[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vesiviruses have been detected in several animal species and as accidental contaminants of cells. We detected vesiviruses in asymptomatic kennel dogs (64.8%) and symptomatic (1.1%) and asymptomatic (3.5%) household dogs in Italy. The full-length genome of 1 strain, Bari/212/07/ITA, shared 89%-90% nt identity with vesiviruses previously detected in contaminated cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dog circovirus (DogCV) was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411-13) was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105909. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105909 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An epidemiological survey for Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was conducted in Albania. A total of 57 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs in the District of Tirana during 2011-2013. The molecular assays detected 53 and 31 CPV- and CCoV-positive specimens, respectively, with mixed CPV-CCoV infections diagnosed in 28 dogs. The most frequently detected CPV type was 2a, whereas IIa was the predominant CCoV subtype. A better comprehension of the CPV-CCoV epidemiology in eastern European countries will help to assess the most appropriate vaccination strategies to prevent disease due to infections with these widespread agents of acute gastroenteritis in the dog.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 06/2014; 26(4). DOI:10.1177/1040638714538965 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live attenuated vaccines provide the most consistent protective immunity in experimental models of lentivirus infections. In this study we tested the hypothesis that animals infected with a naturally attenuated small ruminant lentivirus field strain of genotype E may control a challenge infection with a virulent strain of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV-CO). Within genotype E, Roccaverano strain has been described as attenuated since decreased arthritic pathological indexes were recorded in Roccaverano-infected animals compared to animals of the same breed infected with genotype B strains. Moreover, under natural conditions, animals double-infected with genotypes B and E appear less prone to develop SRLV-related disease, leading to a putative protective role of Roccaverano strain. Here we present evidence that goats experimentally infected with the avirulent genotype E SRLV-Roccaverano strain control the proviral load of a pathogenic challenge virus (CAEV-CO strain) more efficiently than naïve animals and appear to limit the spread of histological lesions to the contralateral joints.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed.
Research in Veterinary Science 03/2010; 89(2):275-8. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.03.001 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An epidemiological survey for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV) infections was conducted in Western Europe. A total of 156 faecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhoea in Spain (n=47), Italy (n=39), France (n=26), Germany (n=21), the United Kingdom (n=8), Belgium (n=10), and the Netherlands (n=5). Using molecular assays for virus detection and characterisation, CPV and CCoV were found to be widespread in European dog populations, either alone or in mixed infections. In agreement with previous reports, the original type CPV-2 was shown not to circulate in European dogs. The recently identified virus variant CPV-2c was predominant in Italy and Germany and present at high rates in Spain and France but was not detected in the UK or Belgium. Except for the UK, CCoV genotype I was identified in all European countries involved in the survey, albeit at a lower prevalence rates than CCoV genotype II.
The Veterinary Journal 11/2009; 187(2):195-9. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.10.027 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is usually carried out by means of rapid immunochromatographic assays, but the ability of these tests to detect all CPV variants, including the recently identified CPV-2c, is still debated. To determine if the assays detect the different CPV variants, 201 CPV PCR-positive faecal samples or rectal swabs were tested using a commercially available in-house test. Specimens (CPV-2a, n=51; CPV-2b, n=50; CPV-2c, n=100), containing CPV DNA loads >10(5) DNA copies/mg faeces, as determined by real-time PCR, were selected from previous studies. The percentage of positive in-house tests was 80.4%, 78.0% and 77.0% for CPV types 2a, 2b and 2c, respectively, confirming the ability of the test to detect the new variant CPV-2c. However, considering the sensitivity limits of the in-house tests that have been observed previously, negative results from the in-house test kit should be confirmed by PCR-based methods.
The Veterinary Journal 05/2009; 184(3):373-5. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.04.006 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sequence of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein VP2 of 58 canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2c strains, along with recent CPV-2a/2b strains, was determined and analysed in comparison with reference CPV isolates. The CPV-2c strains displayed a low genetic variability and shared amino acid changes already detected in recent CPV-2a/2b isolates, with a phylogenetic clustering accounting for their geographical distribution. Analysis of the selection pressure driving CPV evolution confirmed that the VP2 gene is under purifying selection. The emergence and global spread of the new CPV variant provides an interesting model to better understand virus evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether animals may act as reservoirs for human caliciviruses is unclear. By sequence analysis of a short fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region, porcine sapovirus (SaV) strains that genetically resemble human SaVs have been detected in piglets, but more-informative sequences (capsid gene) were not available for a precise characterization. In this study, the 3' terminus (the 3' end of open reading frame 1 [ORF1], including the polymerase complex and the complete capsid; ORF2; and the 3' untranslated region) of one such human SaV-like strain, 43/06-18p3/2006/It, was determined, revealing that these viruses are more related genetically to human (47.4 to 54.9% amino acid identity) than to animal (35.2 to 44.7% amino acid identity) SaVs in the capsid gene. In addition, the recombination-prone RdRp-capsid junction region was highly conserved with those of human SaVs of genogroup GI. The presence of porcine viruses similar to human SaVs is a significant finding because of the potential for zoonotic infections or generation of porcine/human recombinants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antigenic relationships among