[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in isolated rat brain mitochondria is promoted through targeting of connexin43. After a threshold Ca(2+) load, mitochondrial membrane potential drops and efflux of accumulated Ca(2+) from the mitochondrial matrix occurs, indicating the mPTP opening. Specific antibodies were used to assess the role of the translocator protein (18 kDa; TSPO) and connexin43 in swelling of isolated rat liver and brain mitochondria induced by carbenoxolone and the endogenous TSPO ligand protoporphyrin IX. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca(2+) transport and oxygen consumption were determined using selective electrodes. All the parameters were detected simultaneously in a chamber with the selective electrodes. The phosphorylation state of mitochondrial protein targets was assessed. We report that Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling was strengthened in the presence of both carbenoxolone and protoporphyrin IX. The carbenoxolone- and protoporphyrin IX-accelerated mPTP induction in brain mitochondria was completely prevented by antibodies specific for the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). The anti-TSPO antibodies were more effective than anti-сonnexin43 antibodies. Moreover, carbenoxolone-stimulated phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins was inhibited by anti-TSPO antibodies. Taken together, the data suggests that, in addition to acting via connexion43, carbenoxolone may exert its effect on mPTP via mitochondrial outer membrane TSPO.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recovery of hemodynamics by fluid resuscitation after hemorrhage, development of the systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes can nonetheless lead to death. Minocycline and doxycycline are tetracycline derivatives that are protective in models of hypoxic, ischemic and oxidative stress. Our Aim was to determine whether minocycline and doxycycline protect liver and kidney and improve survival in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common genetic disorder leading to cyst formation in the kidneys and other organs that ultimately results in kidney failure and death. Currently, there is no therapy for slowing down or stopping the progression of PKD. In this study we identified the disintegrin metalloenzyme 17 (ADAM17) as a key regulator of cell proliferation in kidney tissues of conditional knockout Ift88-/- mice and collecting duct epithelia cell from Ift88orpk mice, animal models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Using Western blotting, an enzyme activity assay and a growth factor shedding assay in the presence or absence of the specific ADAM17 inhibitor TMI-005, we show that increased expression and activation of ADAM17 in cystic kidney and in collecting duct epithelial cells originating from the Ift88orpk mice (designated as PKD cells) leads to constitutive shedding of several growth factors including heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), amphiregulin and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFα). Increased growth factor shedding induces activation of the EGFR/MAPK/ERK pathway and maintains higher cell proliferation rate in PKD cells compared to control cells. PKD cells also displayed increased lactate formation and extracellular acidification indicative of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) that was blocked by ADAM17 inhibition. We propose that ADAM17 is a key promoter of cellular proliferation in PKD cells by activating the EGFR/ERK axis and a pro-proliferative glycolytic phenotype.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 06/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis.
Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1-6 g/kg).
Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ∼70% and ∼20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis.
Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to steatosis and increased mitochondrial respiration. Onset of this mitochondrial depolarization is linked, at least in part, to metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91308. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitophagy (mitochondrial autophagy), which removes damaged, effete and superfluous mitochondria, has several distinct variants. In Type 1 mitophagy occurring during nutrient deprivation, preautophagic structures (PAS) grow into cup-shaped phagophores that surround and sequester individual mitochondria into mitophagosomes, a process requiring phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and often occurring in coordination with mitochondrial fission. After sequestration, the outer compartment of the mitophagosome acidifies, followed by mitochondrial depolarization and ultimately hydrolytic digestion in lysosomes. Mitochondrial damage stimulates Type 2 mitophagy. After photodamage to single mitochondria, depolarization occurs followed by decoration and then coalescence of autophagic LC3-containing structures on mitochondrial surfaces. Vesicular acidification then occurs. By contrast to Type 1 mitophagy, PI3K inhibition does not block Type 2 mitophagy. Further, Type 2 mitophagy is not associated with phagophore formation or mitochondrial fission. A third form of self-eating of mitochondria is formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs) enriched in oxidized mitochondrial proteins that bud off and transit into multivesicular bodies. Topologically, the internalization of MDV by invagination of the surface of multivesicular bodies followed by vesicle scission into the lumen is a form of microautophagy, or micromitophagy (Type 3 mitophagy). Cell biological distinctions are the basis for these three types of mitophagy. Future studies are needed to better characterize the molecular and biochemical differences between Types 1, 2 and 3 mitophagy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that an increase in apoptosis within the myocardium may be a contributing factor for the progression of adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI). Given that apoptosis is often triggered by induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cyclosporin A (CsA), an MPT blocker, to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis and consequently attenuate LV remodeling post-MI. MI was induced in C57BL/6 mice and then randomized to either vehicle or CsA groups. Beginning 48 h after surgery, mice were gavaged with CsA (2 mg/kg) or vehicle once daily. LV end diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography before MI induction and terminally at either 7 days (n=7) or 28 days (n=8) post-MI. LV end diastolic volume was increased and LV ejection fraction was decreased in all MI groups with no difference between the CsA-treated and untreated groups. After vehicle and CsA, areas of necrosis were present at 7 and 28 days post MI with no difference between MI groups. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells in myocardium from the non-necrotic areas were both increased after MI but were lower in CsA-treated mice compared to vehicle (p<0.05). In conclusion, CsA decreased apoptosis occurring after MI, confirming involvement of the MPT. However, CsA-mediated reduction in apoptosis in non-MI myocardium was not beneficial in reducing LV volume or improving LV pump function.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2013; · 3.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-Hepes buffer (KRH) at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20min prior to reperfusion. Ca(2+) uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometery was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and suppressed the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sub-100 nm colloidal particles which are surface-functionalized with multiple environmentally-sensitive moieties have the potential to combine imaging, early detection, and the treatment of cancer with a single type of long-circulating “nanodevice”. Deep tissue imaging is achievable through the development of particles which are surface-modified with fluorophores that operate in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and where the fluorophore's signal can be maximized by “turning-on” the fluorescence only in the targeted tissue. We present a general approach for the synthesis of NIR emitting nanoparticles that exhibit a protein triggered activation/deactivation of the emission. Dispersing the particles into an aqueous solution, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS), resulted in an aggregation of the hydrophobic fluorophores and a cessation of emission. The emission can be reinstated, or activated, by the conversion of the surface-attached fluorophores from an aggregate to a monomeric species with the addition of an albumin. This activated probe can be deactivated and returned to a quenched state by a simple tryptic digestion of the albumin. The methodology for emission switching offers a path to maximize the signal from the typically weak quantum yield inherent in NIR fluorophores.