatment was 9.7 times that of AMT-Base. We can conclude that preemptive amitriptyline base provides long-lasting antinociception for neuropathic pain experimentally.
    European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here that when untreated mice underwent heat stress, they displayed thermoregulatory deficit (e.g., animals display hypothermia during room temperature exposure), brain (or hypothalamic) inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment (e.g., decreased plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone during heat stress), multiple organ dysfunction or failure, and lethality. Melatonin therapy significantly reduced the thermoregulatory deficit, brain inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment, multiple organ dysfunction, and lethality caused by heat stroke. Our data indicate that melatonin may improve outcomes of heat stroke by reducing brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and multiple organ dysfunction.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:349280. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lifelong overexpression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 in skeletal muscle is known to protect against age-related oxidative stress and muscle damage. This study aimed to ascertain whether exhaustive exercise (EE)-induced muscle fatigue and damage can be prevented by lifelong overexpression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. METHODS: Transgenic mice heterozygous for the porcine HSP70.2 gene ([+]HSP72) and transgene-negative littermate controls ([-]HSP72) were subjected to an EE protocol. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary [-]HSP72, sedentary [+]HSP72, EE [-]HSP72, and EE [+]HSP72. Animals were killed 82 minutes after the start of EE to determine muscular levels of HSP72, serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, an antioxidant enzyme) and lactate (an indicator of muscle fatigue), muscular levels of matrix metalloproteinase (an indicator of inflammatory myopathies), and muscular damage. RESULTS: During the test, the latency value for the occurrence of EE was 79-85 minutes and 100-110 minutes for [-]HSP72 and [+]HSP72 mice, respectively. After EE, [+]HSP72 mice had significantly higher serum SOD and significantly lower serum lactate, muscular matrix metalloproteinase or myeloperoxidase activity, and muscle damage compared to [-]HSP72 mice. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that HSP72 overexpression in skeletal muscle may improve muscle fatigue and damage in EE by reducing oxidative damage and phagocytic infiltration, at least in mice.
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 01/2013; 112(1):24-30. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone-marrow-derived human MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) support repair when administered to animals with TBI (traumatic brain injury) in large part through secreted trophic factors. We directly tested the ability of the culture medium (or secretome) collected from human MSCs under normoxic or hypoxic conditions to protect neurons in a rat model of TBI. Concentrated conditioned medium from cultured human MSCs or control medium was infused through the tail vein of rats subjected to TBI. We have demonstrated that MSCs cultured in hypoxia were superior to those cultured in normoxia in inducing expression of both HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in the cultured medium. We showed further that rats treated with the secretome from both normoxic- and hypoxic-preconditioned MSCs performed significantly better than the controls in both motor and cognitive functional test. Subsequent post-mortem evaluation of brain damage at the 4-day time point confirmed that both normoxic- and hypoxic-preconditioned MSC secretome-treated rats had significantly greater numbers of newly forming neurons, but significantly less than the controls in brain damaged volume and apoptosis. The TBI rats treated with hypoxic-preconditioned MSC secretome performed significantly better in both motor and cognitive function tests and neurogenesis, and had significantly less brain damage than the TBI rats treated with the normoxic-preconditioned MSC secretome. Collectively, these findings suggest that MSCs secrete bioactive factors, including HGF and VEGF, that stimulate neurogenesis and improve outcomes of TBI in a rat model. Hypoxic preconditioning enhances the secretion of these bioactive factors from the MSCs and the therapeutic potential of the cultured MSC secretome in experimental TBI.
