Emma Hawe

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (65)394.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Latitude is an important determinant of C-IMT, which is not explained by between-country differences in established VRFs. Other unknown contributory mechanisms such as heritable, nutritional, or environmental factors may be important in the genesis of this geographical gradient.
    European Heart Journal. 01/2010; 31(5):614-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Large increases in inflammatory markers, particularly IL-6, occur after cardiac surgery. However, despite interventions to reduce the inflammatory response, great variability still remains which could in part be attributable to genetic predisposition. Since increased IL-6 levels following surgery are also associated with poorer outcome we sought to determine whether baseline and post-operative levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and functional common variants of the Interleukin-6 (IL6) gene are associated with post-operative outcome following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Caucasian patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were studied. IL-6 levels were measured pre-, 6h and 24h following surgery and genotypes for IL6 gene variants -174G>C and -572G>C were obtained. Clinical data was collected daily until patient discharge. Patient outcome was categorised as with (ICUC, n=177) and without (NICUC, n=189) a post-operative complication during the ICU period and with (POC, n=215) and without (NC, n=151) a post-operative complication during hospitalisation. IL-6 levels pre- and at 24h were greater in POC and ICUC than NC and NICUC, respectively. Pre- IL-6 levels independently predicted (for 1 standard deviation increase in log IL-6) POC (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7, p=0.008) and ICUC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6, p=0.02) outcomes. Overall, the IL6-572G>C had an effect over time on IL-6 levels (p=0.04) and on IL-6 levels in NC (P=0.008) and NICUC (p=0.006). However, no associations were found with the IL6 -572G>C or -174G>C variants on IL-6 levels at individual time-points or by outcome group. Thus, in conclusion, elevated pre-operative IL-6 levels, but not IL6 gene variants predict poor patient outcome following CABG.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2008; 204(1):196-201. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular mass is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although factors associated with elevated left ventricular mass have been sought and studied extensively in elderly and in diseased subjects, few studies have examined the young and healthy. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of lifestyle on left ventricular mass in a large group of young men. Left ventricular mass was assessed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance in 541 healthy Caucasian male army recruits. Anthropometric, lifestyle and blood pressure data were collected. Mean unadjusted left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area were 163.8+/-24.9 g and 86.6+/-10.2 g m(-2) respectively. In univariate analysis, age, height, weight, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and indices of physical activity were positively associated with unadjusted left ventricular mass (all P<0.02). By contrast, smoking was associated with lower mean left ventricular mass; never smoked 167.5+/-25.8 g vs ex-smokers 159.1+/-25.2 g vs current smokers 161.0+/-23.1 g (P=0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed weight, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and indices of physical activity to be independent predictors of left ventricular mass. Our data confirm an association of age, body weight, height, physical activity, diastolic and systolic blood pressure with left ventricular mass. In addition, unexpectedly, we have found smoking is associated with lower left ventricular mass in a large sample of young healthy men. Although the latter association may result from confounding effects, such an interesting observation deserves further investigation.
    International journal of cardiology 08/2007; 120(1):52-8. · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 02/2007; 9(1):130-1. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing left ventricular mass is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To examine the possible association of smoking with the left ventricular growth response in men. Left ventricular mass was measured in 309 army recruits before and after an identical 12-week physical training programme. Left ventricular mass was determined using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Left ventricular mass increased with training (mean (standard deviation (SD)) 3.83 (10.81) g, p<0.001). By univariate analysis, exercise-induced change in left ventricular mass was positively associated with cigarette smoking (mean (SD) 1.69 (11.10) g v 4.76 (10.23) g for non-smokers v ex- and current smokers, respectively; p = 0.026), whereas age, height, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP), alcohol consumption or indices of physical activity were not significantly associated with change in left ventricular mass. Multivariate analysis showed body weight, smoking status and SBP to be independent predictors of left ventricular mass (incremental R(2) = 3.4%, p = 0.004; R(2) = 4.9%, p = 0.024; and R(2) = 1.7%, p = 0.041, respectively). Cigarette smoking and SBP are associated with exercise-induced left ventricular growth in young men. The positive association of smoking with changes in left ventricular mass is surprising, given the limited exposure of these subjects to smoking, and although these data do not prove causation, they are of great interest to those trying to uncover the drivers of left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as to those examining the possible ill-effects of smoking in the young.