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an essential role in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Iron is a critical catalyst for ROS formation, and intracellular chelatable iron promotes oxidative injury-induced and MPT-dependent cell death in hepatocytes. Accordingly, our aim was to investigate the role of chelatable iron in IR-induced ROS generation, MPT formation and cell death in primary rat hepatocytes. To simulate IR, overnight cultured hepatocytes were incubated anoxically at pH 6.2 for 4h and re-oxygenated at pH 7.4. Chelatable Fe(2+), ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy of calcein, chloromethyl dichlorofluorescein (cmDCF) and tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM), respectively. Cell killing was assessed by propidium iodide fluorometry. Ischemia caused progressive quenching of cytosolic calcein by more than 90%, signifying increased chelatable Fe(2+). Desferal and starch-desferal 1h prior to ischemia suppressed calcein quenching. Ischemia also induced quenching and dequenching of calcein loaded into mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. Desferal, starch-desferal, and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), Ru360, suppressed mitochondrial calcein quenching during ischemia. Desferal, starch-desferal and Ru360 before ischemia also decreased mitochondrial ROS formation, MPT opening and cell killing after reperfusion. These results indicate that lysosomes release chelatable Fe(2+) during ischemia, which is taken up into mitochondria by MCU. Increased mitochondrial iron then predisposes to ROS-dependent MPT opening and cell killing after reperfusion.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine 05/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory substrates and adenine nucleotides cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC), comprising three isoforms ─ VDAC1, 2 and 3. We characterized the role of individual isoforms in mitochondrial metabolism by HepG2 human hepatoma cells using siRNA. With VDAC3 to the greatest extent, all VDAC isoforms, contributed to the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, but only VDAC3 knockdown decreased ATP, ADP, NAD(P)H and mitochondrial redox state. Cells expressing predominantly VDAC3 were least sensitive to depolarization induced by increased free tubulin. In planar lipid bilayers, free tubulin inhibited VDAC1 and VDAC2 but not VDAC3. Erastin, a compound that interacts with VDAC, blocked and reversed mitochondrial depolarization after microtubule destabilizers in intact cells and antagonized tubulin-induced VDAC blockage in planar bilayers. In conclusion, free tubulin inhibits VDAC1/2 and limits mitochondrial metabolism in HepG2 cells, contributing to the Warburg phenomenon. Reversal of tubulin-VDAC interaction by erastin antagonizes Warburg metabolism and restores oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies showed that an extract from Camellia sinenesis (green tea), which contains several polyphenols, attenuates nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine A (CsA). Since polyphenols are stimulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated whether stimulation of MB plays a role in green tea polyphenol protection against CsA renal toxicity. Rats were fed a powdered diet containing green tea polyphenolic extract (0.1%) starting 3 days prior to CsA treatment (25 mg/kg, i.g. daily for 3 weeks). CsA alone decreased renal nuclear DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein ATP synthase-β (AS-β) by 42%, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded OXPHOS protein NADH dehydrogenase-3 (ND3) by 87% and their associated mRNAs. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was also decreased by 78% by CsA. Immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), an OXPHOS protein, in tubular cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, the master regulator of MB, and mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam), the transcription factor that regulates mtDNA replication and transcription, were 42% and 90% lower, respectively, in the kidneys of CsA-treated than in untreated rats. These results indicate suppression of MB by chronic CsA treatment. Green tea polyphenols alone and following CsA increased AS-β, ND3, COX-IV, mtDNA copy number, PGC-1α mRNA and protein, decreased acetylated PGC-1α, and increased Tfam mRNA and protein. In association with suppressed MB, CsA increased serum creatinine, caused loss of brush border and dilatation of proximal tubules, tubular atrophy, vacuolization, apoptosis, calcification, and increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, leukocyte infiltration, and renal fibrosis. Green tea polyphenols markedly attenuated CsA-induced renal injury and improved renal function. Together, these results demonstrate that green tea polyphenols attenuate CsA-induced kidney injury, at least in part, through the stimulation of MB.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65029. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms by which autophagy promotes cell survival or death are unclear. We provide evidence that C18-pyridinium ceramide treatment or endogenous C18-ceramide generation by ceramide synthase 1 (CerS1) expression mediates autophagic cell death, independent of apoptosis in human cancer cells. C18-ceramide–induced lethal autophagy was regulated via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β-lipidation, forming LC3B-II, and selective targeting of mitochondria by LC3B-II–containing autophagolysosomes (mitophagy) through direct interaction between ceramide and LC3B-II upon Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial function and oxygen consumption. Accordingly, expression of mutant LC3B with impaired ceramide binding, as predicted by molecular modeling, prevented CerS1-mediated mitochondrial targeting, recovering oxygen consumption. Moreover, knockdown of CerS1 abrogated sodium selenite–induced mitophagy, and stable LC3B knockdown protected against CerS1- and C18-ceramide–dependent mitophagy and blocked tumor suppression in vivo. Thus, these data suggest a new receptor function of ceramide for anchoring LC3B-II autophagolysosomes to mitochondrial membranes, defining a key mechanism for the induction of lethal mitophagy.
Nature Chemical Biology 12/2012; 8(12):1008. · 12.95 Impact Factor