[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) accounts for more than half of the total radiation exposure from medical procedures, which makes dose reduction in CT an effective means of reducing radiation exposure. We analysed the dose reduction that can be achieved with a new CT scanner [Somatom Edge (E)] that incorporates new developments in hardware (detector) and software (iterative reconstruction).
We compared weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values of 25 consecutive patients studied with non-enhanced standard brain CT with the new scanner and with two previous models each, a 64-slice 64-row multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner with 64 rows (S64) and a 16-slice 16-row MDCT scanner with 16 rows (S16). We analysed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in images from the three scanners and performed a quality rating by three neuroradiologists to analyse whether dose reduction techniques still yield sufficient diagnostic quality.
CTDIVol of scanner E was 41.5 and 36.4 % less than the values of scanners S16 and S64, respectively; the DLP values were 40 and 38.3 % less. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios were best in S64; these differences also reached statistical significance. Image analysis, however, showed "non-inferiority" of scanner E regarding image quality.
The first experience with the new scanner shows that new dose reduction techniques allow for up to 40 % dose reduction while still maintaining image quality at a diagnostically usable level.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of acute stroke treatment with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular recanalization techniques is to rescue the penumbral tissue. Therefore, knowing the factors that influence the loss of penumbral tissue is of major interest. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the evolution of the penumbra in patients with proximal (M1 or M2) middle cerebral artery occlusion. Among these factors collaterals as seen on angiography were of special interest. Forty-four patients were included in this analysis. They had all received endovascular therapy and at least minimal reperfusion was achieved. Their penumbra was assessed with perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging. Perfusion-weighted imaging volumes were defined by circular singular value decomposition deconvolution maps (Tmax > 6 s) and results were compared with volumes obtained with non-deconvolved maps (time to peak > 4 s). Loss of penumbral volume was defined as difference of post- minus pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging volumes and calculated in per cent of pretreatment penumbral volume. Correlations between baseline characteristics, reperfusion, collaterals, time to reperfusion and penumbral volume loss were assessed using analysis of covariance. Collaterals (P = 0.021), reperfusion (P = 0.003) and their interaction (P = 0.031) independently influenced penumbral tissue loss, but not time from magnetic resonance (P = 0.254) or from symptom onset (P = 0.360) to reperfusion. Good collaterals markedly slowed down and reduced the penumbra loss: in patients with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2 b-3 reperfusion and without any haemorrhage, 27% of the penumbra was lost with 8.9 ml/h with grade 0 collaterals, whereas 11% with 3.4 ml/h were lost with grade 1 collaterals. With grade 2 collaterals the penumbral volume change was -2% with -1.5 ml/h, indicating an overall diffusion-weighted imaging lesion reversal. We conclude that collaterals and reperfusion are the main factors determining loss of penumbral tissue in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusions. Collaterals markedly reduce and slow down penumbra loss. In patients with good collaterals, time to successful reperfusion accounts only for a minor fraction of penumbra loss. These results support the hypothesis that good collaterals extend the time window for acute stroke treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Object The risk of recurrence of cerebrovascular events within the first 72 hours of admission in patients hospitalized with symptomatic carotid artery (CA) stenoses and the risks and benefits of emergency CA intervention within the first hours after the onset of symptoms are not well known. Therefore, the authors aimed to assess 1) the ipsilateral recurrence rate within 72 hours of admission, in the period from 72 hours to 7 days, and after 7 days in patients presenting with nondisabling stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or amaurosis fugax (AF), and with an ipsilateral symptomatic CA stenosis of 50% or more, and 2) the risk of stroke in CA interventions within 48 hours of admission versus the risk in interventions performed after 48 hours. Methods Ninety-four patients were included in this study. These patients were admitted to hospital within 48 hours of a nondisabling stroke, TIA, or AF resulting from a symptomatic CA stenosis of 50% or more. The patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (85 patients) or CA stenting (9 patients). At baseline, the cardiovascular risk factors of the patients, the degree of symptomatic CA stenosis, and the type of secondary preventive treatment were assessed. The in-hospital recurrence rate of stroke, TIA, or AF ipsilateral to the symptomatic CA stenosis was determined for the first 72 hours after admission, from 72 hours to 7 days, and after 7 days. Procedure-related cerebrovascular events were also recorded. Results The median time from symptom onset to CA intervention was 5 days (interquartile range 3.00-9.25 days). Twenty-one patients (22.3%) underwent CA intervention within 48 hours after being admitted. Overall, 15 recurrent