Alessandra Peres

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (17)19.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionPhysical exercise is a key part of rehabilitation programs in COPD patients, although it could modulates immune system responses by altering the cytokine profile of such individuals. Furthermore, the degree of severity of COPD could influence the inflammatory response induced by exercise.Objective To evaluate the cytokine profile of individuals with different degrees of COPD in response to a six-minute walk test.Methods41 patients with COPD were classified according to the severity of the disease by GOLD method: moderate = 14 individuals; severe = 14 individuals; very severe = 13 individuals. Blood sample collection was performed in the subjects pre and post a six-minute walk test. Cytokine plasma levels were analyzed to determine the cytokine profile using a CBA assay in flow cytometry.ResultsA significant difference was observed in the IL-6 levels after test between very severe and severe groups (p=0.036). Also, lower levels of IL-4 were observed in the severe group compared to the very severe and the moderate groups in the pretest (p=0.029; p=0.003, respectively), and different values between the moderate and severe groups in the post test (p=0.044). A significant time pre-post effect was found in the IL-4 levels on the very severe group (p=0.046).Conclusion After the 6MWT, a discrete inflammatory response was observed in COPD patients, independent of the degree of severity. The results concerning IL-4 and IL-6 levels can be indicative of an attempt to control inflammation after the 6MWT in COPD patients.
    The Clinical Respiratory Journal 10/2014; · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUÇÃO Nas competições de longa distância, como uma ultramaratona, os corredores submetem-se a esforços prolongados passiveis de gerar danos musculares significativos. Apesar do crescimento desta população, pouco se sabe sobre a correlação entre as características antropométricas e os biomarcadores em ultramaratonistas. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi correlacionar os valores antropométricos e os danos teciduais induzidos pelo exercício físico prolongado. Estes danos podem ser estimados através da avaliação de marcadores bioquímicos, dentre eles destaca-se a quantificação das enzimas creatinoquinase (CK) e a lactato desidrogenase (LDH). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS Amostras foram obtidas através da coleta de sangue de 14 indivíduos do sexo masculino (39±8anos) 48 horas antes (T1), imediatamente após (T2) e 24 horas depois (T3) de concluírem uma prova de 81240 metros para avaliar os níveis séricos de CK(U/L) e LDH(U/L). Os dados antropométricos avaliados em (T1) foram massa corporal (Kg), gordura corporal (%), massa magra (Kg) e massa adiposa (Kg). Para análise estatística foram utilizados o teste t pareado e o teste de correlação Pearson (p<0,05), utilizando-se o software SPSS versão 15.0. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO Houve diferença significativa na avaliação da CK em T2 e T3 quando comparada com T1. A LDH apresentou um aumento em T2 e T3 quando comparada com T1. A gordura corporal não apresentou correlação com a CK e a LDH em T1, T2 e T3. Resultado semelhante foi encontrado sobre a massa magra quando correlacionada com a CK e a LDH em T1, T2 e T3. As demais variáveis antropométricas também não apresentaram correlação estatística com a CK e a LDH. V Simpósio em Neuromecânica Aplicada :: V Symposium On Applied Neuromechanics 258 CONCLUSÃO O estudo evidenciou alterações enzimáticas séricas que podem indicar a ocorrência de dano tecidual nos corredores após uma ultramaratona. Porém, o mesmo demonstra que não há correlação entre os dados antropométricos e os marcadores bioquímicos de lesão tecidual. Deste modo, sugerimos que o estresse metabólico induzido pela atividade executada foi suficiente para gerar lesão tecidual, independente da composição corporal dos indivíduos. A utilização desses resultados colaboram para uma determinação mais adequada do tempo de recuperação muscular dos atletas.