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 01/2007; 92(12):1784-8. · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear wheather the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and incident coronary events is free from bias and confounding. Individuals homozygous for a +1444C>T polymorphism in the CRP gene have higher circulating concentrations of CRP. Since the distribution of this polymorphism occurs at random during gamete formation, its association with coronary events should not be biased or confounded. We calculated the weighted mean difference in CRP between individuals with variants of the +1444C>T polymorphism in the CRP gene among 4,659 European men from six studies (genotype-intermediate phenotype studies). We used this difference together with data from previous observational studies to compute an expected odds ratio (OR) for non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) among individuals homozygous for the T allele. We then performed four new genetic association studies (6,201 European men) to obtain a summary OR for the association between the +1444C>T polymorphism and non-fatal MI (genotype-disease studies). CRP was 0.68 mg/l [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.31-1.10; P = 0.0001] higher among subjects homozygous for the +1444-T allele, with no confounding by a range of covariates. The expected ORs among TT subjects for non-fatal MI corresponding to this difference in CRP was 1.20 (95% CI 1.07-1.38) using the Reykjavik Heart study data and 1.25 (1.09-1.43) for all observational studies to 2004. The estimate for the observed adjusted-OR for non-fatal MI among TT subjects was 1.01 (95% CI 0.74-1.38), lower than both expected ORs. A common CRP gene polymorphism is associated with important differences in CRP concentrations, free from confounding. The null association of this variant with coronary events suggests possible residual confounding (or reverse causation) in the CRP-coronary event association in observational studies, though the confidence limits are still compatible with a modest causal effect. Additional studies of genotype (or haplotype) and coronary events would help clarify whether or not the link between CRP and coronary events in observational studies is causal.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2006; 35(4):922-31. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is incompletely understood. We previously showed that the D rather than the I polymorphic variant of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with preserved quadriceps strength in COPD. If the ACE D allele influences skeletal muscle through increased ACE-related kinin degradation [and reduced activity at the bradykinin type 2 receptor (BK(2)R)], we might expect a similar association with the +9 BK(2)R genotype in this population as well. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the BK(2)R gene polymorphism is a determinant of fat-free mass and quadriceps strength in patients with COPD. In a cross-sectional design we determined BK(2)R genotype, fat-free mass, and quadriceps strength in 110 COPD patients with a mean (+/-SD) predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 34.3 +/- 16.4% and in 104 healthy age-matched control subjects. The mean (+/-SD) fat-free mass index (in kg/m(2)) was significantly lower in 37 patients homozygous for the +9 allele than in carriers of the -9 allele (15.7 +/- 1.8 compared with 16.7 +/- 2.3; P = 0.038); the same pattern was true for quadriceps maximal voluntary force (30.8 +/- 10.4 and 36.4 +/- 12.8 kg; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant effect of BK(2)R genotype on inspiratory muscle strength or on any variable in control subjects was observed. There was no interaction between the effect of the BK(2)R and ACE genotypes on quadriceps strength. The genotype associated with reduced BK(2)R expression is associated with reduced fat-free mass and quadriceps strength in COPD. However, alterations in the activity at the BK(2)R do not seem to account for the previously identified association of quadriceps strength with ACE genotype.