cerebrovascular events were observed in 12 patients (12.8%) in the period between admission and CA intervention: 3 strokes (2 strokes in progress and 1 stroke) (3.2%), 5 TIAs (5.3%), and 1 AF (1.1%) occurred within the first 72 hours (total 9.6%) of admission; 1 TIA (1.1%) occurred between 72 hours and 7 days, and 5 TIAs (5.3%) occurred after more than 7 days. The corresponding actuarial cerebrovascular recurrence rates were 11.4% (within 72 hours of admission), 2.4% (between 72 hours and 7 days), and 7.9% (after 7 days). Among baseline characteristics, no predictive factors for cerebrovascular recurrence were identified. Procedure-related cerebrovascular events occurred at a rate of 4.3% (3 strokes and 1 TIA), and procedures performed within the first 48 hours and procedures performed after 48 hours had a similar frequency of these events (4.5% vs 4.1%, respectively; p = 0.896). Conclusions The in-hospital recurrence of cerebrovascular events was quite low, but all recurrent strokes occurred within 72 hours. The risk of stroke associated with a CA intervention performed within the first 48 hours was not increased compared with that for later interventions. This raises the question of the optimal timing of CA intervention in symptomatic CA stenosis. To answer this question, more data are needed, preferably from large randomized trials.
Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-parametric and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have come into the focus of interest, both as a research and diagnostic modality for the evaluation of patients suffering from mild cognitive decline and overt dementia. In this study we address the question, if disease related quantitative magnetization transfer effects (qMT) within the intra- and extracellular matrices of the hippocampus may aid in the differentiation between clinically diagnosed patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. We evaluated 22 patients with AD (n = 12) and MCI (n = 10) and 22 healthy elderly (n = 12) and younger (n = 10) controls with multi-parametric MRI. Neuropsychological testing was performed in patients and elderly controls (n = 34). In order to quantify the qMT effects, the absorption spectrum was sampled at relevant off-resonance frequencies. The qMT-parameters were calculated according to a two-pool spin-bath model including the T1- and T2 relaxation parameters of the free pool, determined in separate experiments. Histograms (fixed bin-size) of the normalized qMT-parameter values (z-scores) within the anterior and posterior hippocampus (hippocampal head and body) were subjected to a fuzzy-c-means classification algorithm with downstreamed PCA projection. The within-cluster sums of point-to-centroid distances were used to examine the effects of qMT- and diffusion anisotropy parameters on the discrimination of healthy volunteers, patients with Alzheimer and MCIs. The qMT-parameters T2r (T2 of the restricted pool) and F (fractional pool size) differentiated between the three groups (control, MCI and AD) in the anterior hippocampus. In our cohort, the MT ratio, as proposed in previous reports, did not differentiate between MCI and AD or healthy controls and MCI, but between healthy controls and AD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever devices have been advocated to increase revascularization in intracranial vessel occlusion. We present the results of a large prospective study on the use of the Solitaire Flow Restoration in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Solitaire Flow Restoration Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire Flow Restoration thrombectomy in patients with large vessel anterior circulation strokes treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Strict criteria for site selection were applied. The primary end point was the revascularization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) of the occluded vessel as determined by an independent core laboratory. The secondary end point was the rate of good functional outcome (defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale, 0-2).
A total of 202 patients were enrolled across 14 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The median age was 72 years, 60% were female patients. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 17. Most proximal intracranial occlusion was the internal carotid artery in 18%, and the middle cerebral artery in 82%. Successful revascularization was achieved in 79.2% of patients. Device and procedure-related severe adverse events were found in 7.4%. Favorable neurological outcome was found in 57.9%. The mortality rate was 6.9%. Any intracranial hemorrhagic transformation was found in 18.8% of patients, 1.5% were symptomatic.
In this single-arm study, treatment with the Solitaire Flow Restoration device in intracranial anterior circulation occlusions results in high rates of revascularization, low risk of clinically relevant procedural complications, and good clinical outcomes in combination with low mortality at 90 days.
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01327989.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To the Editor: In the Mechanical Retrieval and Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy (MR RESCUE) trial, reported by Kidwell et al. (March 7 issue),(1) 22 participating centers enrolled 118 patients during the period from 2004 through 2011. Thus, on average, each participating center enrolled 1 patient every 16 months. This extremely low rate may suggest that inclusion in the trial was selective and not representative of patients with stroke in general. This notion is supported by the poor outcomes reported for both forms of treatment in the study. A good clinical outcome, defined as a 90-day score of 2 . . .
