Gerhard Schroth

Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (342)1209.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Over 80% of strokes result from ischemic damage to the brain due to an acute reduction in the blood supply. Around 25-35% of strokes present with large vessel occlusion, and the patients in this category often present with severe neurological deficits. Without early treatment, the prognosis is poor. Stroke imaging is critical for assessing the extent of tissue damage and for guiding treatment. Summary: This review focuses on the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic stroke, with an emphasis on those involving the anterior circulation. Key Message: Effective and standardized imaging protocols are necessary for clinical decision making and for the proper design of prospective studies on acute stroke. Clinical Implications: Each minute without treatment spells the loss of an estimated 1.8 million neurons ('time is brain'). Therefore, stroke imaging must be performed in a fast and efficient manner. First, intracranial hemorrhage and stroke mimics should be excluded by the use of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The next key step is to define the extent and location of the infarct core (values of >70 ml, >1/3 of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory or an ASPECTS score ≤7 indicate poor clinical outcome). Penumbral imaging is currently based on the mismatch concept. It should be noted that the penumbra is a dynamic zone and can be sustained in the presence of good collateral circulation. A thrombus length of >8 mm predicts poor recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    European Neurology 10/2014; 72(5-6):309-316. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to assess vascular integrity after stent-retriever thrombectomy.
    Stroke 10/2014; 45(11). · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Neurology 10/2014; 13(10):967. · 21.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of thrombolysis in patients with minor neurological deficits and large vessel occlusion is controversial. METHODS: We compared the outcome of patients with low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and large vessel occlusions between thrombolysed and non-thrombolysed patients. RESULTS: 88 (1.7%) of 5312 consecutive patients with acute (within 24 h) ischaemic stroke had occlusions of the internal carotid or the main stem of the middle cerebral artery and baseline NIHSS scores ≤5.47 (53.4%) were treated without thrombolysis, and 41 (46.6%) received intravenous thrombolysis, endovascular therapy or both. Successful recanalisation on MR or CT angiography at 24 h was more often observed in thrombolysed than in non-thrombolysed patients (78.9% versus 10.5%; p<0.001). Neurological deterioration (increase of NIHSS score ≥1 compared to baseline) was observed in 22.7% of non-thrombolysed versus 10.3% of thrombolysed after 24 h (p=0.002), in 33.3% versus 12.5% at hospital discharge (p=0.015) and in 41.4% versus 15% at 3 months (p<0.001). Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage occurred in two (asymptomatic in five) thrombolysed and in none (asymptomatic in three) non-thrombolysed. Thrombolysis was an independent predictor of favourable outcome (p=0.030) but not survival (p=0.606) at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Non-thrombolysed patients with mild deficits and large vessel occlusion deteriorated significantly more often within 3 months than thrombolysed patients. Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhages occurred in less than 5% of patients in both groups. These data suggest that thrombolysis is safe and effective in these patients. Therefore, randomised trials in patients with large vessel occlusions and mild or rapidly improving symptoms are needed.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 09/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106327. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting.
    European Radiology 08/2014; · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Patients with prior stroke within 3 months have been mostly excluded from randomized thrombolysis trials mainly because of the fear of an increased rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The aim of this study was to compare baseline characteristics and clinical outcome of thrombolyzed patients who had a previous stroke within the last 3 months with those not fulfilling this criterion (comparison group). Methods: In all, 1217 patients were included in our analysis (42.2% women, mean age 68.8 � 14.4 years). Results: Patients with previous stroke within the last 3 months (17/1.4%) had more often a basilar artery occlusion (41.2% vs. 10.8%) and less frequently a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 0–1 prior to index stroke (88.2% vs. 97.3%) and a higher mean time lapse from symptom onset to thrombolysis (321 min vs. 262 min) than those in the comparison group. Stroke severity was not different between the two groups. Rates of sICH were 11.8% vs. 6%. None of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. At 3 months, favorable outcome (mRS ≤ 2) in patients with previous stroke within 3 months was 29.4% (vs. 48.9%) and mortality 41.2% (vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: In patients with prior stroke within the last 3 months, none of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. The high mortality was influenced by four patients, who died until discharge due to acute major index stroke. It is reasonable to include these patients in randomized clinical trials and registries to assess further their thrombolysis benefit�risk ratio.
    European Journal of Neurology 07/2014; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7 to 12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical gray matter thinning occurs during childhood due to pruning of inefficient synaptic connections and an increase in myelination. Preterms show alterations in brain structure, with prolonged maturation of the frontal lobes, smaller cortical volumes and reduced white matter volume. These findings give rise to the question if there is a differential influence of age on cortical thinning in preterms compared to controls.