    V SIMPÓSIO EM NEUROMECÂNICA APLICADA, Caxias do Sul - RS; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The number of people who are overweight or obese is increasing worldwide and the quality of life of these people can be affected by their condition. Physical training has been studied in obese patients and is correlated with low-grade inflammation and alterations in the immune system. This study investigated the effect of concurrent training on anthropometric, inflammatory, and immunological parameters in overweight and obese adults. Fourteen sedentary volunteers (men and women) with a body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 39.9 kg/m2 from Porto Alegre, Brazil attended a 12-week course of concurrent training. We analyzed: prior to and after training, anthropometric parameters, cytokine serum levels (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin 17A and interleukin 10; measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), high-sensitive C reactive protein (measured by turbidimetry), and the frequency of T lymphocytes and monocytes (CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and HLA-DR+) in peripheral blood (measured by flow cytometry). The sample consisted of ten women and four men with a mean ± SD age of 47.58 ± 3.01 years. After 12 weeks of training we observed a reduction in body weight, body mass index, waist, abdomen, and hip circumferences, the percentage mass of fat, and an increase in the time taken to reach exhaustion (p < 0.05). The participants had increased frequencies of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes and a reduction in the frequencies of HLA-DR+ monocytes (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α and high-sensitive C reactive protein increased (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that concurrent training can improve body composition as well as increasing T cell proliferation in overweight and obese patients. However, the progression of the exercises can be physiologically stressful to these patients, as demonstrated by the inflammatory markers.
    Journal of exercise science and fitness (JESF) 07/2014; · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition characterized by the obstruction of continuous flow of air and a pro-inflammatory systemic state, which therefore reduces functional capacity, in health as well as quality of life in individuals stricken by the disease. Physical exercise is an important part of rehabilitation programs and has anti-inflammatory action. However, the acute response induces a significant increase in inflammatory mediators. It is believed that the gravity of the levels of COPD can influence in the inflammatory response provoked by exercise PROPOSAL: Determine the inflammatory response through a 6-minute walk test in individuals with varying degrees of COPD. METHODS: 41 carriers of COPD participated, being classified through the GOLD staging: Moderate (M) = 14 individuals; Severe (S) = 14 individuals; Very Severe; (VS) = 13 individuals. Vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in a second were evaluated through a spirometric test. Maximal expiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory pressure were assessed through the manovacuometry test. The subjects were put through the test of a walk of six minutes with blood sample collection of 10 mL before and after the test. We ran plasmatic dosage of cytokines: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα and INFγ through the CBA test by flow cytometry. The statistical analysis (mean±SD) of the groups was done through the ANOVA multivariate test with post-hoc Bonferroni, and the comparison between pre/post test was verified through t-Student’s paired test (p<0,05). RESULTS: We have observed a significant increase IL-4 (pg/mL) in the VS after the 6-minute test (14,97±2,85; 17,40±3,27; p=0,022). In the comparison between the three groups, IL-6 (pg/mL) was statistically different in the time factor between the S and VS (pre: 30,67±7,32; 54,89±30,53; p=0,022; post: 46,63±48,36; 61,13±37,14; p=0,03). On the other hand, IL-4 has shown a significant difference between the M and S in the pre-test (16,30±2,29; 13,59±2,92; p=0,032). CONCLUSION: Our results show that physical exercise did not increase inflammatory process in the subjects with COPD independently of the degree of severity of the disease. However, we have observed an active inflammatory process in S individuals once the IL-6 becomes elevated when compared to VS individuals.
    American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Orlando; 01/2014
  • International Journal of Health Sciences. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a massa corporal, sintomas de estresse (ES) ou ausência de sintomas estresse (NE). Foram realizadas avaliações antropométricas, teste cardiopulmonar, dosagens de cortisol salivar e aplicado o questionário de SF-36. Onze indivíduos foram alocados no grupo ES com idade de 47,81 ± 12,48 anos, e dezessete indivíduos foram agrupados no grupo NE com idade de 47,58 ± 11,26 anos. Na comparação entre grupos, foram identificadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos NE e ES, respectivamente, nos valores de cortisol noite, delta entre o Cortisol manhã e noite e no domínio de limitações físicas. Quando realizadas correlações entre variáveis, o grupo NE apresentou uma correlação inversa significante entre IMC e capacidade funcional e estado de saúde e no grupo ES uma correlação significante entre massa corporal e consumo de oxigênio, circunferência abdominal e valor de delta de cortisol, cortisol manhã e dor, cortisol noite e vitalidade. Em conclusão, a influência do estresse nos valores de cortisol e limitações físicas pode estar relacionado a uma maior ativação do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. Palavras-chave: Sobrepeso. Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, salivary cortisol and quality of life of overweight and obese people in the presence or absence of stress. Twenty-eight overweight or obese sedentary women were separated into groups with stress symptoms (ES) or no symptoms of stress (NS).
    Arquivos em Movimento. 01/2014; 10(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterized as a condition of subclinical inflammation due to its influence in elevating pro-inflammatory processes and modifying adaptive autoimmune response, the cytotoxic pattern being predominant. Physical training is considered an important anti-inflammatory agent; however, its action on the immunologic response of obese individuals still has few evidences. PROPOSAL: To compare the effects of two different physical training methods in cytokine levels and in the frequency of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ in overweight and obese individuals. METHODS: Voluntary subjects of both genders, sedentary and with an IBM between 25-39,9 kg/m² were divided into a Combined training (CT) group and deep water running group (DW) and went through 12 weeks of physical training. Their body composition was assessed pre and post training, as well as cardiopulmonary tests and blood collection to evaluate cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α (ELISA) and the expression of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ cells (flow cytometry). Values are presented in standard deviation, pre and post training comparisons were made through the paired Student’s t-test, and inter-group comparisons through the independent Student’s t-test (p<0,05). This study has been approved by the Ethics Research Committee of the Centro Universitário Metodista from IPA. RESULTS: The sample was made out of 26 individuals, 13 in the CT (10 female and 3 male subjects, ages between 49,15±9,47) and 13 in the DW (11 female and 2 male subjects, ages between 48,77±11,84). In the CT there was a significant reduction of: IBM (kg/m²) (33,53±3,74 to 32,55±3,62), body mass (kg) (88,98±16,74 to 87,20±15,53) and waist (abdominal) circumference (cm) (105,33±5,86 to 101,25±4,36). There was also a significant increase in the TNF-α (pg/mL) (0,51±0,25 to 1,04±0,69) and in the expression. The CD4+ and CD8+ (%) (28,93±7,52 to 46,14±8,63; and 13,67±4,96 to 27,94±9,49, respectively). The DW showed significant different only in the TNF- α values in the pre and post training comparison (0,47±0,37 to 1,00±0,55). CONCLUSIONS: The CT showed to be efficient in changing body composition, inducing, however, an increase in the concomitant inflammatory response, while DW did not present any significant modulation in body composition, changing only the plasmatic levels of TNF- α.
    American College Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Orlando; 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease consists in the irreversible loss of kidney function. Hemodialysis is one of the courses of treatment for DRC, however, it results in a decrease of functionality in patients and an increase in systemic inflammation. Physical exercise is known as an anti-inflammatory agent, although little is known about its effects on patients with CKD during hemodialysis. PROPOSAL: Asses the effect of physical exercise during a hemodialysis session over the expression of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the CCR5 chemokine receptor in individuals with CKD. METHODS: The study ex post facto included individuals with CKD in hemodialysis at Hospital Ernesto Dornelles in Porto Alegre/RS. The participants took part in a single session of aerobic exercise in the cycloergometer during dialysis for 20 minutes at a 60% HRmax. As a control group we analyzed patients who did hemodialysis only. Three blood sample collections were made in each protocol: pre-hemodialysis, post-exercise/control and immediately after hemodialysis. In all samples the CCR5 expression (CD195+) and NK expression (CD16+, CD56+) were analyzed through immunofenotyping (flow cytometry). Utilizing the ANOVA test of repeated measurements and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction (p<0,05). The data is presented in mean ± standard error. This study has been approved by the Ethics Research Committee of HED and the Centro Universitário Metodista from IPA. RESULTS: 7 individuals were evaluated (ages 66,85±5,08 years-old; body mass of 70,5±19,14 kg; height of 1,62 ± 0,04 meters; IBM of 22,79 ± 12,17 kg/m²). The results (%) are shown in pre-hemodialysis; post intervention; post-hemodialysis. The CCR5 expression was of 11.69±2.87; 10.55±1.65; 9.02±1.58 (exercise group) and 9.49±3.10; 5.82±1.79; 4.92±1.70 (control group). The NK expression was of 19.49±4.77; 16.48±3.62; 18.77±3.16 (exercise group) and 16.48±5.15; 12.14±3.91; 9.53±3.43 (control group). We have found a significant difference in the frequency if NK cells before (pre) and after (post) hemodialysis in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of acute cytotoxic inflammatory activity through CCR5 and NK did not differ between the physical exercise and control groups, no physical exercise-induced increase of inflammatory response or immunosuppression being verified.