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2006; 83(4):912-7. · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a randomised trial [Genetic Risk Assessment for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) Trial] of the psychological consequences of DNA-based and non-DNA-based diagnosis of FH, 338 probands with a clinical diagnosis of FH (46% with tendon xanthomas) were recruited. In the DNA-based testing arm (245 probands), using single-strand conformation polymorphism of all exons of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, 48 different pathogenic mutations were found in 62 probands (25%), while 7 (2.9%) of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene. Compared to those with no detected mutation, mean untreated cholesterol levels in those with the APOB mutation were similar, while in those with an LDLR mutation levels were significantly higher (None=9.15+/-1.62 vs LDLR=9.13+/-1.16 vs APOB=10.26+/-2.07 mmol/l p<0.001, respectively). Thirty seven percent of the detected mutations were in exon 3/4 of LDLR, and this group had significantly higher untreated cholesterol than those with other LDLR mutations (11.71+/-2.39 mmol/l vs 9.88+/-2.44 mmol/l, p=0.03), and more evidence of coronary disease compared to those with other LDLR or APOB mutations (36 vs 13% p=0.04). Of the probands with a detected mutation, 54 first-degree relatives were identified, of whom 27 (50%) had a mutation. Of these, 18 had untreated cholesterol above the 95th percentile for their age and gender, but there was overlap with levels in the non-carrier relatives such that 12% of subjects would have been incorrectly diagnosed on lipid levels alone. In the non-DNA-based testing arm (82 probands) only 19 of the 74 relatives identified had untreated cholesterol above the 95th percentile for their age and gender, which was significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the 50% expected for monogenic inheritance. These data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of LDLR mutations in the UK and the deleterious effect of mutations in exon 3 or 4 of LDLR on receptor function, lipids and severity of coronary heart disease. In patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH but no detectable mutation, there is weaker evidence for a monogenic cause compared with relatives of probands with LDLR mutations. This supports the usefulness of DNA testing to confirm diagnosis of FH for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and for further cascade screening.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2006; 84(3):203-14. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S transferases (GST) are enzymes responsible for the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and play a major cellular antioxidant role. Our aim was firstly, to examine the association between the GST M1/GST mu-1 (GSTM1) and GST T1/GST theta-1 (GSTT1) gene variants with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic patients, and secondly to examine the association and potential interaction between these variants and cigarette smoking. Seven hundred and seventy-three Caucasian subjects with diabetes and 2592 Caucasian non-diabetic subjects were successfully genotyped. Plasma total antioxidant status, C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and LDL-mean/peak particle diameter were recorded in the diabetes sample. No association was seen between genotype and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In the diabetic subjects, GSTT1-1 compared to GSTT1-0 subjects had significantly higher CRP (p=0.001), Ox-LDL (p=0.004) and smaller LDL particles (p=0.01). In subjects without CVD, there was a significant interaction between the GSTT1-1 variant and smoking in determining Ox-LDL (p=0.04). Furthermore, CVD risk was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers with GSTT1-1. No significant associations were observed by GSTM1. Within the non-diabetic sample, no association was observed between genotype and prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Of note, the frequency of the GSTT1-1 variant was significantly lower in the diabetes subjects compared to the non-diabetic sample (p=0.01). This study demonstrates an association between the GSTT1-1 variant and markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore this variant interacts with smoking to increase lipid peroxidation.
    Atherosclerosis 03/2006; 184(2):404-12. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have progressively analysed three studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) for a variant in EPCR (Ser219Gly). Initially, in a prospective study, NPHSII, while no overall CHD-risk was identified in heterozygotes, homozygotes for 219Gly exhibited a three-fold elevated risk (HR 3.3, CI 1.22-8.96). In diabetics within NPHSII, there was a suggestion that 219Gly+ was associated with elevated CHD-risk (HR 1.89, CI 0.39-9.06) although numbers were small. To further assess the effect of the variant in diabetes, a case-control study of MI, HIFMECH, was used, in which previous analysis had defined a group with metabolic syndrome, by factor analysis. A significant CHD-risk interaction was identified between genotype and the 'metabolic syndrome' factor (interaction p=0.009). To further assess CHD-risk for this variant in type-2 diabetes and to assess the effect of the variant upon thrombin generation and plasma levels of soluble EPCR, a cross-sectional study of type-2 diabetes was used. A significant CHD-risk was identified for European Whites (OR 2.84, CI 1.38-5.85) and Indian Asians in this study (OR 1.6, CI 1.00-2.57) and the frequency of 219Gly was two-fold higher in Indian Asians. Soluble EPCR levels were strongly associated with genotype, with homozygotes for 219Gly having four-fold higher levels (p<0.0001). In vitro studies of EPCR-transfected cells suggested increased basal release of sEPCR from cells expressing the 219Gly EPCR phenotype. Furthermore, in base-line samples from NPHSII and in the diabetic study, a significant increase in prothrombin F1+2 level was observed for 219Gly. The increased CHD-risk and thrombin generation appears to be acting through increased shedding of the Gly allele from the cell surface.