    Early Human Development 06/2014; 90(9):443-450. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients generally experience less favorable outcomes and higher mortality after acute stroke than younger patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of age on outcome and safety after endovascular therapy in a large cohort of patients aged between 20 and 90 years. We prospectively acquired data of 1,000 stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy at a single center. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of outcome and linear regression analysis to evaluate the association of age and outcome after 3 months. Younger age was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (OR 0.954, p < 0.001) and survival (OR 0.947, p < 0.001) in multivariate regression analysis. There was a linear relationship between age and outcome. Ever increase in 26 years of age was associated with an increase in the modified Rankin Scale of 1 point (p < 0.001). However, increasing age was not a risk factor for symptomatic (p = 0.086) or asymptomatic (p = 0.674) intracerebral hemorrhage and did not influence recanalization success (p = 0.674). Advancing age was associated with a decline of favorable outcomes and survival after endovascular therapy. This decline was linear from age 20 to 90 years, but was not related to lower recanalization rates or higher bleeding risk in the elderly. The efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy seems to be preserved also in the elderly and other factors than efficacy of endovascular therapy such as decreased plasticity are likely to explain the worse outcome with advancing age.
    Journal of Neurology 06/2014; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) enables visualization of thrombotic material in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to validate the accuracy of thrombus depiction on SWI compared to time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA), first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MRA (GE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Furthermore, we analysed the impact of thrombus length on reperfusion success with endovascular therapy. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions undergoing endovascular recanalization were screened. Only patients with a pretreatment SWI were included. Thrombus visibility and location on SWI were compared to those on TOF-MRA, GE-MRA and DSA. The association between thrombus length on SWI and reperfusion success was studied. Eighty-four of the 88 patients included (95.5 %) showed an MCA thrombus on SWI. Strong correlations between thrombus location on SWI and that on TOF-MRA (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.918, P < 0.001), GE-MRA (0.887, P < 0.001) and DSA (0.841, P < 0.001) were observed. Successful reperfusion was not significantly related to thrombus length on SWI (P = 0.153; binary logistic regression). In MCA occlusion thrombus location as seen on SWI correlates well with angiographic findings. In contrast to intravenous thrombolysis, thrombus length appears to have no impact on reperfusion success of endovascular therapy. • SWI helps in assessing location and length of thrombi in the MCA • SWI, MRA and DSA are equivalent in detecting the MCA occlusion site • SWI is superior in identifying the distal end of the thrombus • Stent retrievers should be deployed over the distal thrombus end • Thrombus length did not affect success of endovascular reperfusion guided by SWI.
    European Radiology 05/2014; · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) visible on MRI in acute stroke increase the risk for intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) or worse outcome after thrombolysis is unresolved. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of CMB detected with pretreatment susceptibility-weighted MRI on ICH occurrence and outcome. From 2010 to 2013 we treated 724 patients with intravenous thrombolysis, endovascular therapy, or intravenous thrombolysis followed by endovascular therapy. A total of 392 of the 724 patients were examined with susceptibility-weighted MRI before treatment. CMBs were rated retrospectively. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the impact of CMB on ICH and outcome. Of 392 patients, 174 were treated with intravenous thrombolysis, 150 with endovascular therapy, and 68 with intravenous thrombolysis followed by endovascular therapy. CMBs were detected in 79 (20.2%) patients. Symptomatic ICH occurred in 21 (5.4%) and asymptomatic in 75 (19.1%) patients, thereof 61 (15.6%) bleedings within and 35 (8.9%) outside the infarct. Neither the existence of CMB, their burden, predominant location nor their presumed pathogenesis influenced the risk for symptomatic or asymptomatic ICH. A higher CMB burden marginally increased the risk for ICH outside the infarct (P=0.048; odds ratio, 1.004; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.008). CMB detected on pretreatment susceptibility-weighted MRI did not increase the risk for ICH or worsen outcome, even when CMB burden, predominant location, or presumed pathogenesis was considered. There was only a small increased risk for ICH outside the infarct with increasing CMB burden that does not advise against thrombolysis in such patients.
    Stroke 04/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) accounts for more than half of the total radiation exposure from medical procedures, which makes dose reduction in CT an effective means of reducing radiation exposure. We analysed the dose reduction that can be achieved with a new CT scanner [Somatom Edge (E)] that incorporates new developments in hardware (detector) and software (iterative reconstruction). We compared weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values of 25 consecutive patients studied with non-enhanced standard brain CT with the new scanner and with two previous models each, a 64-slice 64-row multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner with 64 rows (S64) and a 16-slice 16-row MDCT scanner with 16 rows (S16). We analysed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in images from the three scanners and performed a quality rating by three neuroradiologists to analyse whether dose reduction techniques still yield sufficient diagnostic quality. CTDIVol of scanner E was 41.5 and 36.4 % less than the values of scanners S16 and S64, respectively; the DLP values were 40 and 38.3 % less. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios were best in S64; these differences also reached statistical significance. Image analysis, however, showed "non-inferiority" of scanner E regarding image quality. The first experience with the new scanner shows that new dose reduction techniques allow for up to 40 % dose reduction while still maintaining image quality at a diagnostically usable level.