    American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting, Orlando; 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial rupture of coronary plaque can represent the pathomorphological substratum of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene (eNOS) -786T>C, 894G>T and intron 4 a/b VNTR can be associated with a higher susceptibility for ACS. The present study is focused on the investigation of the interaction of these polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors in 135 patients with ACS and 115 control subjects. Case-control study where the allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphisms -786T> C, 894G> T and intron 4 VNTR of the gene encoding eNOS were determined by PCR-RFLP associated with cardiovascular risk factors. An association of the 894TT genotype and 894GT+GG (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.8) in ACS has been observed. Subjects without dyslipidemia and intron 4 a/b genotype present a lower chance for ACS development, whereas subjects without diabetes and 894TT genotype show a higher risk for ACS (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.3). In patients without dyslipidemia, the 894GG genotype presented a tendency to behave as a protector factor against ACS. Also, the 894GG genotype has been a protective factor for ACS in females (OR 0.5; CI 95% 0.2-0.9). Our results suggest that eNOS polymorphisms may be an additional risk factor in development of ACS.
    Archives of medical research 04/2012; 43(3):205-11. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the bowel, of unknown origin. Exposure to specific environmental factors by genetically susceptible individuals, leading to an inadequate response of the immune system, is one of the potential explanations for the occurrence of these diseases. Natural killer cells are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA (human leukocyte antigen) molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors. The main receptors of the natural killer cells are the killer immunoglobulinlike receptors (KIRs). Our study aimed to evaluate the association between the KIR genes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and healthy controls. We typed 15 KIR genes and HLA class I ligands in 248 unrelated Brazilian Caucasians, of which 111 had UC and 137 had CD, and 250 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotides and sequence-specific primers. We found an increase in KIR2DL2 in controls (inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]: p < 0.001; UC: p = 0.01; CD: p = not significant [NS]). The genotype 2DL2+/HLA-C lys(80)+ was also more common in controls (IBD: p = 0.005; UC: p = 0.01; CD: p = NS); as well as 2DL1+/HLA-C Asn(80)+ (IBD: p = 0.026; UC: p = NS;CD: p = NS). The imbalance between activating and inhibitory KIR and HLA ligands may explain, at least in part, the pathogenesis of these inflammatory bowel diseases.
    Human immunology 03/2010; 71(3):293-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Medical Hypotheses 09/2009; 74(1):208-9. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and type II diabetes. Here, we performed a case-control study analyzing the association between 894G>T endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (NOS3) and MS in 616 subjects. Genotype frequencies were TT= 9.3%, GG= 37.2 and TG= 53.6% and the allelic frequencies were T=0.36 and G= 0.64. We observed a higher TT genotype frequency in the male MS group than control subjects (p=0.02), independent of other variables. We found an association between hypertension and TT genotype in females. Our data suggests that 894G>T plays a significant role in the mechanistic interaction between metabolic risk such as hypertension and MS, although sex-related differences may exist.
    Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 11/2008; 52(8):1367-73. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the normal variations in basal DNA damage detected by Comet assay in leukocytes and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) using the Micronucleus test (MN) in peripheral blood cells from 45 female and male mice from different age groups (newborns, 3.5, 12, and 104 weeks) to clarify age and sex-related changes. Comparison of basal DNA damage detected by Comet assay showed significantly increased values in 104 weeks old mice in relation to the other ages (P ≤ 0.01), and newborn mice showed higher values in MNE frequency when compared to all the other groups (P ≤ 0.01). A positive correlation was observed between Damage Frequency (r = 0.382, P = 0.010) and Damage Index (r = 0.640, P < 0.001) and age. Age was also correlated with the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes/normachromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) (r = − 0.473, P = 0.001), and the MNE frequency was positively correlated with the ratio of PCE/NCE (r = 0.454, P = 0.002). These results suggest an age-related slow down of DNA repair efficiency of DNA damage and/or DNA damage accumulation. Furthermore, data on the spontaneous MNE frequency indicate that the reticuloendothelial system matures with age, and there is a close relationship between erythropoiesis and micronucleus induction in erythrocytes. The influence of sex in the parameters analyzed was less clear. In conclusion, age seems to influence in basal DNA damage and should be considered in genotoxicity studies using mice. Finally, comparisons between assays must be made with care when different cells are compared (e.g. leukocytes and erythrocytes), as found with the Comet assay and MN test.