    Clinical Science 08/2012; 124(3):165-76. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the therapeutic effect of melatonin on heat-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in rats. Heatstroke was induced by exposing anesthetized rats to heat stress (36 °C, 100 min). Rats were treated with vehicle or melatonin (0.2, 1, 5 mg/kg) by intravenous administration 100 min after the initiatioin of heatstroke and were allowed to recover at room temperature (26 °C). The acute lung injury was quantified by morphological examination and by determination of the volume of pleural exudates, the number of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) were measured by ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess method. The levels of glutamate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio were analyzed by CMA600 microdialysis analyzer. The concentrations of hydroxyl radicals were measured by a procedure based on the hydroxylation of sodium salicylates leading to the production of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA). Melatonin (1 and 5 mg/kg) significantly (i) prolonged the survival time of heartstroke rats (117 and 186 min vs 59 min); (ii) attenuated heatstroke-induced hyperthermia and hypotension; (iii) attenuated acute lung injury, including edema, neutrophil infiltration, and hemorrhage scores; (iv) down-regulated exudate volume, BALF PMN cell number, and MPO activity; (v) decreased the BALF levels of lung inflammation response cytokines like TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 but further increased the level of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; (vi) reduced BALF levels of glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, NO, 2,3-DHBA, and lactate dehydrogenase. Melatonin may improve the outcome of heatstroke in rats by attenuating acute lung inflammation and injury.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 05/2012; 33(6):775-82. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flutamide has been used as an adjunct for decreasing the mortality from subsequent sepsis. Heatstroke resembles septic shock in many aspects. We hypothesized that heat-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and lethality could be reduced by flutamide therapy. In heatstroke groups, mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C, for 1h) in a controlled-environment chamber. The heat-stressed mice were returned to normal room temperature (24°C) after whole body heating. Mice still alive on day 4 of WBH treatment were considered survivors. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 2.5h post-WBH. Heatstroke mice were subcutaneously treated with flutamide (12.5-50mg/kg body weight in 0.05 ml) or vehicle solution (0.05 ml/kg body weight) once daily for 3 consecutive days post-WBH. We evaluated the effect of flutamide in heatstroke mice and showed that flutamide significantly (i) attenuated hypothermia, (ii) reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the hypothalamus, the spleen, the liver, and the kidney, (iii) attenuated the plasma index of toxic oxidizing radicals (e.g., nitric oxide metabolites and hydroxyl radicals), (iv) diminished the plasma index of the organ injury index (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase), (v) attenuated plasma systemic inflammation response molecules (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6), (vi) reduced the index of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the lung (e.g., myeloperoxidase activity), and (vii) allowed three times the fractional survival compared with vehicle. Thus, flutamide appears to be a novel agent for the treatment of mice with heatstroke or patients in the early stage of heatstroke.
    European journal of pharmacology 05/2012; 688(1-3):62-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed whether hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO2P) in rats induced heat shock protein (HSP)-70 and whether HSP-70 antibody (Ab) preconditioning attenuates high altitude exposure (HAE)-induced brain edema, hippocampal oxidative stress, and cognitive dysfunction. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the non-HBO2P + non-HAE group, the HBO2P + non-HAE group, the non-HBO2P + HAE group, the HBO2P + HAE group, and the HBO2P + HSP-70 Abs + HAE group. The HBO2P groups were given 100% O2 at 2.0 absolute atmospheres for 1 hour per day for 5 consecutive days. The HAE groups were exposed to simulated HAE (9.7% O2 at 0.47 absolute atmospheres of 6,000 m) in a hypobaric chamber for 3 days. Polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse HSP-70-neutralizing Abs were intravenously injected 24 hours before the HAE experiments. Immediately after returning to normal atmosphere, the rats were given cognitive performance tests, overdosed with a general anesthetic, and then their brains were excised en bloc for water content measurements and biochemical evaluation and analysis. Non-HBO2P group rats displayed cognitive deficits, brain edema, and hippocampal oxidative stress (evidenced by increased toxic oxidizing radicals [e.g., nitric oxide metabolites and hydroxyl radicals], increased pro-oxidant enzymes [e.g., malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione] but decreased antioxidant enzymes [e.g., reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxide, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase]) in HAE. HBO2P induced HSP-70 overexpression in the hippocampus and significantly attenuated HAE-induced brain edema, cognitive deficits, and hippocampal oxidative stress. The beneficial effects of HBO2P were significantly reduced by HSP-70 Ab preconditioning. Our results suggest that high-altitude cerebral edema, cognitive deficit, and hippocampal oxidative stress can be prevented by HSP-70-mediated HBO2P in rats.