S O Freytag

Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, United States

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Publications (72)400.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2014; 89(2):268-76. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of sociodemographic factors on biochemical control (bNED) and overall survival (OS) in patients with prostate cancer.
    American journal of clinical oncology. 05/2014;
  • S O Freytag, K N Barton, Y Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Oncolytic adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy has been shown to improve local tumor control in preclinical tumor models and in the clinic. Although local tumor control is important, for most human cancers, new therapies must also target metastatic disease if they are to have an impact on survival. Here, we test the hypothesis that adding cytokine gene therapy to our multimodal platform improves both local and metastatic tumor control in a preclinical model of prostate cancer. An oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12) expressing two suicide genes and mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12) was generated. Relative to an adenovirus lacking IL-12 (Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep), Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 improved local and metastatic tumor control in the TRAMP-C2 prostate adenocarcinoma model, resulting in a significant increase in survival. Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 resulted in high levels of IL-12 and interferon gamma in serum and tumor, increased natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte lytic activities, and the development of tumor-specific antitumor immunity. Immune cell depletion studies indicated that both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity were required for maximal Ad5-yCD/mutTKSR39rep-mIL12 activity. The results demonstrate that the addition of IL-12 significantly improves the efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy and provide the scientific basis for future trials targeting locally aggressive cancers.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 11 July 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.40.
    Gene therapy 07/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS) armed with two suicide genes and the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. In this context, hNIS can be used as a reporter gene in conjunction with nuclear imaging and as a potentially therapeutic gene when combined with (131)I radioiodine therapy. Here, we quantified the volume and magnitude of hNIS gene expression in the human prostate following injection of a high Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS dose using a standardized injection algorithm, and estimated the radiation dose that would be delivered to the prostate had men been administered (131)I with curative intent. Six men with clinically localized prostate cancer received an intraprostatic injection of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS under transrectal ultrasound guidance. All men received 2 × 0.5 ml deposits (5 × 10(11) vp/deposit) in each of the four base and midgland sextants and 2 × 0.25 ml deposits (2.5 × 10(11) vp/deposit) in each of the two apex sextants for a total of 12 deposits (5 × 10(12) vp) in 5 ml. On multiple days after the adenovirus injection, men were administered sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m)TcO(4)) and hNIS gene expression in the prostate was quantified by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). hNIS gene expression was detected in the prostate of six of six (100%) men. On average, 45% (range 18-83%) of the prostate volume was covered with gene expression. Had men been administered 200 mCi (131)I, we estimate that the mean absorbed dose to the prostate would be 7.2 ± 4.8 Gy (range 2.1-13.3 Gy), well below that needed to sterilize the prostate. We discuss the obstacles that must be overcome before adenovirus-mediated hNIS gene transfer and (131)I radioiodine therapy can be used as a definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer.
    Molecular Therapy 05/2011; 19(7):1353-9. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cumulative evidence has suggested investigation of the efficacy of Replication-Competent Adenovirus-mediated Suicide Gene Therapy in newly-diagnosed Prostate Cancer (ReCAP). There is a challenge in designing an efficacy trial for newly-diagnosed prostate cancer given its long natural history. The regulatory agency recommended a Phase II trial for safety before conducting the efficacy trial. The ReCAP trial is an adaptive seamless, multi-site open-label, randomized Phase II/III trial. Two hundred eighty men will be randomized to receive either replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy followed by radiation (Arm 1) or radiation alone (Arm 2). Phase II trial component will include the first 21 patients in Arm 1 with complete toxicity through day 90 for safety evaluation. The primary efficacy endpoint is the time free from biochemical and/or clinical failure (FFF). The secondary efficacy endpoints are 2-year prostate biopsies and overall survival. Unequal spaced interim looks are proposed with the adaptive sample-size re-estimation. This trial has been approved by the FDA for the study therapy investigation and is currently recruiting patients. Challenges remain in designing newly-diagnosed prostate cancer trials. Adaptive seamless design is time-saving and a cost-effective design in the development of novel medical therapies, but requires a specified statistical plan in the decision process involved.
    Contemporary clinical trials 02/2011; 32(3):453-60. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Owing to a low efficiency of gene transfer when delivered systemically, gene therapy may find its greatest utility in the clinic when combined with loco-regional cancer treatment such as radiation therapy. Although a variety of gene therapy strategies have been combined with radiation in preclinical models, only a handful have been translated into the clinic. Overall, combining gene therapy with radiation therapy has been well tolerated. Most of the gene therapy-related adverse events have been mild to moderate, transient, produced no noticeable symptoms to the patient, and did not exacerbate the side effects of radiation therapy. Several strategies have demonstrated antitumor activity in early-stage trials, and at least two have progressed to phase 3. Future developments will be driven by a better understanding of the radiation response and molecular basis for tumor radioresistance. KeywordsGene therapy-Radiation therapy-Radiosensitizer-Adenovirus-Suicide gene therapy-Oncolysis-p53-TNFα, EGFR-Ku70
    12/2010: pages 173-186;
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    ABSTRACT: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF(4)) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF(4), compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications.
    Journal of Radiation Research 01/2010; 51(5):621-6. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral vectors used for cancer gene therapy are usually delivered by direct intratumoral administration. We studied the role of hyperthermia (HT) in vitro and in vivo in an attempt to achieve higher transfection rates (especially, larger volume of spread). Replication-deficient adenoviruses containing either the human sodium-iodide symporter (Ad5-CMV-hNIS) or green fluorescent protein (Ad5-CMV-eGFP) as reporter genes were used. For in vitro studies, human lung cancer A549 cells were transfected with the virus and assayed for hNIS expression by radioactive pertechnetate uptake or green fluorescence activity using a gamma-counter or fluoroscopy respectively in the presence and absence of HT. For in vivo studies, A549 tumors were established intramuscularly in CD1 athymic mice. The adenoviral constructs (10(10) viral particles/tumor) were injected intratumorally when the tumors reached 10-11 mm in diameter. Different timing sequences of HT were examined and viral spread was assessed using technetium-autoradiography or GFP-fluorescence microscopy. In the in vitro studies, A549 cells infected with the adenoviral construct did not show any difference in gene expression level in the presence or absence of HT. In vivo, the effect of HT on the volume of gene expression in A549 tumors was highly variable with some groups of mice showing better spread in the presence of HT and others showing reduced spread with HT. Improvements in intratumoral adenoviral spread in response to hyperthermia were not consistently observed in a mouse tumor model using two quantitative endpoints of gene expression.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 06/2009; 25(4):273-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2009; 75(3).
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    ABSTRACT: To monitor noninvasively potentially therapeutic adenoviruses for cancer, we have developed a methodology based on the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Men with clinically localized prostate cancer were administered an intraprostatic injection of a replication-competent adenovirus, Ad5-yCD/utTK(SR39)rep-hNIS, armed with two suicide genes and the NIS gene. NIS gene expression (GE) was imaged noninvasively by uptake of Na(99 m)TcO(4) in infected cells using single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The investigational therapy was safe with 98% of the adverse events being grade 1 or 2. GE was detected in the prostate in seven of nine (78%) patients at 1 x 10(12) virus particles (vp) but not at 1 x 10(11) vp. Volume and total amount of GE was quantified by SPECT. Following injection of 1 x 10(12) vp in 1 cm(3), GE volume (GEV) increased to a mean of 6.6 cm(3), representing, on average, 18% of the total prostate volume. GEV and intensity peaked 1-2 days after the adenovirus injection and was detectable in the prostate up to 7 days. Whole-body imaging demonstrated intraprostatic gene expression, and there was no evidence of extraprostatic dissemination of the adenovirus by SPECT imaging. The results demonstrate that noninvasive imaging of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in humans is feasible and safe.