the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and the variants CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c were evaluated. Cross-antigenic evaluation revealed clear differences among the CPV variants, which were more appreciable by serum neutralization (SN) than by hemagglutination inhibition. Antigenic differences were found mostly between the original CPV-2 and the variants, but they were also observed among the variants CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c. The variant CPV-2c exhibited a unique antigenic pattern, since it was poorly recognized by the sera of animals immunized with CPV-2, CPV-2a, and CPV-2b. However, animals immunized with CPV-2c exhibited higher SN titers to CPV-2b than to the homologous virus CPV-2c. The observed antigenic differences might drive selection of CPV strains by generating differential immune pressure in the canine population, which raises concerns about vaccine efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taking into account reports of the isolation of canine parvoviruses (CPVs) from faecal samples of cats, we developed a real-time PCR assay, based on minor groove binder (MGB) probe technology, for rapid discrimination between true feline panleukopenia viruses (FPLVs) from CPVs. The assay takes advantage of a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 3753 of the viral genome (corresponding to residue 323 of the capsid VP2 protein) and of the ability of MGB probes to bind specifically only to perfectly complementary sequences. The FPV/CPV assay was proven to be highly specific, sensitive and reproducible and correlated well with a TaqMan assay able to recognise canine as well as feline parvoviruses. Using this assay for extensive molecular surveys will provide precise information on the real circulation of the CPV antigenic variants, including the new variant 2c, in cat population worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus starin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for detection of RNA transcripts produced by replicating CPV-2. A pair of primers and a TaqMan probe targeting the spliced NS2 mRNA were designed. A synthetic DNA fragment was constructed to mimic the spliced NS2 mRNA by PCR-based gene assembly and was used for generation of standard RNAs. The detection limit of the assay was 1x10(2) RNA copies and standard curve displayed a linear range from 1x10(2) to 1x10(9) copies and a good reproducibility. The assay was then applied to determine the mRNA loads in the tissues of dogs naturally infected by CPV-2. mRNA was detected in a variety of tissues, including the central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The VP4 gene of a G5 Italian porcine rotavirus strain, 344/04-1, was nontypeable by PCR genotyping. The amino acid sequence of the full-length VP4 protein had low identity (<or=76.6%) with the homologous sequences of representative strains of the remaining P genotypes, providing evidence for a novel P genotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay was developed to discriminate between type 2-based vaccines and field strains of canine parvovirus (CPV). Considering that most of the CPV vaccines contain the old type 2, no longer circulating in canine population, two MGB probes specific for CPV-2 and the antigenic variants (types 2a, 2b and 2c), respectively, were labeled with different fluorophores. The MGB probe assay was able to discriminate correctly between the old type and the variants, with a detection limit of 10(1) DNA copies and a good reproducibility. Quantitation of the viral DNA loads was accurate, as demonstrated by comparing the CPV DNA titres to those calculated by means of the TaqMan assay recognising all CPV types. This assay will ensure resolution of most diagnostic problems in dogs showing CPV disease shortly after CPV vaccination, although it does not discriminate between field strains and type 2b-based vaccines, recently licensed to market in some countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotavirus genome segment 4, encoding the spike outer capsid VP4 protein, of a porcine rotavirus (PoRV) strain, 134/04-15, identified in Italy was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence was compared to those of all known VP4 (P) genotypes. The aa sequence of the full-length VP4 protein of the PoRV strain 134/04-15 showed aa identity values ranging from 59.7% (bovine strain KK3, P8) to 86.09% (porcine strain A46, P) with those of the remaining 25 P genotypes. Moreover, aa sequence analysis of the corresponding VP8* trypsin cleavage fragment revealed that the PoRV strain 134/04-15 shared low identity, ranging from 37.52% (bovine strain 993/83, P) to 73.6% (porcine strain MDR-13, P), with those of the remaining 25 P genotypes. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the VP4 of the PoRV strain 134/04-15 shares a common evolutionary origin with porcine P and lapine P rotavirus strains. Additional sequence analyses of the VP7, VP6, and NSP4 genes of the PoRV strain 134/04-15 revealed the highest VP7 aa identity (95.9%) to G5 porcine strains, a porcine-like VP6 within VP6 genogroup I, and a Wa-like (genotype B) NSP4, respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that the PoRV strain 134/04-15 should be considered as prototype of a new VP4 genotype, P, and provide further evidence for the vast genetic and antigenic diversity of group A rotaviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine rotavirus strains (PoRVs) bearing human-like VP4 P gene alleles were identified. Genetic characterization with either PCR genotyping or sequence analysis allowed to determine the VP7 specificity of the PoRVs as G3, G4, G5 and G9, and the VP6 as genogroup I, that is predictive of a subgroup I specificity. Sequence analysis of the VP8* trypsin-cleavage product of VP4 allowed PoRVs to be characterized further into genetic lineages within the P genotype. Unexpectedly, the strains displayed significantly higher similarity (up to 94.6% and 92.5% at aa and nt level, respectively) to human M37-like P strains (lineage I), serologically classifiable as P2A, or to the atypical Hungarian P human strains (HRVs), designated as lineage V (up to 97.0% aa and 96.1% nt), than to the porcine P strain Gottfried, lineage II (<85.1% aa and 82.2 nt), which is serologically classified as P2B. Interestingly, no P PoRV resembling the original prototype porcine strain, Gottfried, was detected, while Japanase P PoRV clustered with the atypical Japanase G1 human strain AU19. By analysis of the 10th and 11th genome segments, all the strains revealed a NSP4B genogroup (Wa-like) and a NSP5/6 gene of porcine origin. These findings strongly suggest interspecies transmission of rotavirus strains and/or genes, and may indicate the occurrence of at least 3 separate rotavirus transmission events between pigs and humans, providing convincing evidence that evolution of human rotaviruses is tightly intermingled with the evolution of animal rotaviruses.