    Clinical neuroradiology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical benefit of preventive eradication of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations remains uncertain. A Randomised trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) aims to compare the risk of death and symptomatic stroke in patients with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation who are allocated to either medical management alone or medical management with interventional therapy. Methods Adult patients (≥18 years) with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation were enrolled into this trial at 39 clinical sites in nine countries. Patients were randomised (by web-based system, in a 1:1 ratio, with random permuted block design [block size 2, 4, or 6], stratified by clinical site) to medical management with interventional therapy (ie, neurosurgery, embolisation, or stereotactic radiotherapy, alone or in combination) or medical management alone (ie, pharmacological therapy for neurological symptoms as needed). Patients, clinicians, and investigators are aware of treatment assignment. The primary outcome is time to the composite endpoint of death or symptomatic stroke; the primary analysis is by intention to treat. This trial is registered with, number NCT00389181. Findings Randomisation was started on April 4, 2007, and was stopped on April 15, 2013, when a data and safety monitoring board appointed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health recommended halting randomisation because of superiority of the medical management group (log-rank Z statistic of 4·10, exceeding the prespecified stopping boundary value of 2·87). At this point, outcome data were available for 223 patients (mean follow-up 33·3 months [SD 19·7]), 114 assigned to interventional therapy and 109 to medical management. The primary endpoint had been reached by 11 (10·1%) patients in the medical management group compared with 35 (30·7%) in the interventional therapy group. The risk of death or stroke was significantly lower in the medical management group than in the interventional therapy group (hazard ratio 0·27, 95% CI 0·14–0·54). No harms were identified, other than a higher number of strokes (45 vs 12, p<0·0001) and neurological deficits unrelated to stroke (14 vs 1, p=0·0008) in patients allocated to interventional therapy compared with medical management. Interpretation The ARUBA trial showed that medical management alone is superior to medical management with interventional therapy for the prevention of death or stroke in patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations followed up for 33 months. The trial is continuing its observational phase to establish whether the disparities will persist over an additional 5 years of follow-up. Funding National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
    The Lancet 01/2014; 383(9917):614–621. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The extent of hypoperfusion is an important prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have postulated that the extent of prominent cortical veins (PCV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) reflects the extent of hypoperfusion. Our aim was to investigate, whether there is an association between PCV and the grade of leptomeningeal arterial collateralization in acute ischemic stroke. In addition, we analysed the correlation between SWI and perfusion-MRI findings. Methods 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a thromboembolic M1-segment occlusion underwent MRI followed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and were subdivided into two groups with very good to good and moderate to no leptomeningeal collaterals according to the DSA. The extent of PCV on SWI, diffusion restriction (DR) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and prolonged mean transit time (MTT) on perfusion-imaging were graded according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS).The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission and the time between symptom onset and MRI were documented. Results 20 patients showed very good to good and 13 patients poor to no collateralization. PCV-ASPECTS was significantly higher for cases with good leptomeningeal collaterals versus those with poor leptomeningeal collaterals (mean 4.1 vs. 2.69; p = 0.039). MTT-ASPECTS was significantly lower than PCV-ASPECTS in all 33 patients (mean 1.0 vs. 3.5; P < 0.00). Conclusions In our small study the grade of leptomeningeal collateralization correlates with the extent of PCV in SWI in acute ischemic stroke, due to the deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin ratio. Consequently, extensive PCV correlate with poor leptomeningeal collateralization while less pronounced PCV correlate with good leptomeningeal collateralization. Further SWI is a very helpful tool in detecting tissue at risk but cannot replace PWI since MTT detects significantly more ill-perfused areas than SWI, especially in good collateralized subjects.
    European Journal of Radiology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) are at risk of ipsilateral stroke and chronic compromise of cerebral blood flow. It is under debate whether the hypo-perfusion or embolism in CAS is directly related to cognitive impairment. Alternatively, CAS may be a marker for underlying risk factors, which themselves influence cognition. We aimed to determine cognitive performance level and the emotional state of patients with CAS. We hypo-thesised that patients with high grade stenosis, bilateral stenosis, symptomatic patients and/or those with relevant risk factors would suffer impairment of their cognitive performance and emotional state.
    Swiss medical weekly: official journal of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases, the Swiss Society of Internal Medicine, the Swiss Society of Pneumology 01/2014; 144:w13970. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on oxygenation changes noninvasively recorded by multichannel continuous-wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) during endovascular neuroradiologic interventions requiring temporary balloon occlusion of arteries supplying the cerebral circulation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides reference data on the site, timing, and effectiveness of the flow stagnation as well as on the amount and direction of collateral circulation. This setting allows us to relate CW-NIRS findings to brain specific perfusion changes. We focused our analysis on the transition from normal perfusion to vessel occlusion, i.e., before hypoxia becomes clinically apparent. The localization of the maximal response correlated either with the core (occlusion of the middle cerebral artery) or with the watershed areas (occlusion of the internal carotid artery) of the respective vascular territories. In one patient with clinically and angiographically confirmed insufficient collateral flow during carotid artery occlusion, the total hemoglobin concentration became significantly asymmetric, with decreased values in the ipsilateral watershed area and contralaterally increased values. Multichannel CW-NIRS monitoring might serve as an objective and early predictive marker of critical perfusion changes during interventions-to prevent hypoxic damage of the brain. It also might provide valuable human reference data on oxygenation changes as they typically occur during acute stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 4 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.207.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,209.89 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • • University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • Universität Bern
      • • Institute for Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Psychiatric Neurophysiologie
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2010
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Zurich
      • Division of Neuropsychology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2000
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany