Seok-Seong Kang

Seoul National University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (28)77.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, basophils have been suggested to produce inflammatory mediators in response to IgE in the absence of allergens. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in the initiation of inflammatory responses by recruiting various immune cells to the site of allergic inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether IgE under allergen-free conditions could stimulate basophils and lead to the production of MCP-1. Exposure of the rat basophilic cell-line RBL-2H3 to IgE without allergen resulted in a dose- and time-dependent induction of MCP-1 expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Although allergen was not necessary for IgE-induced MCP-1 expression, it was essential for degranulation as determined by β-hexosaminidase release assay. IgE enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinases including ERK, p38 kinase, and JNK. However, IgE-induced MCP-1 expression was attenuated by inhibitors for JNK and PKC. Concomitantly, IgE induced activation of AP-1, which is an important transcription factor for MCP-1 gene expression in RBL-2H3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IgE alone is sufficient to stimulate basophils to increase expression of MCP-1, which in turn might contribute to the inflammatory response.
    Molecular immunology. 06/2014; 62(1):114-121.
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    ABSTRACT: A Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus is known to be one of the major pathogenic bacteria responsible for causing bovine mastitis. Among the various cell wall components of S. aureus, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) are closely associated with inflammatory responses. However, the role of LTA and PGN derived from S. aureus in bovine mastitis has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we characterized the gene expression profile of a bovine mammary gland epithelial cell line, MAC-T cells, in the presence of LTA and PGN from S. aureus. LTA plus PGN, but not LTA or PGN alone, activated MAC-T cells. The analysis of transcriptional profiles using an Affymetrix genechip microarray showed that stimulation with LTA plus PGN produced a total of 2019 (fold change >1.2) differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 801 up-regulated genes and 1218 down-regulated genes. Of the up-regulated genes, 14 inflammatory mediator-related DEGs, 22 intra-cellular signaling molecule-related DEGs, and 15 transcription factor-related DEGs were observed, whereas among the down-regulated DEGs 17 inflammation-related DEGs were found in MAC-T cells. The microarray results were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR of 18 genes with substantial changes in expression (9 each from the up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs). These results provide a comprehensive analysis of gene-expression profiles elicited by S. aureus LTA and PGN in MAC-T cells, contributing to an understanding of the pathogenesis for S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.
    International immunopharmacology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Blood collected with an anticoagulant would be beneficial for simultaneous evaluation of immune cells and humoral components such as antibody. However, it is critical that the anticoagulant does not affect quantitative and qualitative analyses of antibodies. In the present study, we examined the potential interference of the widely-used anticoagulants, heparin, EDTA, and acid citrate dextrose (ACD), on vibriocidal antibody activities and Vibrio cholerae LPS-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA levels in the plasma and sera obtained from cholera patients or vaccinees. Serum vibriocidal antibody titer was inhibited in the presence of EDTA or ACD but not in the presence of heparin. Moreover, the vibriocidal antibody titer of plasma obtained from the vaccinees in tubes containing heparin was identical to the titer of matched serum in 100% (8/8), compared with 37.5% (3/8) and 50% (4/8) when prepared with EDTA and ACD, respectively. Among LPS-specific Igs, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for IgA between serum and plasma was low (r = 0.716), and the coefficient for IgG and IgM was relatively high (r = 0.997 and r = 0.945, respectively) in heparinized plasma samples when compared with the coefficient for IgG and IgM of EDTA- and ACD-treated plasma. Our results suggest that heparin is an appropriate anticoagulant for the collection of blood when measuring vibriocidal activity and antibody levels in the plasma.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 04/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Ki Bum Ahn, Seok-Seong Kang, Ok-Jin Park, Tae-Il Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Low-level laser irradiation promotes cell viability and wound healing in periodontal tissue. However, its effect on periodontal pathogenic bacteria is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effect of low-level laser irradiation on Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: A murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), was cultured and treated with gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) laser-irradiated P. gingivalis with varying levels of energy fluency. Gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, Interferon (IFN)-β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Production of iNOS was determined by Western blot analysis and nitric oxide (NO) release was assessed using Griess reagent. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in response to P. gingivalis. Results: The laser-irradiated P. gingivalis significantly enhanced mRNA and protein levels of iNOS in RAW 264.7. Although the laser irradiation on P. gingivalis did not alter the expression level of MCP-1, IL-6 and IFN-β, it showed a noticeable effect on NO production in RAW 264.7. Furthermore, the laser-irradiated P. gingivalis accelerated TLR2 activation, but not TLR4 activation. Conclusions: This study revealed that GaAlAs laser irradiation on P. gingivalis induced iNOS expression at transcriptional and translation level and increased NO release in macrophages. Moreover, we confirmed that this process was mediated specifically by TLR2 activation. These findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation to periodontal pathogenic bacteria could be detrimental to periodontal treatments.