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; 368(25):2430-5. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to compare the utility of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) with the established diagnostic techniques CT and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) in their detecting capacity of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and further to compare the combined SWI/FLAIR MRI data with CT to evaluate whether MRI is more accurate than CT. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with acute SAH underwent CT and MRI within 6 days after symptom onset. Underlying pathology for SAH was head trauma (n=9), ruptured aneurysm (n=6), ruptured arteriovenous malformation (n=2), and spontaneous bleeding (n=8). SWI, FLAIR, and CT data were analyzed. The anatomical distribution of SAH was subdivided into 8 subarachnoid regions with three peripheral cisterns (frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital, sylvian), two central cisterns and spaces (interhemispheric, intraventricular), and the perimesencephalic, posterior fossa, superior cerebellar cisterns. RESULTS: SAH was detected in a total of 146 subarachnoid regions. CT identified 110 (75.3%), FLAIR 127 (87%), and SWI 129 (88.4%) involved regions. Combined FLAIR and SWI identified all 146 detectable regions (100%). FLAIR was sensitive for frontal-parietal, temporal-occipital and Sylvian cistern SAH, while SWI was particularly sensitive for interhemispheric and intraventricular hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: By combining SWI and FLAIR, MRI yields a distinctly higher detection rate for SAH than CT alone, particularly due to their complementary detection characteristics in different anatomical regions. Detection strength of SWI is high in central areas, whereas FLAIR shows a better detection rate in peripheral areas.
European journal of radiology 04/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is some controversy on the association of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score to predict arterial occlusion on MR arteriography and CT arteriography in acute stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NIHSS scores and arteriographic findings in 2152 patients (35.4% women, mean age 66±14 years) with acute anterior or posterior circulation strokes. RESULTS: The study included 1603 patients examined with MR arteriography and 549 with CT arteriography. Of those, 1043 patients (48.5%; median NIHSS score 5, median time to clinical assessment 179 minutes) showed an occlusion, 887 in the anterior (median NIHSS score 7/0-31), and 156 in the posterior circulation (median NIHSS score 3/0-32). Eight hundred sixty visualized occlusions (82.5%) were located centrally (ie, in the basilar, intracranial vertebral, internal carotid artery, or M1/M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery). NIHSS scores turned out to be predictive for any vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation. Best cut-off values within 3 hours after symptom onset were NIHSS scores ≥9 (positive predictive value 86.4%) and NIHSS scores ≥7 within >3 to 6 hours (positive predictive value 84.4%). Patients with central occlusions presenting within 3 hours had NIHSS scores <4 in only 5%. In the posterior circulation and in patients presenting after 6 hours, the predictive value of the NIHSS score for vessel occlusion was poor. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant association of NIHSS scores and vessel occlusions in patients with anterior circulation strokes. This association is best within the first hours after symptom onset. Thereafter and in the posterior circulation the association is poor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy is used increasingly for treatment of acute symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, although randomized trials are lacking. Predictors of outcome are therefore of special interest. METHODS: From 1992 to 2010 we treated 201 patients with acute ICA occlusion with intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis (32), endovascular mechanical therapy (78) or a combination of both (91). All data were assessed prospectively. RESULTS: There were 76/38% patients with tandem occlusions [ICA plus middle (MCA) or anterior cerebral arteries (ACA)], 18/9% without concomitant occlusions of major intracranial arteries (ICA plus branch occlusion) and 107/53% with functional ICA-T occlusions (ICA plus MCA and ACA). Median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 17. Good recanalization (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 2-3) was achieved in (157/201) 78% patients and good reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2-3) in (151/182) 83%. Better recanalization rates were obtained with mechanical approaches, with/without thrombolytics (78/91 = 86% and 64/78 = 82%) compared with pharmacological thrombolysis only (15/32 = 47%; P < 0.001). Twelve patients (6%) suffered symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages. The 3-month outcome was favourable [modified Rankin score (mRS) 0-2] in 54/28% patients and moderate (mRS 0-3) in 90/46%; 60/31% patients died. Only 17/16% patients with functional ICA-T occlusions had favourable outcomes compared with 32/44% with tandem occlusions and 5/31% with ICA plus cerebral branch occlusions (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98], NIHSS on admission (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.83-0.98) and functional ICA-T occlusion (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.16-0.77) were non-modifiable predictors, and vessel recanalization was the only modifiable predictor of outcome (OR = 9.30, 95% CI = 2.03-42.63). CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of acute symptomatic ICA occlusion is poor. However, recanalization is associated with better outcome, and recanalization rates with mechanical techniques were superior to merely pharmacological recanalization attempts.
European Journal of Neurology 02/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is effective when performed within 6 h of symptom onset in selected stroke patients ('T < 6H'). Its safety and efficacy is unclear when the patient has had symptoms for more than 6 h ('T > 6H') or for an unknown time (unclear-onset stroke, UOS), or woke up with a stroke (wake-up stroke, WUS). In this study we compared the safety of IAT in these four patient groups. METHODS: Eight-hundred and fifty-nine patients treated with IAT were enrolled. The main outcome parameters were clinical outcome [excellent: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0 or 1; or favorable: mRS 0-2] or mortality 3 months after treatment. Further outcome parameters were the rates of vessel recanalization, and cerebral and systemic hemorrhage. RESULTS: Six-hundred and fifty-four patients were treated before (T < 6H) and 205 after 6 h or an unknown time (128 T > 6H, 55 WUS and 22 UOS). NIHSS scores were higher in UOS patients than in T < 6H patients, vertebrobasilar occlusion was more common in T > 6H and UOS patients, and middle cerebral artery occlusions less common in T > 6H than in T < 6H patients. Other baseline characteristics were similar. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome and the rate of hemorrhage in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcome of our four groups of patients was similar with no increase of hemorrhage rates in patients treated after awakening, after an unknown time or more than 6 h. Our preliminary data suggest that treatment of such patients may be performed safely. If confirmed in randomized trials, this would have major clinical implications.
European Journal of Neurology 01/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The optimal treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) is controversial. To optimize the risk-benefit ratio of carotid artery revascularization, it is crucial to identify ACS patients who are at increased stroke risk. Recent data suggest that plaque vulnerability depends on its composition. Therefore, we assessed plaque composition in ACS to determine predictors for ipsilateral cerebrovascular events. Methods: 62 patients with 65 ACS ≥50% underwent 3-T MRI of the carotid bifurcation (TOF, special dark-blood weighted noncontrast and contrast-enhanced T(1) and T(2) images) and of the brain. The different plaque components (lipid core, intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification and the status of the fibrous cap) were assessed. Furthermore, the plaque volume and the volume of clinically silent cortical and subcortical infarcts in the territory of the stenosed carotid artery as seen on FLAIR images were determined by using a semi-automated software. Carotid stenosis was considered asymptomatic if there had not been any clinically apparent ischemic events in the corresponding vascular territory within the previous 6 months. During follow-up, information on the occurrence of cerebrovascular events, medical treatment and sonographic changes of the stenosis was collected. Results: At baseline, 24 ACS (37%) were classified as high grade. A lipid-rich necrotic core was the dominant plaque component in 16 ACS (25%). The plaque volume was higher in ACS with a lipid-rich necrotic core as dominant plaque component (p = 0.002) and in patients with prior stroke/TIA (p = 0.010). After a median follow-up of 18.9 months (interquartile range 3.5-30.1) there were 2 ipsilateral strokes and 3 ipsilateral TIAs. The average annual event rate was 7.7%. A lipid-rich necrotic core (HR 7.21; 95% CI 1.12-46.28; p = 0.037), sonographic progression of the stenosis (HR 7.00; 95% CI 1.13-41.34; p = 0.036), history of stroke (HR 11.03; 95% CI 1.23-99.36; p = 0.032), and the volume of clinically asymptomatic ischemic brain lesions (HR 1.14/cm(3); 95% CI 1.03-1.25; p = 0.008) predicted cerebrovascular events. Patients on statin therapy at follow-up were at lower risk of events (HR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-1.00; p = 0.05). Conclusions: In addition to medical history and sonographic findings, a lipid-rich necrotic core within the plaque turned out as a predictor of cerebrovascular events. Therefore, MR imaging of carotid plaques deserves further attention and might be helpful to improve risk stratification of asymptomatic carotid disease. The identified predictors could be combined in a risk model and tested in larger prospective studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Auditory hallucinations (AH) occur in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. In psychosis, increased neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex (PAC) contributes to AH. We investigated functional neuroanatomy of epileptic hallucinations by measuring cerebral perfusion in three patients with AH during simple partial status epilepticus. Hyperperfusion in the temporal lobe covering the PAC occurred in all patients. Our perfusion data support the hypothesis of PAC being a constituting element in the genesis of AH independent of their aetiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Early stratification of degenerative processes is a prerequisite to warrant therapeutic options in prodromal Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to investigate differences in cerebral macromolecular tissue composition between patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls by using model-based magnetization transfer with a binary spin-bath magnetization transfer model and magnetization transfer ratio at 1.5T.MATERIALS AND METHODS:We investigated patients with de novo AD (n = 18), MCI (n = 18), and CTRLs (n = 18). A region-of-interest analysis of the entorhinal cortex, hippocampal head and body, insula, and temporal neocortex was performed with fuzzy clustering to associate every subregion to a cluster representative for each group.RESULTS:Cluster analysis achieved a concordance of 0.92 (50 of 54 subjects) between a combination of the calculated mMT parameters (kf,kr,T2r,F,T2f) in the entorhinal cortex and the neuropsychological diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination of AD from MCI reached 1 and 0.94, with a positive predictive value of 0.95 and a negative predictive value of 1. Compared with mMT, the concordance for MTR was 0.83 (45 of 54 subjects) with a lower specificity of 0.5 and positive predictive value of 0.67 to discriminate patients with AD and MCI.CONCLUSIONS:mMTimaging detects macromolecule-related alterations and allows an improved classification of patients with early AD and MCI compared with MTR.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 10/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke patients with diabetes and admission hyperglycaemia have worse outcomes than non-diabetics, with or without intravenous thrombolysis. Poor vessel recanalization was reported in diabetics treated with intravenous thrombolysis. AIMS: This study aimed to determine the impact of admission glucose and diabetes on recanalization and outcome after intra-arterial thrombolysis. METHODS: We analysed 389 patients (213 men, 176 women) treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis. The association of diabetes and admission glucose value with recanalization, outcome, mortality, and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was determined. Recanalization was classified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction grades. Outcome was measured using the modified Rankin Scale at three-months and categorized as favourable (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) or poor (modified Rankin Scale 3-6). RESULTS: The rate of partial or complete recanalization (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2-3) did not differ between patients with and without diabetes (67% vs. 66%; P = 1·000). Mean admission glucose values were similar in patients with poor recanalization (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 0-1) and patients with partial or complete recanalization (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2-3; 7·3 vs. 7·3 mmol/l; P = 0·746). Follow-up at three-months was obtained in 388 of 389 patients. Clinical outcome was favourable (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) in 189 patients (49%) and poor (modified Rankin Scale 3-6) in 199 patients (51%). Mortality at three-months was 20%. Diabetics were more likely to have poor outcome (72% vs. 48%; P = 0·001) and to be dead (30% vs. 19%; P = 0·044) at three-months. After multivariable analysis, there remained an independent relationship between diabetes and outcome (P = 0·003; odds ratio 3·033, 95% confidence interval 1·452-6·336), but not with mortality (P = 0·310; odds ratio 1·436; 95% confidence interval 0·714-2·888). Moreover, higher age (P = 0·001; odds ratio 1·039; 95% confidence interval 1·017-1·061), higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P < 0·0001; odds ratio 1·130; 95% confidence interval 1·079-1·182), location of vessel occlusion as categorical variable (P < 0·0001), poor collaterals (P = 0·02; odds ratio 1·587; 95% confidence interval 1·076-2·341), poor vessel recanalization (P < 0·0001; odds ratio 4·713; 95% confidence interval 2·627-8·454), and higher leucocyte count (P = 0·032; odds ratio 1·094; 95% confidence interval 1·008-1·188) were independent baseline predictors of poor outcome. Higher admission glucose was associated with poor outcome (P = 0·006) and mortality (P < 0·0001). After multivariate analyses, glucose remained independently associated with poor outcome (P = 0·019; odds ratio 1·150; 95% confidence interval 1·023-1-292) and mortality (P = 0·005; odds ratio 1·183; 95% confidence interval 1052-1·331). The rate of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was similar in diabetics and non-diabetics (6·7% vs. 4·6%; P = 0·512). Mean admission glucose was higher in patients with symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage than without (8·58 vs. 7·26 mmol/l; P = 0·010). Multivariable analysis confirmed an independent association between admission glucose and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (P = 0·027; odds ratio 1·187; 95% confidence interval 1·020-1·381). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and glucose value on admission did not influence recanalization after intra-arterial thrombolysis; nevertheless, they were independent predictors of poor outcome after intra-arterial thrombolysis and a higher admission glucose value was an independent predictor of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This indicates that factors on the capillary, cellular, or metabolic level may account for the worse outcome in patients with elevated glucose value and diabetes.
