[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH) is associated with the development of arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. While calcium (Ca(2+)) is implicated in hypertrophic signaling pathways, the specific role of Ca(2+) influx through the L-type Ca(2+) channel (I(Ca-L)) has been controversial and is the topic of this study. To determine if and how sustained increases in I(Ca-L) induce PCH, transgenic mouse models with low (LE) and high (HE) expression levels of the β2a subunit of Ca(2+) channels (β2a) and in cultured adult feline (AF) and neonatal rat (NR) ventricular myocytes (VMs) infected with an adenovirus containing a β2a-GFP were used. In vivo, β2a LE and HE mice had increased heart weight to body weight ratio, posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, tissue fibrosis, myocyte volume, and cross-sectional area and the expression of PCH markers in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PCH was associated with a hypercontractile phenotype including enhanced I(Ca-L), fractional shortening, peak Ca(2+) transient, at the myocyte level, greater ejection fraction, and fractional shortening at the organ level. In addition, LE mice had an exaggerated hypertrophic response to transverse aortic constriction. In vitro overexpression of β2a in cultured AFVMs increased I(Ca-L), cell volume, protein synthesis, NFAT, and HDAC translocations and in NRVMs increased surface area. These effects were abolished by the blockade of I(Ca-L), intracellular Ca(2+), calcineurin, CaMKII, and SERCA. In conclusion, increasing I(Ca-L) is sufficient to induce PCH through the calcineurin/NFAT and CaMKII/HDAC pathways. Both cytosolic and SR/ER-nuclear envelop Ca(2+) pools were shown to be involved.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 03/2011; 50(3):460-70. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of prosurvival kinases and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production by certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) protects myocardium in ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) models. GPCR signaling pathways are regulated by GPCR kinases (GRKs), and GRK2 has been shown to be a critical molecule in normal and pathological cardiac function.
A loss of cardiac GRK2 activity is known to arrest progression of heart failure (HF), at least in part by normalization of cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling. Chronic HF studies have been performed with GRK2 knockout mice, as well as expression of the βARKct, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2 activity. This study was conducted to examine the role of GRK2 and its activity during acute myocardial ischemic injury using an I/R model.
We demonstrate, using cardiac-specific GRK2 and βARKct-expressing transgenic mice, a deleterious effect of GRK2 on in vivo myocardial I/R injury with βARKct imparting cardioprotection. Post-I/R infarct size was greater in GRK2-overexpressing mice (45.0±2.8% versus 31.3±2.3% in controls) and significantly smaller in βARKct mice (16.8±1.3%, P<0.05). Importantly, in vivo apoptosis was found to be consistent with these reciprocal effects on post-I/R myocardial injury when levels of GRK2 activity were altered. Moreover, these results were reflected by higher Akt activation and induction of NO production via βARKct, and these antiapoptotic/survival effects could be recapitulated in vitro. Interestingly, selective antagonism of β(2)ARs abolished βARKct-mediated cardioprotection, suggesting that enhanced GRK2 activity on this GPCR is deleterious to cardiac myocyte survival.
The novel effect of reducing acute ischemic myocardial injury via increased Akt activity and NO production adds significantly to the therapeutic potential of GRK2 inhibition with the βARKct not only in chronic HF but also potentially in acute ischemic injury conditions.
Circulation Research 10/2010; 107(9):1140-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to heart failure (HF) and premature death. The respective roles of myocyte death and depressed myocyte contractility in the induction of HF after MI have not been clearly defined and are the focus of this study.
We developed a mouse model in which we could prevent depressed myocyte contractility after MI and used it to test the idea that preventing depression of myocyte Ca(2+)-handling defects could avert post-MI cardiac pump dysfunction.
MI was produced in mice with inducible, cardiac-specific expression of the β2a subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Myocyte and cardiac function were compared in control and β2a animals before and after MI. β2a myocytes had increased Ca(2+) current; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load, contraction and Ca(2+) transients (versus controls), and β2a hearts had increased performance before MI. After MI, cardiac function decreased. However, ventricular dilation, myocyte hypertrophy and death, and depressed cardiac pump function were greater in β2a versus control hearts after MI. β2a animals also had poorer survival after MI. Myocytes isolated from β2a hearts after MI did not develop depressed Ca(2+) handling, and Ca(2+) current, contractions, and Ca(2+) transients were still above control levels (before MI).
Maintaining myocyte contractility after MI, by increasing Ca(2+) influx, depresses rather than improves cardiac pump function after MI by reducing myocyte number.
Circulation Research 09/2010; 107(6):800-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension occurs with higher prevalence and morbidity in black Americans compared with other groups. Alterations in the signal transduction pathways of 7-transmembrane spanning receptors are found in hypertensive patients. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play an important role in regulating this receptor signaling. The 2 most abundantly expressed GRKs in the cardiovascular system are GRK2 and GRK5, and each has unique substrates. Understanding changes in expression may give us insight into activated receptors in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension. In heart failure and white hypertensives, increased GRK2 expression arises because of neurohormonal stimulation of particular receptors. GRK2 subsequently desensitizes specific receptors, including beta-adrenergic receptors. In blood pressure control, beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization could lead to increased blood pressure. GRK2 and GRK5 mRNA were evaluated in lymphocytes of black Americans via quantitative real-time PCR. GRK2 mRNA expression directly correlated with systolic blood pressure and norepinephrine levels. GRK2 was elevated >30% among those with systolic blood pressure > or =130 mm Hg. No significant correlation between GRK5 mRNA expression and blood pressure or catecholamines was observed. Diabetic status, age, sex, and body mass index were also compared with GRK2 expression using univariate and multivariate analyses. GRK2 protein expression was elevated 2-fold in subjects with higher blood pressure, and GRK activity was increased >40%. Our data suggest that GRK2, but not GRK5, is correlated with increasing blood pressure in black Americans. Understanding the receptors stimulated by increased neurohormonal activation may give insight into the pathophysiology of hypertension in this at-risk population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic ventricular pressure overload states, such as hypertension, and elevated levels of neurohormones (norepinephrine, angiotensin II, endothelin-1) initiate cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction and share the property of being able to bind to Gq-coupled 7-transmembrane receptors. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of endogenous cardiac myocyte Gq signaling and its role in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction during high blood pressure (BP). We induced renal artery stenosis for 8 weeks in control mice and mice expressing a peptide inhibitor of Gq signaling (GqI) using a 2 kidney, 1 clip renal artery stenosis model. 8 weeks following chronic high BP, control mice had cardiac hypertrophy and depressed function. Inhibition of cardiomyocyte Gq signaling did not reverse cardiac hypertrophy but attenuated increases in a profile of cardiac profibrotic genes and genes associated with remodeling. Inhibition of Gq signaling also attenuated the loss of cardiac function. We determined that Gq signaling downstream of angiotensin II receptor stimulation negatively impacted beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) responses and inhibition of Gq signaling was sufficient to restore betaAR-mediated responses. Therefore, in this study we found that Gq signaling negatively impacts cardiac function during high BP. Specifically, we found that inhibition of AT1-Gq signaling augmented betaAR mediated effects in a renal artery stenosis model of hypertension. These observations may underlie additional, beneficial effects of angiotensinogen converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists observed during times of hemodynamic stress.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2008; 46(1):100-7. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are critical regulators of cellular signaling and function. In cardiomyocytes, GRK2 and GRK5 are two GRKs important for myocardial regulation, and both have been shown to be up-regulated in the dysfunctional heart. We report that increased levels and activity of GRK5 in failing myocardium may have unique significance due to its nuclear localization, a property not shared by GRK2. We find that transgenic mice with elevated cardiac GRK5 levels have exaggerated hypertrophy and early heart failure compared with control mice after pressure overload. This pathology is not present in cardiac GRK2-overexpressing mice or in mice with overexpression of a mutant GRK5 that is excluded from the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of GRK5 is enhanced in myocytes after aortic banding in vivo and in vitro in myocytes after increased G alpha q activity, the trigger for pressure-overload hypertrophy. GRK5 enhances activation of MEF2 in concert with Gq signals, demonstrating that nuclear localized GRK5 regulates gene transcription via a pathway critically linked to myocardial hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we show that this is due to GRK5 acting, in a non-GPCR manner, as a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) kinase because it can associate with and phosphorylate the myocyte enhancer factor-2 repressor, HDAC5. Moreover, significant HDAC activity can be found with GRK5 in the heart. Our data show that GRK5 is a nuclear HDAC kinase that plays a key role in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy apparently independent of any action directly on GPCRs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2008; 105(34):12457-62. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a prevalent condition in the developed world and disease severity is directly correlated with additional cardiovascular complications. It is estimated that 30% of the adult population in the United States has hypertension, which is classified as a systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg. A prolonged increase in afterload ultimately leads to congestive heart failure in the majority of cases. Currently, medication designed to treat hypertension is inadequate, thus new therapies need to be explored. Blood pressure is tightly regulated by blood vessel radius, which is established by hormones and/or peptides binding to GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors). Catecholamines and peptide hormones, such as AngII (angiotensin II), are elevated in hypertension and, therefore, signalling by these GPCRs is increased. Their signalling is tightly controlled by a class of proteins, the GRKs (GPCR kinases). Elevated levels of either GRK2 or GRK5 in both the lymphocytes and VSM (vascular smooth muscle) are associated with human hypertension and animal models of the disease. The focus of the present review is on the role GRKs, and their regulation of GPCRs, play in high blood pressure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a serine/theorinine kinase that phosphorylates and desensitizes agonist-bound G protein-coupled receptors. GRK2 is increased in expression and activity in lymphocytes and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) in human hypertension and animal models of the disease. Inhibition of GRK2 using the carboxyl-terminal portion of the protein (GRK2ct) has been an effective tool to restore compromised beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) function in heart failure and improve outcome. A well-characterized dysfunction in hypertension is attenuation of betaAR-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we tested the role of inhibition of GRK2 using GRK2ct or VSM-selective GRK2 gene ablation in a renal artery stenosis model of elevated blood pressure (BP) [the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) model]. Use of the 2K1C model resulted in a 30% increase in conscious BP, a threefold increase in plasma norepinephrine levels, and a 50% increase in VSM GRK2 mRNA levels. BP remained increased despite VSM-specific GRK2 inhibition by either GRK2 knockout (GRK2KO) or peptide inhibition (GRK2ct). Although betaAR-mediated dilation in vivo and in situ was enhanced, alpha(1)AR-mediated vasoconstriction was also increased. Further pharmacological experiments using alpha(1)AR antagonists revealed that GRK2 inhibition of expression (GRK2KO) or activity (GRK2ct) enhanced alpha(1D)AR vasoconstriction. This is the first study to suggest that VSM alpha(1D)ARs are a GRK2 substrate in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC, also named Cav1.2) density and regulation are important contributors to depressed contractility in failing hearts. The LTCC agonist BAY K 8644 (BAY K) has reduced inotropic effects on failing myocardium. We hypothesized that BAY K effects on the LTCC current (I(CaL)) in failing myocytes would be reduced because of increased basal activity. Since support of the failing heart with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) improves contractility and adrenergic responses, we further hypothesized that BAY K effects on I(CaL) would be restored in