    Molecular Therapy 09/2008; 16(10):1761-9. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Viral vector mediated suicide gene therapy (SGT) involving thymidine kinase (TK) or cytosine deaminase (CD) have considerable promise in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. An unresolved issue is to what extent tumor hypoxia influences the outcome of SGT since brain tumors characterized by regions of hypoxia have potentially reduced cellular metabolism and SGT's cytotoxicity is manifest through cellular metabolism. We studied in vitro and in vivo, the effect of hypoxia on the cytotoxicity of SGT in rat 9L glioma cells. Neither acute nor chronic hypoxia affected the cell killing of SGT by TK or CD. In vivo confirmation that SGT efficacy was not adversely affected by tumor hypoxia using the hypoxic cell marker pimonidazole was shown by the absence of a change in tumor hypoxia by SGT. These studies support the use of SGT utilizing either TK or CD gene strategies even when tumors are characterized by a hypoxic microenvironment.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 08/2008; 90(1):19-24. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced, long-lived free radicals, reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the resultant tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. An approach designed to reduce the damaging effects of reactive oxidants employs metalloenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), such as MnSOD. Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) provides safe and long-term expression in humans. We tested the effectiveness of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP, a vector expressing MnSOD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in preclinical models. Infection of cultured cells with AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP showed enhanced expression of MnSOD and GFP. Sustained expression of GFP was achieved for at least 1 month in vivo following administration of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP to subcutaneous tissue of C57BL/6J mice. A single subcutaneous injection of AAV2-MnSOD-hrGFP significantly mitigated acute skin injury following single dose of irradiation of either 30 or 35 Gy. The proof-of-concept demonstrated in the present study together with the known safety profile in humans indicate that AAV-mediated MnSOD expression has potential countermeasure utility against normal tissue injury following radiation therapy or radiological accident.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 07/2008; 10(9):1012-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 11/2007; 69(3). · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that the human sodium-iodide symporter, NIS, can be used to detect NIS expression using standard radiological techniques was tested using adenoviral transduced NIS expression in human tumor xenografts grown in mice and in a naive dog prostate. Nonradioactive iodide was administered systemically to animals that 1-3 days previously had received a local injection of a replication-competent adenovirus expressing NIS under the control of the CMV promoter. The distribution of radiopacity was assessed in mouse tumors using micro-CT and a clinical X-ray machine and in the prostate of an anesthetized dog using a clinical spiral CT. Iodide sequestration and NIS expression were measured using X-ray spectrochemical analysis and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Radiographic contrast due to NIS gene expression that was observed indicates the technique has potential for use in preclinical rodent tumor studies but probably lacks sensitivity for human use.
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 10/2007; 2(5):240-7. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In preparation for a Phase I trial, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy in combination with radiation in a preclinical model of pancreatic cancer. Human MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were found to be sensitive to the oncolytic effects of the Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP adenovirus and also to the cytotoxic effects of the yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK(SR39)) genes in vitro. Combining Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy with radiation significantly increased tumor control beyond that of either modality alone. Injection of Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP in the dog pancreas at doses (10(12) virus particle (vp)) to be used in humans resulted in mild pancreatitis but not peritonitis or hepatotoxicity. Following administration of 9-(4-[(18)F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([(18)F]-FHBG), a positron-emitting substrate of HSV-1 TK, Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP activity could be monitored non-invasively by positron emission tomography (PET). [(18)F]-FHBG uptake was readily detected in the pancreas but not in other major abdominal organs, indicating that little of the injected adenovirus disseminates to collateral tissues. These results demonstrate that Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-ADP-mediated suicide gene therapy has the potential to augment the effectiveness of pancreatic radiotherapy without resulting in excessive toxicity. Hence they provide the scientific basis for an ongoing Phase I trial in pancreatic cancer.
    Molecular Therapy 10/2007; 15(9):1600-6. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in early detection and treatment, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States, and approximately 27,000 men will die from it this year. Better treatments are needed for aggressive forms of localized disease and hormone-refractory metastatic disease. Recently, several gene therapy strategies have generated provocative results in early-stage clinical trials, raising the possibility that gene therapy may have the potential to affect both localized and metastatic disease. Much work lies ahead. Nevertheless, for the time being, these studies provide hope that gene therapy may someday earn a place in the management of prostate cancer.
    Molecular Therapy 07/2007; 15(6):1042-52. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimization of adenoviral delivery to the target volume is required for adenovirus-mediated cancer gene therapy to reach its maximal potential. The purpose of these studies was to develop a model of gene expression to improve adenovirus-mediated cancer gene therapy in the clinic. We measured the distribution of gene expression after a single deposit of a replication-competent adenovirus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene was delivered to naive canine prostate and to human tumor xenografts. We generated hypothetical treatment plans for two prospective prostate cancer patients, using standard brachytherapy algorithms. In both models, the gene expression distribution from a single adenoviral deposit could be accurately described by a Gaussian function. In the naive canine prostate, a 0.1-ml deposit of 3 x 10(11) viral particles (VP) resulted in a gene expression volume of 1.14 +/- 0.70 cm(3), indicating that a minimum of 40 adenoviral deposits would be required to cover a 40-cm(3) prostate with therapeutic gene expression. On a viral particle basis, the gene expression volume obtained in human tumor xenografts (7 x 10(-12) cm(3)/VP) was twice that (3.5 x 10(-12) cm(3)/VP) measured in the naive canine prostate. Hypothetical treatment plans for two prostates indicated that 26 and 57 0.1-ml adenoviral deposits would be required to cover, respectively, 24- and 49-cm(3) prostates with gene expression. Although our studies focused on prostate, we believe the methodology to model gene expression presented here has much broader application to optimize treatment plans in other solid tumor sites; this assertion should be confirmed experimentally.