    Cell Biology International 01/2008; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been related to aging. Recent evidences suggest that a genetic dimorphism that encodes for either alanine or valine in superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is involved with oxidative stress. However, the current literature is still controversial, and the potential role of the Ala16Val polymorphism in human aging needs to be established. Here we investigated the role of the SOD2 polymorphism in: a) age-related mortality, b) morbidity (breast and prostate cancer), c) immunological markers, and d) DNA damage in peripheral blood cells. We did not find an association between SOD2 polymorphisms and mortality. However, the AA genotype was associated with increased risk for prostate and breast cancer, immunosenescence profile, as well as DNA damage. These data suggest that SOD2 presents characteristics that support the free radical theory of aging.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 05/2005; 60(4):432-8. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ageing of the immune system (immunosenescence) is believed to be involved in both morbidity and mortality in elderly humans due to a higher incidence of infections, autoimmune diseases, cancers and other pathological situations. As any specific immune response involves recognition of antigens by T cells, the ability to develop a given immune response is also dependent on the T-cell repertoire available at a given time point. Different T-cell receptor beta variable segment (BV) (TCRBV) gene segment alleles have been associated with diseases in various human populations. In the present work we analysed the allelic frequencies of four biallelic polymorphisms in TCRBV gene segments (TCRBV3S1, TCRBV13S5, TCRBV13S6 and TCRBV18) in healthy elderly human subjects (80 years old or more) from the south of Brazil, where life expectancies reach similar levels to those observed in developed countries. Except for allele 2 of the TCRBV13S6 polymorphism, which was more frequent in elderly than in young individuals (P = 0.0105), there were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between young and elderly individuals. The data suggest that there is no direct correlation between the TCRBV3S1, TCRBV13S5 and TCRBV18 polymorphisms analysed and healthy senescence in this particular group of elderly individuals. The higher frequency of TCRBV13S6 allele 2 in healthy elderly individuals should be confirmed in other samples to establish the significance of this finding.
    European Journal of Immunogenetics 05/2004; 31(2):77-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis remains an important and life-threatening problem, and is the most common cause of death in the intensive care unit. One promising therapeutic candidate for protection against injury in sepsis is fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), a high-energy glycolytic pathway intermediate. The objective of the study was to establish a role for FBP on the immune system, especially in lymphocyte proliferation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood of healthy humans by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and varying concentration of FBP. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate at concentrations between 1.2 and 10 mM decreased proliferation of T-lymphocytes and reduced the viability only at concentrations 5.0 and 10 mM. The levels of soluble IL-2 receptor were reduced at FBP concentrations between 1.2 and 10 mM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FBP has important effect on immunomodulatory and this result can be correlated with the protection against injury in sepsis.
    International Immunopharmacology 03/2003; 3(2):267-72. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The age-related decline of immunological functions is well established but it remains largely unknown which specific changes are related to disease. We analyzed peripheral blood lymphocytes of 42 healthy elderly as well as 24 healthy young subjects from southern Brazil. No differences in phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation and CD4:CD8 ratio were found between the subjects. However, CD4 expression (considering mean fluorescence intensity) was found upregulated in elderly subjects. No changes in activation molecules CD25, CD28, CD69 and CD95 were observed. A reduced proportion of naive (CD45RA+) T cells was found in the elderly compared to young subjects. No changes in adhesion molecule expression (CD11c and CD31) were observed. However, the frequencies of CD49d-positive cells, as well as expression of CD62L, were increased in the eldery subjects. We further described two subgroups of eldery subjects with an immunological risk profile defined by lower CD4:CD8 ratio and reduced proliferative response to mitogens. These data suggest that healthy aging is associated with intact T-cell proliferation and some compensatory immunophenotypical changes.
    Biogerontology 02/2003; 4(5):289-96. · 3.19 Impact Factor