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 05/2012; 72(5):1220-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Dextromethorphan (DM) has been shown to protect against endotoxic shock in mice. Heatstroke resembles sepsis in many respects. The objective of this study was to examine the heat-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in rats with or without DM, and for comparison with those of the rats with MK-801 (an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), SA4503 (a sigma-1 receptor agonist), or fluoxetine (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor). Heatstroke was induced by exposing the anesthetized rats to heat stress (43°C for 68 min). At 68 minutes after start of heat stress, animals treated with vehicle medium, DM (10-30 mg/kg of body weight, intramuscular), MK-801 (1 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal), SA4503 (1 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal), or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal) were allowed to recover at room temperature (26°C). As compared with vehicle-treated heatstroke rats (25-31 min; n = 8), DM (30 mg/kg)-treated heatstroke rats and MK-801 (1 mg/kg)-treated heatstroke rats had significantly greater survival time (193-209 min [n = 7] and 121-133 min [n = 8], respectively). However, the survival times for the SA4503-treated heatstroke rats (28-34 min; n = 8) or the fluoxetine-treated heatstroke rats (20-26 min; n = 8) were not significantly different from the vehicle-treated heatstroke rats. DM treatment significantly: (1) reduced acute lung injury, including edema, neutrophils infiltration, and hemorrhage scores; (2) decreased acute pleurisy; and (3) decreased bronchoalveolar fluid levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, and ischemia and oxidative damage markers during heatstroke. Our results indicate that DM therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in rats by antagonizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 03/2012; 46(3):407-13. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HHP (hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning) induces the overexpression of HSP70 (heat-shock protein 70), as well as tolerance to cerebral ischaemia. In the present study, we hypothesized that HHP would protect against HAE (high-altitude exposure)-induced acute lung injury and oedema via promoting the expression of HSP70 in lungs prior to the onset of HAE. At 2 weeks after the start of HHP, animals were exposed to a simulated HAE of 6000 m in a hypobaric chamber for 24 h. Immediately after being returned to ambient pressure, the non-HHP animals had higher scores of alveolar oedema, neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage, acute pleurisy (e.g. increased exudate volume, increased numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and increased lung myeloperoxidase activity), increased pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α), IL (interleukin)-1β and IL-6], and increased cellular ischaemia (i.e. glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio) and oxidative damage [glycerol, NOx (combined nitrate+nitrite) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid] markers in the BALF (bronchoalveolar fluid). HHP, in addition to inducing overexpression of HSP70 in the lungs, significantly attenuated HAE-induced pulmonary oedema, inflammation, and ischaemic and oxidative damage in the lungs. The beneficial effects of HHP in preventing the occurrence of HAE-induced pulmonary oedema, inflammation, and ischaemic and oxidative damage was reduced significantly by pretreatment with a neutralizing anti-HSP70 antibody. In conclusion, HHP may attenuate the occurrence of pulmonary oedema, inflammation, and ischaemic and oxidative damage caused by HAE in part via up-regulating HSP70 in the lungs.
    Clinical Science 09/2011; 121(5):223-31. · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
338.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Taipei Medical University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Urology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2001–2014
    • Chi-Mei Medical Center
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2013
    • Waseda University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2009–2012
    • National Cheng Kung University Hospital
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005–2012
    • Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2011
    • Chung Yuan Christian University
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Taiwan Landseed Hospital
      P’ing-tung-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2005–2011
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Physical Therapy
      Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2002–2011
    • National Yang Ming University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department and Institute of Physiology
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2008
    • Taipei Veterans General Hospital
      • Division of Emergency Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2007
    • China Medical University Hospital
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • National Defense Medical Center
      • Institute of Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2007
    • Mackay Memorial Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan