Rajeshri G Karki

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

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Publications (15)58.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present here a greatly updated version of an earlier study on the conformational energies of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) [Nicklaus et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1995, 3, 411-428], with the goal of improving on all possible aspects such as number and selection of ligand instances, energy calculations performed, and additional analyses conducted. Starting from about 357,000 ligand instances deposited in the 2008 version of the Ligand Expo database of the experimental 3D coordinates of all small-molecule instances in the PDB, we created a "high-quality" subset of ligand instances by various filtering steps including application of crystallographic quality criteria and structural unambiguousness. Submission of 640 Gaussian 03 jobs yielded a set of about 415 successfully concluded runs. We used a stepwise optimization of internal degrees of freedom at the DFT level of theory with the B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis set and a single-point energy calculation at B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) after each round of (partial) optimization to separate energy changes due to bond length stretches vs bond angle changes vs torsion changes. Even for the most "conservative" choice of all the possible conformational energies-the energy difference between the conformation in which all internal degrees of freedom except torsions have been optimized and the fully optimized conformer-significant energy values were found. The range of 0 to ~25 kcal/mol was populated quite evenly and independently of the crystallographic resolution. A smaller number of "outliers" of yet higher energies were seen only at resolutions above 1.3 Å. The energies showed some correlation with molecular size and flexibility but not with crystallographic quality metrics such as the Cruickshank diffraction-component precision index (DPI) and R(free)-R, or with the ligand instance-specific metrics such as occupancy-weighted B-factor (OWAB), real-space R factor (RSR), and real-space correlation coefficient (RSCC). We repeated these calculations with the solvent model IEFPCM, which yielded energy differences that were generally somewhat lower than the corresponding vacuum results but did not produce a qualitatively different picture. Torsional sampling around the crystal conformation at the molecular mechanics level using the MMFF94s force field typically led to an increase in energy.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 02/2012; 52(3):739-56. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The conformations of three 2',3'-difluoro uridine nucleosides were studied by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations in an attempt to define the roles that the two vicinal fluorine atoms play in the puckering preferences of the furanose ring. Two of the compounds examined contained fluorine atoms in either the arabino or xylo dispositions at C2' and C3' of a 2',3'-dideoxyuridine system. The third compound also incorporated fluorine atoms in the xylo configuration on the furanose ring but was substituted with a 6-azauracil base in place of uracil. A battery of NMR experiments in D 2O solution was used to identify conformational preferences primarily from coupling constant and NOE data. Both (1)H and (19)F NMR data were used to ascertain the preferred sugar pucker of the furanose ring through the use of the program PSEUROT. Compound-dependent parameters used in the PSEUROT calculations were newly derived from complete sets of conformations calculated from high-level ab initio methods. The solution and theoretical data were compared to the conformations of each molecule in the solid state. It was shown that both gauche and antiperiplanar effects may be operative to maintain a pseudodiaxial arrangement of the C2' and C3' vicinal fluorine atoms. These data, along with previously reported data by us and others concerning monofluorinated nucleoside conformations, were used to propose a model of how fluorine influences different aspects of nucleoside conformations.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2008; 130(28):9048-57. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To address the absence of experimental data on the full-length structure of HIV-1 integrase and the way it binds to viral and human DNA, we had previously [Karki, R. G.; Tang, Y.; Burke, T. R., Jr.; Nicklaus, M. C. J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des.2004, 18, 739] constructed models of full-length HIV-1 integrase complexed with models of viral and human DNA. Here we describe the discovery of novel HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors based on one of these models. Virtual screening methods including docking and filtering by predicted ADME/Tox properties yielded several microM level inhibitors of the strand transfer reaction catalyzed by wild-type HIV-1 integrase.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 11/2007; 17(19):5361-5. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 4-aminopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid residue was placed in the pTyr+1 position of a Grb2 SH2 domain-binding peptide to form a general platform, which was then acylated with a variety of groups to yield a library of compounds designed to explore potential binding interactions, with protein features lying below the betaD strand. The highest affinities were obtained using phenylethyl carbamate and phenylbutyrylamide functionalities.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2007; 50(8):1978-82. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copper (I) promoted [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes was used to prepare triazole-containing macrocycles based on the Grb2 SH2 domain-binding motif, 'Pmp-Ac(6)c-Asn', where Pmp and Ac(6)c stand for 4-phosphonomethylphenylalanine and 1-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, respectively. When cycloaddition reactions were conducted at 1mM substrate concentrations, cyclization of monomeric units occurred. At 2mM substrate concentrations the predominant products were macrocyclic dimers. In Grb2 SH2 domain-binding assays the monomeric (S)-Pmp-containing macrocycle exhibited a K(d) value of 0.23microM, while the corresponding dimeric macrocycle was found to have greater than 50-fold higher affinity. The open-chain dimer was also found to have affinity equal to the dimeric macrocycle. This work represents the first application of 'click chemistry' to the synthesis of SH2 domain-binding inhibitors and indicates its potential utility.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 11/2006; 16(20):5265-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preferential binding of ligands to Grb2 SH2 domains in beta-bend conformations has made peptide cyclization a logical means of effecting affinity enhancement. This is based on the concept that constraint of open-chain sequences to bend geometries may reduce entropy penalties of binding. The current study extends this approach by undertaking ring-closing metathesis (RCM) macrocyclization between i and i+3 residues through a process involving allylglycines and beta-vinyl-functionalized residues. Ring closure in this fashion results in minimal macrocyclic tetrapeptide mimetics. The predominant effects of such macrocyclization on Grb2 SH2 domain binding affinity were increases in rates of association (from 7- to 16-fold) relative to an open-chain congener, while decreases in dissociation rates were less pronounced (approximately 2-fold). The significant increases in association rates were consistent with pre-ordering of solution conformations to near those required for binding. Data from NMR experiments and molecular modeling simulations were used to interpret the binding results. An understanding of the conformational consequences of such i to i+3 ring closure may facilitate its application to other systems where bend geometries are desired.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 05/2005; 13(7):2431-8. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As typified by 2-{(9S,10S,14R,18S)-18-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-14-[(5-methyl-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl]-8,17,20-trioxo-10-[4-(phosphonomethyl)phenyl]-7,16,19-triazaspiro[5.14]icos-11-en-9-yl}acetic acid ((14R)-1b), ring-closing methathesis-derived macrocyclic tetrapeptide mimetics have recently been reported that bind with high affinity to Grb2 SH2 domains in both extracellular and whole-cell assays. The synthetic complexity of this class of agents limits further therapeutic development. Although a significant component of this synthetic complexity arises from the presence of three stereogenic centers, C(9) (S), C(10) (S), and C(14) (R), it is unclear whether stereoselective introduction of defined configuration at C(14) is required for high-affinity binding. Reported herein is a synthetic route to these macrocycles lacking stereoselectivity in the formation of the C(14) ring junction, which is four synthetic steps shorter than the original stereoselective synthesis. Separation of C(14)-epimers obtained by this approach was achieved by preparative HPLC. Molecular-dynamics studies of ligands bound to the Grb2 SH2 domain protein indicated that the (14R)-configuration should display more-favorable interactions with the protein relative to the (14S)-epimer. Indeed, although surface-plasmon-resonance-derived binding constants to Grb2 SH2 domain protein indicated that the affinity of the (14R)-epimer (KD = 4.8 nM) is greater than that of the (14S)-epimer (KD = 11 nM), it is only marginally so. Therefore, little affinity would be lost through a non-stereoselective synthesis of the C(14)-center. Further studies are in progress to explore reduced structural complexity at the C(14)-center.
    Chemistry & Biodiversity 05/2005; 2(4):447-56. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence labeling has become a general technique for studying the intracellular accumulation and localization of exogenously administered materials. Reported herein is a low nanomolar affinity Grb2 SH2 domain-binding antagonist that utilizes the environmentally-sensitive nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) fluorophore as a naphthyl replacement. This novel agent should serve as a useful tool to visualize the actions of this class of Grb2 SH2 domain-binding antagonists in whole cell systems.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 04/2005; 15(5):1385-8. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important target for designing new antiviral therapies. Screening of potential inhibitors using recombinant IN-based assays has revealed a number of promising leads including nucleotide analogs such as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Certain PLP derivatives were shown to also exhibit antiviral activities in cell-based assays. To identify an inhibitory binding site of PLP to IN, we used the intrinsic chemical property of this compound to form a Schiff base with a primary amine in the protein at the nucleotide binding site. The amino acid affected was then revealed by mass spectrometric analysis of the proteolytic peptide fragments of IN. We found that an IC(50) concentration (15 mum) of PLP modified a single IN residue, Lys(244), located in the C-terminal domain. In fact, we observed a correlation between interaction of PLP with Lys(244) and the compound's ability to impair formation of the IN.DNA complex. Site-directed mutagenesis studies confirmed an essential role of Lys(244) for catalytic activities of recombinant IN and viral replication. Molecular modeling revealed that Lys(244) together with several other DNA binding residues provides a plausible pocket for a nucleotide inhibitor-binding site. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that a small molecule inhibitor can impair IN activity through its binding to the protein C terminus. At the same time, our findings highlight the importance of structural analysis of the full-length protein.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(9):7949-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that incorporation of either 1-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (Ac6c) or alpha-methyl-p-phosphonophenylalanine ((alpha-Me)Ppp) in the phosphotyrosyl (pTyr) C-proximal position (pY + 1 residue) of Grb2 SH2 domain binding peptides confers high affinity. The tetralin-based (S)-2-amino-6-phosphonotetralin-2-carboxylic acid (Atc(6-PO3H2)) simultaneously presents structural features of both (alpha-Me)Ppp and Ac6c residues. The current study compares the affinity of this tetralin hybrid Atc(6-PO3H2) versus Ac6c and (alpha-Me)Ppp residues when incorporated into the pY + 1 position of a high-affinity Grb2 SH2 domain binding tripeptide platform. The highest binding affinity (KD = 14.8 nM) was exhibited by the (alpha-Me)Ppp-containing parent, with the corresponding Ac6c-containing peptide being nearly 2-fold less potent (KD = 23.8 nM). The lower KD value was attributable primarily to a 50% increase in off-rate. Replacement of the Ac6c residue with the tetralin-based hybrid resulted in a further 4-fold decrease in binding affinity (KD = 97.8 nM), which was the result of a further 6-fold increase in off-rate, offset by an approximate 45% increase in on-rate. Therefore, by incorporation of the key structural components found in (alpha-Me)Ppp into the Ac6c residue, the tetralin hybrid does enhance binding on-rate. However, net binding affinity is decreased due to an associated increase in binding off-rate. Alternatively, global conformational constraint of an (alpha-Me)Ppp-containing peptide by beta-macrocyclization did result in pronounced elevation of binding affinity, which was achieved primarily through a decrease in the binding off-rate. Mathematical fitting using a simple model that assumed a single binding site yielded an effective KD of 2.28 nM. However this did not closely approximate the data obtained. Rather, use of a complex model that assumed two binding sites resulted in a very close fit of data and provided KD values of 97 pM and 72 nM for the separate sites, respectively. Therefore, although local conformational constraint in the pY + 1 residue proved to be deleterious, global conformational constraint through beta-macrocyclization achieved higher affinity. Similar beta-macrocyclization may potentially be extended to SH2 domain systems other than Grb2, where bend geometries are required.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2005; 48(3):764-72. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report structural models of the full-length integrase enzyme (IN) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its complex with viral and human DNA. These were developed by means of molecular modeling techniques using all available experimental evidence, including X-ray crystallographic and NMR structures of portions of the full-length protein. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining a model of the enzyme's active site with the viral DNA apposed to it, based on the hypothesis that such a model would allow structure-based design of inhibitors that retain activity in vivo. This was because bound DNA might be present in vivo after 3'-processing but before strand transfer. These structural models were used to study the potential binding modes of various diketo-acid HIV-1 IN inhibitors (many of them preferentially inhibiting strand transfer) for which no experimentally derived complexed structures are available. The results indicate that the diketo-acid IN inhibitors probably chelate the metal ion in the catalytic site and also prevent the exposure of the 3'-processed end of the viral DNA to human DNA.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 01/2005; 18(12):739-60. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The beta-diketo acids (DKAs) represent a major advance for anti-HIV-1 integrase drug development. We compared the inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by six DKA derivatives using the wild-type enzyme or the double-mutant F185K/C280S, which has been previously used for crystal structure determinations. With the wild-type enzyme, we found that DKAs could be classified into two groups: those similarly potent in the presence of magnesium and manganese and those potent in manganese and relatively ineffective in the presence of magnesium. Both the aromatic and the carboxylic or tetrazole functions of DKAs determined their metal selectivity. The F185K/C280S enzyme was markedly more active in the presence of manganese than magnesium. The F185K/C280S integrase was also relatively resistant to the same group of DKAs that were potent in the presence of magnesium with the wild-type enzyme. Resistance was caused by a synergistic effect from both the F185K and C280S mutations. Molecular modeling and docking suggested metal-dependent differences for binding of DKAs. Molecular modeling also indicated that the tetrazole or the azido groups of some derivatives could directly chelate magnesium or manganese in the integrase catalytic site. Together, these experiments suggest that DKAs recognize conformational differences between wild-type and the double-mutant HIV-1 integrase, because they chelate the magnesium or manganese in the enzyme active site and compete for DNA binding.
    Molecular Pharmacology 10/2003; 64(3):600-9. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aryl beta-diketo acids (ADK) comprise a general class of potent HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors, which can exhibit selective inhibition of strand transfer reactions in extracellular recombinant IN assays and provide potent antiviral effects in HIV-infected cells. Recent studies have shown that polycyclic aryl or aryl rings bearing aryl-containing substituents are components of potent members of this class. Reported herein is the first use of azido functionality as an aryl replacement in beta-diketo acid IN inhibitors. The ability of azido-containing inhibitors to exhibit potent inhibition of IN and antiviral protection in HIV-infected cells, renders the azide group of potential value in the further development of ADK-based IN inhibitors.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 04/2003; 13(6):1215-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aryl β-diketo acids (ADK) comprise a general class of potent HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors, which can exhibit selective inhibition of strand transfer reactions in extracellular recombinant IN assays and provide potent antiviral effects in HIV-infected cells. Recent studies have shown that polycyclic aryl or aryl rings bearing aryl-containing substituents are components of potent members of this class. Reported herein is the first use of azido functionality as an aryl replacement in β-diketo acid IN inhibitors. The ability of azido-containing inhibitors to exhibit potent inhibition of IN and antiviral protection in HIV-infected cells, renders the azide group of potential value in the further development of ADK-based IN inhibitors.
    ChemInform 01/2003; 13(6):1215-1219.
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication. Therefore, IN inhibitors are being sought for chemotherapy against AIDS. We had previously identified a series of salicylhydrazides as potent inhibitors of IN in vitro (Neamati, N.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 3202-3209.). Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and antiviral activity of three novel mercaptosalicylhydrazide (MSH) derivatives. MSHs were effective against the IN catalytic core domain and inhibited IN binding to HIV LTR DNA. They also inhibited catalytic activities of IN in IN-DNA preassembled complexes. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies suggest that MSHs bind to cysteine 65 and chelate Mg(2+) at the active site of HIV-1 IN. Contrary to salicylhydrazides, the MSHs are 300-fold less cytotoxic and exhibit antiviral activity. They are also active in Mg(2+)-based assays, while IN inhibition by salicylhydrazides is strictly Mn(2+)-dependent. Additionally, in target and cell-based assays, the MSHs have no detectable effect on other retroviral targets, including reverse transcriptase, protease, and virus attachment, and exhibit no detectable activity against human topoisomerases I and II at concentrations that effectively inhibit IN. These data suggest that MSHs are selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN and may serve as leads for antiviral therapeutics.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2003; 45(26):5661-70. · 5.61 Impact Factor