    Journal of Periodontology 02/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans is a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium that is closely associated with dental caries and subsequent pulpal inflammation. Although lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is considered a major virulence factor of Gram-positive bacteria, little is known about the innate immunity to S. mutans LTA. In this study, we purified LTA from S. mutans (Sm.LTA) through n-butanol extraction, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and ion-exchange column chromatography to investigate its immunological properties using murine macrophages. The Sm.LTA preparation had no detectable contamination with endotoxins, proteins, or nucleic acids. Upon exposure to Sm.LTA, the murine macrophage cell-line RAW 264.7 cells produced TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner. Sm.LTA preferentially bound to and activated CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells rather than CHO/CD14/TLR4 cells, which are stable transfectants expressing CD14 and TLR2 or CD14 and TLR4, respectively. Sm.LTA could not induce TNF-α or NO production in macrophages derived from TLR2-deficient mice whereas it dose-dependently induced those inflammatory mediators in wild-type macrophages. TLR2-dependent induction of NO by Sm.LTA was also confirmed in RAW 264.7 cells using specific antibodies blocking TLR2. Furthermore, Sm.LTA deacylated by alkaline hydrolysis neither stimulated TLR2 nor induced TNF-α or NO production, suggesting that Sm.LTA lipid moieties are crucial for the immuno-stimulatory activity of Sm.LTA. Unlike Staphylococcus aureus LTA, which has potent immuno-stimulating activity, Sm.LTA showed a modest induction of NO production comparable to LTAs of other oral bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus plantarum. In conclusion, our results suggest that the Sm.LTA interacts with TLR2 through the lipid moiety for the induction of inflammatory mediators in macrophages.
    Molecular Immunology 11/2013; 57(2):284-291. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gram-positive bacteria contains lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) layers, both of which are considered as major virulence factors associated with inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in the inflammation by generating prostaglandins at infections. Since LTA and PGN are thought to cooperate in the establishment of inflammation, we examined the ability of staphylococcal LTA (Sa.LTA) to induce COX-2 expression in the presence of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), which is the minimal structural unit of PGN required for inflammation, in macrophages. While MDP failed to induce COX-2 expression, Sa.LTA alone was sufficient to induce COX-2 production. Treatment with MDP enhanced Sa.LTA-induced COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 production. The cooperative effect between Sa.LTA and MDP was not observed in COX-2 expression by macrophages derived from Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-deficient mice. In addition, MDP enhanced Sa.LTA-induced activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and CRE, which are known to modulate COX-2 gene transcription. Conclusively, these results suggest that MDP and Sa.LTA cooperatively induce inflammatory response by overproducing COX-2 through NOD2 and TLR2.