International Journal of Stroke 09/2012; · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Currently, several new stent retriever devices for acute stroke treatment are under development and early clinical evaluation. Preclinical testing under standardized conditions is an important first step to evaluate the technical performance and potential of these devices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate recanalization effect, recanalization efficacy, thrombus-device interaction, and safety of a new stent retriever intended for thrombectomy in patients with acute stroke.MATERIAL AND METHODS:The pREset thrombectomy device (4 × 20 mm) was evaluated in 16 vessel occlusions in an established swine model. Radiopaque thrombi (10-mm length) were used for visualization of thrombus-device interaction during application and retrieval. Flow-restoration effect immediately after deployment and after 5-minute embedding time before retrieval, recanalization rate after retrieval, thromboembolic events, and complications were assessed. High-resolution FPCT was performed to illustrate thrombus-device interaction during the embedding time.RESULTS:Immediate flow restoration was achieved in 75% of occlusions. An increase or stable percentage of recanalizations during embedding time before retrieval was seen in 56.3%; a decrease, in 12.5%; reocclusion of a previously recanalized vessel, in 18.8%; and no recanalization effect at all, in 12.5%. Complete recanalization (TICI 3) after retrieval was achieved in 93.8%; partial recanalization (TICI 2b), in 6.2%. No distal thromboembolic events were observed. High-resolution FPCT illustrated entrapment of the thrombus between the stent struts and compression against the contralateral vessel wall, leading to partial flow restoration. During retrieval, the thrombus was retained in a straight position within the stent struts.CONCLUSIONS:In this experimental study, the pREset thrombus retriever showed a high recanalization rate in vivo. High-resolution FPCT allows detailed illustration of the thrombus-device interaction during embedding time and is advocated as an add-on tool to the animal model used in this study.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Acute BAO is a devastating neurological condition associated with a poor clinical outcome and a high mortality rate. Recanalization has been identified as a major prognostic factor for good outcome in BAO. Mechanical thrombectomy using retrievable stents is an emerging treatment option for acute stroke. First clinical trials using stent retrievers have shown promising high recanalization rates. However, these studies mainly included large artery occlusions in the anterior circulation with only a few or single cases of BAO. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate technical feasibility, safety, and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy using retrievable stent in the treatment of acute BAO.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Fourteen consecutive patients with BAO undergoing endovascular therapy using retrievable stents (Solitaire FR Revascularization Device) were included. Additional multimodal treatment approaches included thromboaspiration, intravenous and/or intra-arterial thrombolysis, and PTA/ permanent stent placement. Recanalization rates after multimodal therapy and stent retrieval were determined. Clinical outcome and mortality were assessed 3 months after treatment.RESULTS:Median patient age was 64.5 years (range 55-85). Median NIHSS score at presentation was 21 (range 5-36). Overall, successful recanalization (TICI 3 or 2b) was achieved in all patients (TICI 3 in 78.6%, 11/14). In 4 patients (28.6%), insufficient recanalization after stent retrieval was due to an underlying atherosclerotic stenosis. Additional deployment of a permanent intracranial stent was performed in 3 patients (21.4%) and PTA alone in 1 patient (7.1%), resulting in final TICI 3 in 1 patient and TICI 2b in 3 patients. Stent retrieval alone was performed in 4 patients (28.6%). Average number of device passes was 1.3 (range 1-3). Median procedure time to maximal recanalization was 47 minutes (range 10-252). No device-related complications or thromboembolic occlusion of a previously unaffected artery occurred. There was no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. At 3 months, good functional outcome (mRS 0-2) was observed in 28.6% (4/14); overall mortality was 35.7% (5/14).CONCLUSIONS:A multimodal endovascular approach using retrievable stents in BAO has high recanalization rates, with very low complication rates. Underlying atherothrombotic stenotic lesions of the basilar artery may still necessitate additional permanent stent placement to achieve complete recanalization.