    Atherosclerosis 12/2005; 183(2):283-92. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data from 1668 men (316 cardiovascular disease events) from the Framingham Offspring Study was reanalysed, specifically examining APOE:smoking interactions. Overall hazard ratio (HR) for smoking was 1.95 (1.52, 2.50) compared to non-smokers. Using epsilon3/3 as a referent group, in non-smokers HRs for epsilon2 carriers (epsilon2+; 1.04 (0.61, 1.76) and epsilon4 carriers (epsilon4+; 1.04 (0.70, 1.54) showed no major risk increase. In smokers, HRs were 1.96 (1.26, 2.78) in epsilon3epsilon3 men, 3.46 (2.14, 5.60; p = 0.09 for interaction) in epsilon2+ and 3.81 (2.49, 5.84; p = 0.01 for interaction), with a significant interaction between daily cigarette consumption and APOE genotype on risk (p = 0.03). The potential mechanism for this APOEepsilon4:smoking interaction was examined in a second study of 728 Caucasian patients with diabetes, where markers of reactive oxygen species were available. APOE genotype was not associated with plasma OX-LDL or total antioxidant status (TAOS) in non-smokers. However, in smokers epsilon4+ had 26.7% higher plasma OX-LDL than other genotypes (APOE:smoking interaction p = 0.04), while epsilon2+ had 28.4% higher plasma TAOS than epsilon3epsilon3 and epsilon4+ combined (APOE:smoking interaction p = 0.026). Although direct extrapolation needs to be considered with caution, these results identify that the cardiovascular disease risk-raising effect of epsilon4+ is confined to smokers, and a feasible mechanism is presented by the reduced antioxidant capacity/increased OX-LDL of apoE4.
    Annals of Human Genetics 12/2005; 69(Pt 6):613-22. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) can express heme-oxygenase (HO), a rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to bilirubin, ferritin and carbon monoxide (CO). VSMC-derived CO can suppress VSMC proliferation and may serve as an antiproliferation factor. The promoter region of HO-1 shows a polymorphism with different (GT) n repeats that has been reported to differently induce gene expression. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of this variation on the occurrence of restenosis after in-stent treatment in patients with coronary artery disease. Candidates who underwent coronary stent implantation were genotyped for the HO-1 promoter polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and automated DNA capillary sequencer. Serum levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were obtained at baseline, 24 hours and 48 hours after stenting. The primary end point for the study was angiographic evidence of in-stent restenosis at 6 months. All parameters for evaluation of restenosis were analysed by quantitative computer-assisted angiographic analysis (QCA). One hundred and eighty-seven patients who underwent coronary stent implantation were studied of whom 27.8% showed > or = 50% restenosis after 6 months. The distribution of (GT) n repeats of all patients in the promoter region of HO-1 genotype ranged from 22 to 42, with (GT) 25 and (GT) 32 being the two most common alleles. The allelic repeats were divided into the short class (S) with 29 (GT) n, the middle class (M) with 30-37 (GT) n and the long class (L) with 38 (GT) n. There was no significant difference in the restenosis between the genotype groups or between post operation levels of inflammation markers, but carriers of the S allele (n = 120) had 33.3% lower baseline IL-6 compared with non-S carriers (n = 67, P = 0.0008). Although no association was observed between the HO-1 promoter polymorphism and coronary in-stent restenosis following the stent procedure, the association with plasma IL-6 levels suggests that HO-1 S allele might protect from the atherosclerotic inflammatory process.
    Chinese medical journal 09/2005; 118(18):1525-32. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to bilirubin, ferritin and carbon monoxide (CO) and may have significant anti-inflammatory function. The HO-1 gene promoter region shows microsatellite polymorphism with different (GT)n repeats, reported to differently induce gene expression, with the short allele associated with higher gene expression. We measured the acute inflammatory response using coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as a well-characterized and uniform stimulus and examined the correlation between levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen and their relationship to HO-1 genotype. Two hundred and seventy-five consecutive patients undergoing CABG were genotyped for the HO-1 promoter polymorphism using PCR and automated DNA capillary sequencer. IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen were measured at baseline and 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after CABG. Complete IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen measures were available in 220 patients. Before surgery IL-6 levels showed a strong correlation with CRP and fibrinogen (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001; r = 0.41, P < 0.0001 respectively), with a significant correlation between CRP and fibrinogen (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). All three acute phase reactants showed a significant increase after CABG. After surgery, peak IL-6 was strongly correlated with peak CRP (r = 0.34, P = 0.0009) but not with peak fibrinogen (r = 0.15, P = 0.13), while peak CRP and peak fibrinogen were significantly correlated (r = 0.415, P < 0.0001). HO-1 allelic repeats ranged from 22-42, with (GT)25 and (GT)32 being the two most common alleles, and subsequently divided into three groups according to previous published work: <30 (GT)n were designated as S (short), 30-37 (GT)n as M (middle) and long repeats with >37 (GT)n as L (long); allele frequency 0.35, 0.58 and 0.07 respectively. Baseline CRP differed by genotype: those carrying at least one long allele having higher CRP than those with no long allele (3.76 +/- 0.79 vs. 2.07 +/- 0.17, P = 0.013). Conversely, those carrying at least one short allele had higher fibrinogen levels than those with no short allele (3.83 +/- 0.79 vs. 3.51 +/- 0.88, P = 0.006). There is a strong correlation between the measured acute phase reactants both at baseline and after the inflammatory response to CABG in patients with coronary disease. There was an association between the HO-1 microsatellite polymorphism and CRP and fibrinogen levels at baseline but there was no similar association following CABG. This may indicate that HO-1 is associated with chronic atherosclerotic inflammatory processes rather than acute.