    Microbes and Infection 11/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections, and its LTA is known as an important virulence factor causing inflammatory responses. As chemokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases by triggering leukocyte infiltration into the infection site, we purified EfLTA and investigated its effect on the expression of chemokines, IP-10, MIP-1α, and MCP-1, in murine macrophages. EfLTA induced the expression of these chemokines at the mRNA and protein levels. TLR2, CD14, and MyD88 were involved in the EfLTA-induced chemokine expression, as the expression was reduced remarkably in macrophages derived from TLR2-, CD14-, or MyD88-deficient mice. EfLTA induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and enhanced the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB, AP-1, and NF-IL6 transcription factors. The induction of IP-10 required ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, PKC, PTK, PI3K, and ROS. We noticed that all of these signaling molecules, except p38 MAPK and ROS, were indispensable for the induction of MCP-1 and MIP-1α. Interestingly, the EfLTA-induced chemokine expression was mediated through PAFR/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathways without IFN-β involvement, which is different from LPS-induced chemokine expression requiring IFN-β/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathways. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of EfLTA-treated RAW 264.7 cells promoted the platelet aggregation, and exogenous PAF induced the chemokine expression in macrophages derived from WT and TLR2-deficient mice. These results suggest that EfLTA induces the expression of chemokines via signaling pathways requiring TLR2 and PAFR, which is distinct from that of LPS-induced chemokine expression.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 08/2013; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection can cause inflammatory bone diseases accompanied by the bone destruction due to excess generation of osteoclasts. Although lipoproteins are one of the major immuno-stimulating components of bacteria, little is known about their effects on bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the role of lipoproteins in bacteria-induced bone destruction using Staphylococcus aureus wild-type, its lipoprotein-deficient mutant, and synthetic lipopeptides Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4 known to mimic bacterial lipoproteins. Formaldehyde-inactivated S. aureus or the synthetic lipopeptides induced severe bone loss in the femurs of mice after intraperitoneal administration and in a calvarial bone implantation model, while the lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus did not show such effects. Mechanism studies further identified three action mechanisms for the lipopeptide-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption via (i) enhancement of osteoclast differentiation through Toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, (ii) induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and (iii) up-regulation of RANKL expression with down-regulation of osteoprotegerin expression in osteoblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that lipoprotein might be an important bacterial component responsible for bone destruction during bacterial infections through augmentation of osteoclast differentiation and activation.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 04/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BAFF plays an important role in the development of B cells. Here, we investigated the effect of IFN-γ on BAFF expression in human intestinal epithelial cells. IFN-γ induced soluble and membrane-bound BAFF production in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IFN-γ-induced BAFF release from polarized intestinal epithelial cells was observed in apical and basolateral compartments. JAK I inhibitor suppressed IFN-γ-induced BAFF expression. Moreover, IFN-γ enhanced STAT1 phosphorylation and expression of IRF-1. Transient transfection and reporter gene assay showed that the BAFF promoter region spanning -750 to -500 bp from the translation initiation site was crucial for IFN-γ-induced BAFF expression. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a GAS element in the promoter region. ChIP assay confirmed the enhanced binding of phosphorylated STAT1 to the BAFF promoter region at -800 to -601 bp. Furthermore, IFN-γ enhanced DNA binding to GAS and its transcriptional activation, as determined by the EMSA and reporter gene assay. Collectively, these results suggest that IFN-γ induces BAFF expression in human intestinal epithelial cells through JAK/STAT signaling pathways that might activate the GAS and IRF-1-binding element in the BAFF promoter.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2012; · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major virulence factor of Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. Despite its pivotal role in causing sepsis, the systemic immune responses to LTA in human cells are poorly understood. Here, we produced highly-pure and structurally-intact LTA from S. aureus and examined the gene expression profile of LTA-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The LTA preparation did not contain any detectable biologically-active impurities and stimulated Toll-like receptor 2. Protein expression profiling using a cytokine array kit and ELISA revealed expression of MCP-1/CCL2, IL-6, and IL-1β. We performed transcriptional profiling of PBMCs in response to S. aureus LTA using an Affymetrix genechip microarray. A total of 208 genes were significantly (fold change>1.5 and P<0.05) altered, with 157 up-regulated and 51 down-regulated genes in response to S. aureus LTA treatment. The up-regulated genes were involved in recognition (30 genes), cellular adhesion (6 genes), signal transduction (42 genes), co-stimulation (4 genes), chemokines, cytokines and their receptors (51 genes), apoptosis (9 genes), and negative regulation (15 genes). The down-regulated genes were involved in recognition (12 genes), antigen processing and presentation (9 genes), signal transduction (27 genes), and chemotaxis (3 genes). The microarray results were validated using real-time RT-PCR with 21 up-regulated genes and 9 down-regulated genes. Our results provide a more comprehensive overview of the transcriptional changes in PBMCs in response to S. aureus LTA, and contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiological role of S. aureus LTA during the systemic inflammatory response.
    International immunopharmacology 05/2012; 13(4):454-60. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At allergic inflammation, cross-linking of FcɛRI with multivalent antigen-bound IgE triggers the signaling pathways via activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) leading to the production of various mediators such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Accumulating reports demonstrated that interaction of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expressed on basophils with a TLR2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Staphylococcus aureus, exacerbated allergic inflammation. Here, we showed that staphylococcal LTA (Sa.LTA) substantially enhanced IL-6 expression at both the protein and the mRNA levels in the human basophil line, KU812, in the presence of a PKC activator (phorbol 12-myristrate 13-acetate; PMA), and a calcium ionophore (A23187), whereas Sa.LTA alone could not induce IL-6 expression. PMA/A23187 augmented the expression of CD14 and TLR2 on the surface of KU812 cells and concomitantly increased the binding of fluorochrome-labeled Sa.LTA to the cells. Sa.LTA enhanced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in PMA/A23187-stimulated KU812 cells. Notably, Sa.LTA could not enhance PMA/A23187-induced IL-6 expression in the presence of inhibitors of MAP kinases, reactive oxygen species, or protein kinase C. Furthermore, Sa.LTA enhanced the PMA/A23187-increased DNA-binding activities of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Experiments using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated that not only PMA/A23187 but also Sa.LTA increased the intracellular IL-6 expression in the basophil population and Sa.LTA plus PMA/A23187 further enhanced the IL-6 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Sa.LTA exacerbates allergic inflammation by potentiating IL-6 production from activated basophils.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 03/2012; 35(4):363-74. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are continuously exposed to high densities of enteric bacteria, they are not highly responsive to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). However, inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are potentially capable of priming IECs to enhance responsiveness to MAMPs. In this study, we observed that heat-killed Vibrio cholerae (HKVC) and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) poorly induced IL-8 production in a human IEC line, HT-29. However, both HKVC and the LPS showed a substantial induction of IL-8 production in IFN-γ-primed HT-29 cells. LPS-induced IL-8 production was proportional to the IFN-γ-priming period and LPS could not induce IL-8 production in the presence of polymyxin B. Moreover, LPS-induced IL-8 production in the IFN-γ-primed HT-29 cells was mediated through signaling pathways requiring p38 kinase and ERK, but not the JNK/SAPK pathway. Since deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1) is known to interact with and antagonize the action of LPS, we hypothesized that IFN-γ enhanced the responsiveness to LPS in HT-29 through down-regulation of DMBT1. We found that IFN-γ indeed attenuated DMBT1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in HT-29 cells. Conversely, when the cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to specifically silence DMBT1, IL-8 expression was augmented even in the absence of IFN-γ and the augmentation was further enhanced by treatment with V. cholerae LPS. Since IFN-γ is known to increase IFN-β expression in the IECs, we examined if IFN-β functioned similar to IFN-γ. Although IFN-β alone was able to induce IL-8 expression, it failed to render HT-29 cells responsive to V. cholerae LPS. In conclusion, our study suggests that IFN-γ primes IECs to become responsive to V. cholerae and its LPS by suppressing the expression of DMBT1.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 03/2012; 35(4):345-54. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major virulence factor of Gram-positive bacteria, is associated with bacterial adherence to host cells, biofilm formation, and inflammation. LTA-binding proteins (LTA-BPs) play an important role in the host immune response by initially recognizing and responding to LTA during infections. In this study, we screened for LTA-BPs in human serum using LTA-immobilized beads and high-throughput mass spectrometry. Highly pure and structurally intact LTA was prepared from Staphylococcus aureus and immobilized onto N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose(®) 4 Fast Flow beads. The immobilization process does not seem to affect the biological activity of LTA since LTA-immobilized beads could stimulate macrophages and activate Toll-like receptor 2. Then, the LTA-immobilized beads were incubated with the human serum to capture LTA-BPs and their molecular identities were determined using high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid Fourier transform mass spectrometry. LTA-BPs captured at high frequencies were neutrophil-activating peptide 2, prohibitin-2, alpha-1-anti-trypsin, histidine-rich glycoprotein, apolipoproteins, complements, and coagulation factor, most of which are known to be related with the host immune responses against infections. As high-throughput, efficient, accurate and sensitive, this screening method could be widely applicable to the identification of novel binding proteins to microbial virulence factors with glycolipid structures.