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 06/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly applied during the treatment of acute stroke. Various devices have been advocated with different sites of force effect at the thrombus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic route of passing systematically and therefore to assess the site of deployment of mechanical devices in correlation to the thrombus in interventional stroke treatment. Twenty-one consecutive patients with endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke with 26 passing procedures were evaluated prospectively. Occlusion site was the M1-segment in 17 cases (65.4%), ICA termination in five cases (19.2%), M2-segment in two cases (7.7%), the A2-segment in one case (3.8%) and basilar artery in one case (3.8%). On angiographic images the microwire and microcatheter passage was evaluated by illustrating the entry point and course across the occlusion site in relation to the thrombus in different projections and in correlation to the recanalisation result. Results were correlated to the origin of the thrombi according to the TOAST criteria. In all cases the point of entry to the occlusion site was delineated laterally to the thrombus in at least one projection. The course of the wire across the occluded segment in relation to the thrombus was found to be laterally in 22 procedures (84.6%). In the majority of M1-occlusions (12/17, 70.6%) the passage was found in the cranial aspect of the thrombus. In four procedures (15.4%) angiograms in different projections did not unequivocally confirm a passage laterally to the thrombus. The route of passing the thrombus was independent of thrombus origin according to the TOAST criteria. In the majority of cases the complete route of passing the occlusion site was visualized angiographically. Entrance of the microwire and microcatheter at proximal surface of the thrombus takes place laterally to the thrombus and accordingly the passage takes place between the thrombus and the vessel wall independent of thrombus origin. A penetration of the thrombus was not observed. This route of passing has implications on deployment and transmission of force in relation to the thrombus in mechanical approaches and consequently on the development of retrieval devices.
The neuroradiology journal. 05/2012; 25(2):243-50.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/43/6/1584.full.pdf+html
The aim of this study was to analyze epileptic seizures and their impact on outcome in patients with stroke treated with endovascular therapy.
From December 1992 to December 2010 we managed 805 patients with stroke with endovascular therapy. Epileptic seizures, bleeding complications, and 3-month outcomes were recorded prospectively. Outcomes of patients with early seizures (within 24 hours of stroke onset) and patients with late seizures (>24 hours after stroke) were compared with outcomes of seizure-free patients using uni- and multivariable statistics.
Forty-four of 805 patients (5.5%) had seizures between stroke onset and 3-month follow-up, 26 patients early and 18 late. Outcome of patients with late seizures and seizure-free patients was similar (P=0.144 and 0.807). Patients with early seizures had higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (P=0.023) and were younger (P=0.021) than seizure-free patients. Their mortality rate was 50% compared with 22.3% of the seizure free-patients (P=0.003), and less patients reached a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2): 15.4% and 46.8%, respectively (P=0.001). Early seizures independently predicted an unfavorable outcome (P=0.014; OR, 4.749; 95% CI, 0.376-3.914) and increased mortality (P=0.001; OR, 5.861; 95% CI, 0.770-2.947) in multiregression analysis. Patients with early seizures had a 1.6-fold higher risk for unfavorable outcome and a 2.2-fold higher risk for death compared with seizure-free patients.
Seizures within 24 hours of stroke onset were associated with worse outcome in patients with stroke undergoing endovascular therapy. Our findings confirm a need for trials for prophylactic anticonvulsive treatment in patients receiving endovascular therapy for acute stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared three angiographic methods for grading of carotid stenosis and examined the correlation between angiographic
and ultrasound findings. Two observers independently measured 111 carotid stenoses on arteriographic films of 84 patients.
The stenoses were graded according to the European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST), North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy
Trial (NASCET), and Common Carotid (CC) methods. The results obtained by these methods were compared, and the interobserver
reproducibility of the measurements was calculated. In addition, all angiographic results were compared to ultrasound findings
obtained before angiography. Measurements using the CC method were the most reproducible and those using the NASCET method
the least. The NASCET method underestimated the degree of stenosis compared to the other methods. The ECST and CC methods
yielded almost identical results (97% agreement). Ultrasound provided an accuracy of 94% compared to ECST and CC methods and
84% compared to the NASCET method. Interobserver reproducibility of angiographic quantification of carotid stenoses was best
for the CC and ECST methods and least for the NASCET method. Ultrasound demonstrated better accuracy than the ECST and CC
Journal of Neurology 04/2012; 247(9):681-686. · 3.58 Impact Factor