    Chinese medical journal 09/2005; 118(15):1285-90. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is thought to play an important role in intracranial aneurysm formation. Heme-oxygenase-1(HO-1) is a novel anti-inflammatory factor. A length polymorphic variant of the HO-1 gene promoter region, comprising (GT)n dinucleotide repeats, is associated with altered levels of gene transcription: long (= 36 GT) repeats are associated with decreased HO-1. We hypothesized that patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage were more likely to have long repeats than controls. Sixty-nine patients with aneurysms and 230 age-matched controls were genotyped, and allelic repeats were classed as <36 (short and medium repeats) and >36 (long repeats). Patients were more likely to have =36 repeats than controls (8 v. 4%, p = 0.037. Control patients without aneurysms were more likely to have short alleles. Thus, facilitated up-regulation of HO-1 may be a protective anti-inflammatory factor against the development of intracranial aneurysms, whilst a propensity to a more pro-inflammatory state may put individuals at risk. However, because of the relatively small sample size and modest statistical significance, the data must be interpreted with caution and the association needs to be confirmed in further samples.
    British Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2005; 19(4):317-21. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the common apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) variants with cognitive function and cognitive decline in adult mid-life and explore the possibility that APOE genotype mediates the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive function. Data on cognitive function, as measured by five cognitive tests, together with APOE genotype were obtained in an occupational cohort (the Whitehall II study) of 6,004 participants aged 44-69 years (1997-1999). Cognitive change was examined in 2,717 participants who had cognitive function measured at baseline (1991-1993). SES based on civil service employment grade was strongly related to cognitive function. There was no association between APOE genotype and employment grade. In women, participants with APOE-epsilon4 had a lower memory score (p<0.05), but the result was sensitive to data from a small number of individuals. A marginal cross-sectional difference in the semantic fluency score was found (p=0.07), and there was a relative decline at follow-up (p<0.001, net change=-1.19; 95% CI, -1.90 to -0.49) in those with APOE-epsilon4 genotypes. APOE-epsilon4 has little influence on cognitive decline in mid-life, whereas SES is a strong determinant, although APOE genotype may emerge as an important factor in cognitive function in later life.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 07/2005; 40(7):557-63. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical observations suggest that innate immunity plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. A common C-260T polymorphism in the promoter of the CD14 gene, the trans-membrane receptor of lipopolysaccharides, has been inconsistently associated with coronary heart disease. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of the CD14 polymorphism to the inflammatory response and to the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). We used an European case-control study, the HIFMECH study, comparing 533 men with MI and 575 sex- and age-matched controls. Associations between genotype and disease outcome, according to interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, were assessed using conditional logistic regression. The CD14/C-260T polymorphism was associated with plasma IL-6 levels, T/T subjects having higher plasma levels than C/C in cases but not in controls (mean+/-S.D.: 2.04+/-1.37 versus 1.70+/-1.15, p=0.01; 1.20+/-0.75 versus 1.35+/-0.88, p=0.31, respectively). Overall, the CD14/C-260T polymorphism was not associated with the risk of MI. However, in individuals with IL-6 plasma levels in the highest tertile, T allele carriers had a higher risk of MI than C/C (OR: 1.85; CI 95 1.05-3.25). IL-6 increased the risk of MI in carriers of the T allele (OR for first versus third IL-6 tertile: 4.02; CI 95 2.24-7.21), but not in C/C (OR: 0.75; CI 95 0.32-1.74, p=0.004 for interaction). The data indicate a role for CD14/C-260T in MI. The risk mediated by the polymorphism is highly dependent on IL-6 plasma levels.