    Human Gene Therapy 07/2007; 18(6):562-72. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy is an investigational cancer treatment in which an oncolytic adenovirus armed with chemo-radiosensitizing genes is used to destroy tumor cells. Previously, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of this approach in two clinical trials of prostate cancer using a first-generation adenovirus. Here, we report the toxicity and preliminary efficacy of this approach in combination with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer using an improved, second-generation adenovirus. The investigational therapy was associated with low toxicity, and there were no dose-limiting toxicities or treatment-related serious adverse events. Relative to a previous trial using a first-generation adenovirus, there was no increase in hematologic, hepatic, gastrointestinal (GI), or genitourinary (GU) toxicities. Post-treatment prostate biopsies yielded provocative preliminary results. When the results of two similar trials were combined, 22% of evaluable patients were positive for adenocarcinoma at their last biopsy, which is better than expected (>or=40%) for this cohort of patients (P=0.038). When the results were categorized by prognostic risk, most of the treatment effect was observed in the intermediate-risk group, with 0 of 12 patients (0%) being positive for cancer at their last biopsy (P<0.01). These results further demonstrate the safety of this investigational approach and raise the possibility that it may have the potential to improve the outcome of conformal radiotherapy in select patient groups.
    Molecular Therapy 06/2007; 15(5):1016-23. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was done to aid in the design of a phase I gene therapy trial in patients with prostate cancer. We determined the dosimetric characteristics of our reporter gene system when coupled with intravenous administration of radioactive sodium pertechnetate (Na(99m) TcO(4)) and determined the feasibility of using human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) as a reporter gene to study the dynamics of adenoviral transgene expression in a large animal tumor. A replication-competent Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39) rep-hNIS adenovirus was injected into the prostate gland of dogs for dosimetry purposes, and into a canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) for imaging purposes. After resection of the prostate, the amount of (99m)TcO(4)() sequestered in the prostate was determined, the radiation dose absorbed by the prostate and nontarget critical organs was calculated, and hNIS reporter gene expression was imaged in the STS by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). On the basis of the findings from 25 dogs, the amount of (99m)TcO (4)() sequestered in the prostate ranged from 13 to 276 muCi. Using the highest value observed, absorbed radiation dose to critical organs was calculated and found to be below U.S. Food and Drug Administration limits for diagnostic imaging. Also, (99m)TcO (4)() uptake was readily detected by SPECT and found to persist in vivo for at least 4 days. On the basis of our dosimetry calculations, up to five imaging procedures can be safely performed in humans after intraprostatic injection of the Ad5-yCD/mutTK(SR39)rep-hNIS adenovirus and the hNIS reporter gene system can be used to study the dynamics of adenoviral gene therapy vectors in large animal tumors.
    Human Gene Therapy 05/2007; 18(4):312-22. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy is an investigational cancer treatment that combines the oncolytic actions of human adenoviruses with the cytotoxic effects of chemo-radiosensitizing genes. Previously, we reported the short-term effects of this therapy in men with local recurrence of prostate cancer after definitive radiotherapy. With a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) follow-up of 5 years, we report here the effect of the gene therapy on prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT), a surrogate end point with significant prognostic power. When considering all evaluable subjects, the PSADT increased following the gene therapy from a mean of 17 to 31 months (median 16 to 22 months) (P=0.014). Assuming that salvage androgen suppression therapy androgen suppression therapy (AST) was uniformly initiated at a PSA of 15 ng/mL, the gene therapy would have delayed the projected onset of salvage therapy by an average of 2 years. The results indicate that replication-competent adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy may provide a potential long-term benefit to patients, as shown by a lengthening of the PSADT, and delay in when salvage therapy is indicated. Given the high morbidity associated with AST, we believe this approach could provide an attractive treatment option for selection of patients experiencing PSA relapse following definitive therapy.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2007; 15(3):636-42. · 7.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
400.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2014
    • Henry Ford Health System
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1990–2009
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Detroit, MI, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1989
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States