LVAD-supported failing hearts. We tested our hypotheses in human ventricular myocytes (HVMs) isolated from nonfailing (NF), failing (F), and LVAD-supported failing hearts. We found that 1) BAY K had smaller effects on I(CaL) in F HVMs compared with NF HVMs; 2) BAY K had diminished effects on I(CaL) in NF HVM pretreated with isoproterenol (Iso) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP); 3) BAY K effects on I(CaL) in F HVMs pretreated with acetylcholine (ACh) were normalized; 4) Iso had no effect on NF HVMs pretreated with BAY K; 5) BAY K effects on I(CaL) in LVAD HVMs were similar to those in NF HVMs; 6) BAY K effects were reduced in LVAD HVMs pretreated with Iso or DBcAMP; 7) Iso had no effect on I(CaL) in LVAD HVMs pretreated with BAY K. Collectively, these results suggest that the decreased BAY K effects on LTCC in F HVMs are caused by increased basal channel activity, which should contribute to abnormal contractility reserve.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A1, a Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, is known to modulate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling in skeletal muscle and cardiomyocytes. Recently, S100A1 has been shown to be expressed in endothelial cells (ECs). Because intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients can be involved in important EC functions and endothelial NO synthase activity, we sought to investigate the impact of endothelial S100A1 on the regulation of endothelial and vascular function. Thoracic aortas from S100A1 knockout mice (SKO) showed significantly reduced relaxation in response to acetylcholine compared with wild-type vessels, whereas direct vessel relaxation using sodium nitroprusside was unaltered. Endothelial dysfunction attributable to the lack of S100A1 expression could also be demonstrated in vivo and translated into hypertension of SKO. Mechanistically, both basal and acetylcholine-induced endothelial NO release of SKO aortas was significantly reduced compared with wild type. Impaired endothelial NO production in SKO could be attributed, at least in part, to diminished agonist-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients in ECs. Consistently, silencing endothelial S100A1 expression in wild type also reduced [Ca(2+)](i) and NO generation. Moreover, S100A1 overexpression in ECs further increased NO generation that was blocked by the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate. Finally, cardiac endothelial S100A1 expression was shown to be downregulated in heart failure in vivo. Collectively, endothelial S100A1 critically modulates vascular function because lack of S100A1 expression leads to decreased [Ca(2+)](i) and endothelial NO release, which contributes, at least partially, to impaired endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and hypertension in SKO mice. Targeting endothelial S100A1 expression may, therefore, be a novel therapeutic means to improve endothelial function in vascular disease or heart failure.
Circulation Research 05/2008; 102(7):786-94. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A salient characteristic of dysfunctional myocardium progressing to heart failure is an upregulation of the adenylyl cyclase inhibitory guanine nucleotide (G) protein alpha subunit, G alpha(i2). It has not been determined conclusively whether increased Gi activity in the heart is beneficial or deleterious in vivo. Gi signaling has been implicated in the mechanism of cardioprotective agents; however, no in vivo evidence exists that any of the G alpha subunits are cardioprotective. We have created a novel molecular tool to specifically address the role of Gi proteins in normal and dysfunctional myocardium.
We have developed a class-specific Gi inhibitor peptide, GiCT, composed of the region of G alpha(i2) that interacts specifically with G protein-coupled receptors. GiCT inhibits Gi signals specifically in vitro and in vivo, whereas Gs and Gq signals are not affected. In vivo expression of GiCT in transgenic mice effectively causes a "functional knockout" of cardiac G alpha(i2) signaling. Inducible, cardiac-specific GiCT transgenic mice display a baseline phenotype consistent with nontransgenic mice. However, when subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, GiCT transgenic mice demonstrate a significant increase in infarct size compared with nontransgenic mice (from 36.9+/-2.5% to 50.9+/-4.3%). Mechanistically, this post-ischemia/reperfusion phenotype includes increased myocardial apoptosis and resultant decreased contractile performance.
Overall, our results demonstrate the in vivo utility of GiCT to dissect specific mechanisms attributed to Gi signaling in stressed myocardium. Our results with GiCT indicate that upregulation of G alpha(i2) is an adaptive protective response after ischemia to shield myocytes from apoptosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 30% of the US population has high blood pressure (BP), and less than a third of people treated for hypertension have it controlled. In addition, the etiology of most high BP is not known. Having a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying hypertension could potentially increase the effectiveness of treatment. Because G(q) signaling mediates vasoconstriction and vascular function can cause BP abnormalities, we were interested in determining the role of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) G(q) signaling in two divergent models of hypertension: a renovascular model of hypertension through renal artery stenosis and a genetic model of hypertension using mice with VSM-derived high BP. Inhibition of VSM G(q) signaling attenuated BP increases induced by renal artery stenosis to a similar extent as losartan, an ANG II receptor blocker and current antihypertensive therapy. Inhibition of G(q) signaling also attenuated high BP in our genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. In contrast, BP remained elevated 25% following treatment with losartan, and prazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, only decreased BP by 35%. Inhibition of G(q) signaling attenuated VSM reactivity to ANG II and resulted in a 2.4-fold rightward shift in EC(50). We also determined that inhibition of G(q) signaling was able to reverse VSM hypertrophy in the genetic VSM-derived hypertensive model. These results suggest that G(q) signaling is an important signaling pathway in two divergent models of hypertension and, perhaps, optimization of antihypertensive therapy could occur with the identification of particular G(q)-coupled receptors involved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-regulated protein phosphatase, links myocardial Ca(2+) signaling with hypertrophic gene transcription. Calcineurin abundance increases in pressure-overload hypertrophy and may reduce agonist-mediated phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation to underlie blunted beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) responsiveness in hypertension. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of calcineurin inhibition on changes in cardiac contractility caused by beta-adrenergic stimulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Female SHR (age: 7 mo) and age-matched female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were studied. Heart weight-to-body weight ratio (P < 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01) were greater in SHR compared with WKY and were associated with increased myocardial calcineurin mRNA (CnAbeta) and activity (P < 0.05). beta-AR stimulation with isoproterenol (Iso) increased calcineurin activity (P < 0.05) in both WKY and SHR hearts, and this activity was suppressed with cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment. In SHR, CsA improved left ventricular whole heart and isolated myocyte beta-AR responsiveness by normalizing PLB phosphorylation at Ser(16) and Thr(17) (P < 0.05). These CsA-induced, PLB-mediated effects were associated with an augmentation in cardiomyocyte peak Ca(2+) and a reduced rate (time constant of isovolumic pressure relaxation, tau) and magnitude of diastolic Ca(2+) during beta-AR stimulation. In conclusion, CsA normalized the blunted beta-AR responsiveness associated with hypertension, in part, by mitigating calcineurin activity while improving PLB phosphorylation and subsequent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) regulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that rather than being terminally differentiated, the adult heart is a self-renewing organ with the capacity to generate new myocytes from cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CS/PCs). This study examined the hypotheses that new myocytes are generated during adolescent growth, to increase myocyte number, and these newly formed myocytes are initially small, mononucleated, proliferation competent, and have immature properties. Ventricular myocytes (VMs) and cKit(+) (stem cell receptor) CS/PCs were isolated from 11- and 22-week feline hearts. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation (in vivo) and p16(INK4a) immunostaining were measured to assess myocyte cell cycle activity and senescence, respectively. Telomerase activity, contractions, Ca(2+) transients, and electrophysiology were compared in small mononucleated (SMMs) and large binucleated (LBMs) myocytes. Heart mass increased by 101% during adolescent growth, but left ventricular myocyte volume only increased by 77%. Most VMs were binucleated (87% versus 12% mononucleated) and larger than mononucleated myocytes. A greater percentage of SMMs was bromodeoxyuridine positive (SMMs versus LBMs: 3.1% versus 0.8%; P<0.05), and p16(INK4a) negative and small myocytes had greater telomerase activity than large myocytes. Contractions and Ca(2+) transients were prolonged in SMMs versus LBMs and Ca(2+) release was disorganized in SMMs with reduced transient outward current and T-tubule density. The T-type Ca(2+) current, usually seen in fetal/neonatal VMs, was found exclusively in SMMs and in myocytes derived from CS/PC. Myocyte number increases during adolescent cardiac growth. These new myocytes are initially small and functionally immature, with patterns of ion channel expression normally found in the fetal/neonatal period.