    Atherosclerosis 05/2005; 179(2):317-23. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The "insertion" (I) rather than "deletion" (D) variant of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with both lower tissue ACE activity and elite performance at high altitude. We examined whether the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS), and further performance on reaching the summit of Mt. Blanc are influenced by the ACE I/D polymorphism. Two hundred and eighty-four climbers (235 males, [37.0 (11.0 years], (86 DD, 142 ID, 56 II)) had assessment of their AMS status upon arrival to the Gouter hut (3,807 m) on day 1, and again on day 2 after an attempted ascent to the summit of Mt. Blanc (4,807 m). Success in reaching the summit was genotype dependent (87.7% of DD, 94.9% of ID and 100% of II individuals; P=0.048); I allele frequency for those reaching the summit was 0.47 compared to 0.21 for those who did not (P=0.01). The onset of AMS on day 1 appeared to be dependent on genotype (P=0.003), but with those heterozygous being less affected. ACE genotype was not associated either with AMS onset or severity on day 2. Thus, ACE I/D genotype is associated with successful high altitude ascent in this prospective study-an association not explicable by genotype-dependence of AMS onset or severity. Values are given as mean (SD) unless otherwise stated.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 04/2005; 93(5-6):630-3. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements 04/2005; 6(1):78-78. · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma concentrations of coagulation factorVII (FVII) are determined by environmental and genetic factors. The influence of functional polymorphisms in the FVII gene (-670A>C, -402G>A, -401G>T and R353Q) and of established cardiovascular risk factors on plasma concentrations of FVII were investigated in a representative sample of middle-aged women with (n=238) and without (n=220) coronary heart disease (CHD). Specific and sensitive assays were used to measure FVII antigen (VIIag) and activated factorVII (VIIa). The effect of genotypes was markedly stronger on VIIa than on VIIag, with the percentage variation in FVII levels accounted for by genotypes being greater in controls than in patients. Of the four polymorphisms examined, only the R353Q contributed to the variation inVIIa (24.1% in patients and 30.3% in controls). The -401G>T and -670A>C promoter polymorphisms together accounted for 12.2% of the variation in VIIag amongst patients whereas the -401G>T polymorphism alone contributed 19.7% of the variation in VIIag in controls. Serum triglycerides exerted a major influence onVIIag in both patients (13.0%) and controls (7.2%). Three main haplotypes emerged from the four polymorphisms which accounted for 98% of all haplotypes. Large-scale prospective studies of CHD including FVII haplotypes and sensitive and specific FVII measurements are needed in women.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2005; 93(2):351-8. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism is important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha is a master regulator of fatty acid catabolism, and PPARalpha activators delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. We examined association between three PPARalpha gene polymorphisms (an A-->C variant in intron 1, the L162V variant, and the intron 7 G-->C variant) and age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in 912 Caucasian type 2 diabetic subjects. Individually, PPARalpha gene variants did not influence age at diagnosis, but in combination, the rare alleles of both the intron 1 A-->C (P < 0.001) and intron 7 G-->C (P = 0.025) variants synergistically lowered age at diagnosis (interaction P < 0.001). Overall, the PPARalpha haplotype signficantly influenced age at diagnosis (P = 0.027), with the C-L-C and C-V-C haplotypes (intron 1-L162V-intron 7) accelerating onset of diabetes by 5.9 (P = 0.02) and 10 (P = 0.03) years, respectively, as compared with the common A-L-G haplotype, and was associated with an odds ratio for early-onset diabetes (age at diagnosis </=45 years) of 3.75 (95% CI 1.65-8.56, P = 0.002). Intron 1 C-allele carriers also progressed more rapidly to insulin monotherapy (AA 9.4 +/- 1.5 and AC + CC 5.3 +/- 1.1 years, P = 0.002). These data indicate that PPARalpha gene variation influences the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes 03/2005; 54(2):582-6. · 8.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
394.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2008
    • University College London
      • Division of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Rambam Medical Center
      • Lipid Research Unit
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2002–2003
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      • Laboratoire d'hématologie
      Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France