    Molecular Immunology 12/2011; 50(3):177-83. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major immuno-stimulating component of Gram-positive bacteria. LTA from the beneficial bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum induces weak nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophages. Currently, it is not clear if LTA from L. plantarum is able to stimulate the innate immune response, even in the presence of inflammation. In the present study, we prepared highly pure and structurally intact LTA from L. plantarum and investigated its ability to induce NO in the presence of interferon (IFN)-γ in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from mice. L. plantarum LTA alone was unable to induce NO production, even at 30μg/ml. However, LTA in the presence of IFN-γ significantly induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. The observed NO production was inhibited by a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME and an inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor l-NIL, suggesting that iNOS is specifically required for this action. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction further confirmed that L. plantarum LTA increased protein and mRNA levels of iNOS, respectively. However, such induction was substantially inhibited in BMMs from Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-deficient mice and the macrophages treated with an inhibitor blocking platelet-activating factor receptor. In addition, L. plantarum LTA plus IFN-γ induced IFN-β expression and STAT1 phosphorylation, which are key pathways for inducing iNOS expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that L. plantarum LTA in the presence of IFN-γ remarkably increased the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB transcription factor, which is known to be involved in the iNOS gene expression. Collectively, these results suggest that LTA from L. plantarum alone has no inflammatory potential but does induce NO production under conditions of inflammation, such as the presence of IFN-γ.
    Molecular Immunology 08/2011; 48(15-16):2170-7. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis that is closely associated with refractory apical periodontitis. Recently, we have shown that calcium hydroxide, a commonly used intracanal medicament, abrogated the ability of LTA to stimulate the production of tumor necrosis factor α in a murine macrophage line, RAW 264.7. Because calcium hydroxide could potentially modify the glycolipid moiety of LTA, we examined if calcium hydroxide inactivates LTA through deacylation of the LTA. LTA was prepared from E. faecalis by organic solvent extraction followed by chromatography with the hydrophobic-interaction column and the ion-exchange column. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with intact LTA or calcium hydroxide-treated LTA for 24 hours, and the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP-10) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) were determined. The glycolipid structure of LTA was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The production of NO, IP-10, and MIP-1α was augmented in LTA-stimulated cells, whereas no such effect was observed upon stimulation with calcium hydroxide-pretreated LTA. Mass spectrometry showed that intact glycolipids of LTA yielded distinct mass peaks at 930 to 1,070 mass over charge (m/z) units, corresponding to dihexosyl-diacylglycerol consisting of two acyl chains with chain lengths of C(16) to C(22) and with one or two unsaturated double bonds. However, those peaks were not observed in the mass spectra of the calcium hydroxide-treated LTA. Furthermore, free fatty acids released from the calcium hydroxide-treated LTA were detected using TLC. We suggest that calcium hydroxide attenuates the inflammatory activity of E. faecalis LTA through deacylation of the LTA.
    Journal of endodontics 02/2011; 37(2):191-6. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hericium erinaceum is a medicinal mushroom that has been traditionally used in Asian countries for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases. Although the immunomodulating activity of H. erinaceum is considered to be responsible for its medicinal activity, its action mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the capability of water-extracted H. erinaceum (WEHE) to induce the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which regulates the migration of immune cells. THP-1, a human monocytic cell-line, or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with WEHE (0-30 μg/mL) and subsequently analyzed using flow cytometry to examine the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein. Steady-state levels of ICAM-1 mRNA were estimated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was conducted to examine transcription factors involved in ICAM-1 transcription. WEHE induced ICAM-1 expression at both protein and mRNA levels in THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. A similar pattern of ICAM-1 induction was also observed in CD14(+) monocytes in human PBMC that were stimulated with WEHE. The ICAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells stimulated with WEHE was suppressed by specific inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, exposure of THP-1 cells to WEHE increased the DNA binding activities of NF-κB, AP-1, SP-1 and STAT-1 transcription factors, all of which are known to be required for ICAM-1 gene expression. These results suggest that WEHE induces ICAM-1 expression in human monocytes through ERK- and ROS-dependent signaling pathways, resulting in the subsequent activations of NF-κB, AP-1, SP-1, and STAT-1 transcription factors.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 01/2011; 133(2):874-80. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Armillariella mellea is an edible mushroom that has been traditionally used as an alternative medicine in many countries because of its anti-microbial and anti-cancer effects. In this study, we examined the ability of Armillariella mellea to induce the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an important cellular adhesion molecule for the recruitment of immune cells to regional inflammatory sites. A human monocytic cell line, THP-1 or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with Armillariella mellea extract (AME) and subjected to flow cytometry to examine the expression of ICAM-1 protein on the cell surface. Steady-state mRNA level of ICAM-1 was determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of JNK protein was examined by Western blot analysis using antibodies specific for non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of JNK. For the analysis of transcription factors regulating ICAM-1 transcription, the nuclear fraction was extracted from AME-treated THP-1 cells and subjected to electrophoretic mobility shift assay. AME induced expression of ICAM-1 and its mRNA in THP-1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. AME-induced ICAM-1 expression was also observed on CD14-positive monocytes in human PBMC. Interestingly, AME-induced ICAM-1 production was inhibited by the specific inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and JNK, whereas no inhibitory effect was observed when inhibitors of ERK, p38 kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or protein kinase C were used. Concomitantly, AME increased phosphorylation of JNK in a time-dependent fashion. DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB, AP-1, SP-1, and STAT-1 were increased by AME treatment. These results suggest that AME induces ICAM-1 expression in human monocytic cells through ROS/JNK-dependent signaling pathways leading to the activation of NF-kappaB, AP-1, SP-1, and STAT-1 transcription factors.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2010; 128(1):198-205. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently available cholera vaccines are formulated with killed-whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. A serum vibriocidal assay has been widely used to evaluate the immunogenicity of cholera vaccines in clinical trials. In this study, we developed a duplex vibriocidal assay to obtain vibriocidal antibody titers against both serotypes simultaneously. Initially, serial dilutions of serum from vaccinees were incubated with guinea pig complements along with both streptomycin-resistant Inaba and ampicillin-resistant Ogawa strains for 1h. The mixture was then inoculated on separate agar plates containing each antibiotic to selectively culture each corresponding serotype and incubated at 37 degrees C for 16 to 20h. Bacterial colonies were enumerated using an automated colony counting system to obtain the vibriocidal antibody titers defined by the reciprocal of serum dilution inhibiting bacterial growth by 50%. Performance of the duplex vibriocidal assay was examined by comparison with a single serotype vibriocidal assay using 20 clinical sera consisting of ten-paired sera prepared at pre- and post-vaccination. Both assays showed a good correlation for vibriocidal titers against the two serotypes, respectively, as determined by Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and regression coefficient (beta) analyses; r=0.998, beta=1.003 for Inaba and r=0.997, beta=0.999 for Ogawa, respectively. The duplex vibriocidal assay can diminish the amount of sera required for the assay and enhance assay efficiency in terms of time, labor intensity, and expenditure.
    Journal of microbiological methods 09/2009; 79(3):289-94. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanism for the induction of a chemokine, IL-8, by bacterial flagellins in the human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549. Bacterial flagellin induced expression of IL-8 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners. IL-8 expression was inhibited by nystatin (a lipid rafts inhibitor) but not by chlorpromazine (a clathrin-coated pits inhibitor). Interestingly, Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizing flagellins was found in the intracellular compartment of A549 but rarely on the cell surface. Flagellin-induced IL-8 expression appears to be mediated through TLR5 as determined by in vitro transient transfection experiment in HEK-293 cells expressing TLR5 using a reporter gene construct containing IL-8 promoter. IL-8 expression was attenuated by inhibitors for protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Furthermore, NF-kappaB and NF-IL6 transcription factors played an important role in the flagellin-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that flagellin-induced IL-8 expression requires formation of lipid rafts, intracellular TLR activation, and subsequent activation of PKC and MAP kinases leading to the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and NF-IL6 in human alveolar type II epithelial cells.
    Molecular Immunology 09/2009; 47(2-3):614-22. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 01/2009; 48(1):54-54. · 2.52 Impact Factor