Circulation Research 03/2007; 100(4):536-44. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophy and failure (H/F) in humans and large mammals are characterized by a change from a positive developed force-frequency relationship (+FFR) in normal myocardium to a flattened or negative developed force-frequency relationship (-FFR) in disease. Altered Ca(2+) homeostasis underlies this process, but the role of intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) in H/F and frequency-dependent contractility reserve is unclear. We hypothesized that altered [Na(+)](i) is central to the -FFR response in H/F feline myocytes. Aortic constriction caused left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We found that as pacing rate was increased, contraction magnitude was maintained in isolated control myocytes (CM) but decreased in LVH myocytes (LVH-M). Quiescent LVH-M had higher [Na(+)](i) than CM (LVH-M 13.3 +/- 0.3 vs. CM 8.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l; P < 0.001) with 0.5-Hz pacing (LVH-M 14.9 +/- 0.5 vs. CM 10.8 +/- 0.4 mmol/l; P < 0.001) but were not different at 2.5 Hz (17.0 +/- 0.7 vs. control 16.0 +/- 0.7 mmol/l; not significant). [Na(+)](i) was altered by patch pipette dialysis to define the effect of [Na(+)](i) on contraction magnitude and action potential (AP) wave shape at slow and fast pacing rates. Using AP clamp, we showed that LVH-M require increased [Na(+)](i) and long diastolic intervals to maintain normal shortening. Finally, we determined the voltage dependence of contraction for Ca(2+) current (I(Ca))-triggered and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-mediated contractions and showed that there is a greater [Na(+)](i) dependence of contractility in LVH-M. These data show that increased [Na(+)](i) is essential for maintaining contractility at slow heart rates but contributes to small contractions at fast rates unless rate-dependent AP shortening is prevented, suggesting that altered [Na(+)](i) regulation is a critical contributor to abnormal contractility in disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiological hemodynamic stress, such as aerobic exercise, is intermittent and requires an increase in Ca2+ -dependent contractility through sympathetic nervous system activation. Pathological hemodynamic stress, such as hypertension, is persistent and requires sustained increases in cardiac function. Over time, this causes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)-reduced responsiveness to sympathetic stimulation. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that blunted in vivo adrenergic contractile responsiveness in pressure overload (PO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is caused by abnormalities in the abundance and/or basal phosphorylation state of Ca2+ regulatory proteins. PO, induced by aortic constriction, caused concentric LVH or dilated LVH. Only animals with dilation exhibited a decrease in baseline left ventricle function [fractional area change (FAC); measured with echocardiography]. All PO animals had a reduced contractile response to adrenergic agonists (increase in FAC with 40 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) dobutamine, control 0.30 +/- 0.04, n = 5 vs. banded 0.10 +/- 0.03, n = 10; P < 0.01). PO animals had reduced phospholamban (PLB) protein abundance (P = 0.07, not significant) and increased PLB phosphorylation at the calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)-specific site (PLB-Thr17, P < 0.05) but not at the protein kinase A-specific site (PLB-Ser16). PLB-Thr17 phosphorylation was inversely correlated with dobutamine-induced increases in contractility in PO animals (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.05). Continuous induction of Ca2+ transients in isolated ventricular myocytes for 24 h increased phosphorylation at PLB-Thr17 and diminished inotropic responsiveness and PLB-Ser16 phosphorylation after exposure to isoproterenol (P < 0.05). These data show that reduced adrenergic responsiveness in feline PO hypertrophy and failure involves increases in basal PLB-Thr17 phosphorylation, suggesting that activation of CaMKII in PO hypertrophy contributes to defective adrenergic reserve in compensated LVH and early heart failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial diarrheagenic heat-stable enterotoxins induce colon cancer cell cytostasis by targeting guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) signaling. Anticancer actions of these toxins are mediated by cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent influx of Ca2+ through cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. However, prolonged stimulation of GCC produces resistance in tumor cells to heat-stable enterotoxin-induced cytostasis. Resistance reflects rapid (tachyphylaxis) and slow (bradyphylaxis) mechanisms of desensitization induced by cGMP. Tachyphylaxis is mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase, which limits the conductance of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, reducing the influx of Ca2+ propagating the antiproliferative signal from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, bradyphylaxis is mediated by cGMP-dependent allosteric activation of phosphodiesterase 5, which shapes the amplitude and duration of heat-stable enterotoxin-dependent cyclic nucleotide accumulation required for cytostasis. Importantly, interruption of tachyphylaxis and bradyphylaxis restores cancer cell cytostasis induced by heat-stable enterotoxins. Thus, regimens that incorporate cytostatic bacterial enterotoxins and inhibitors of cGMP-mediated desensitization offer a previously unrecognized therapeutic paradigm for treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Research 01/2006; 65(23):11129-35. · 8.65 Impact Factor