Gerhard Schroth

Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland

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Publications (332)1100.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting.
    European radiology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Patients with prior stroke within 3 months have been mostly excluded from randomized thrombolysis trials mainly because of the fear of an increased rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). The aim of this study was to compare baseline characteristics and clinical outcome of thrombolyzed patients who had a previous stroke within the last 3 months with those not fulfilling this criterion (comparison group). Methods: In all, 1217 patients were included in our analysis (42.2% women, mean age 68.8 � 14.4 years). Results: Patients with previous stroke within the last 3 months (17/1.4%) had more often a basilar artery occlusion (41.2% vs. 10.8%) and less frequently a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 0–1 prior to index stroke (88.2% vs. 97.3%) and a higher mean time lapse from symptom onset to thrombolysis (321 min vs. 262 min) than those in the comparison group. Stroke severity was not different between the two groups. Rates of sICH were 11.8% vs. 6%. None of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. At 3 months, favorable outcome (mRS ≤ 2) in patients with previous stroke within 3 months was 29.4% (vs. 48.9%) and mortality 41.2% (vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: In patients with prior stroke within the last 3 months, none of the sICHs and only one asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in the region of the former infarct. The high mortality was influenced by four patients, who died until discharge due to acute major index stroke. It is reasonable to include these patients in randomized clinical trials and registries to assess further their thrombolysis benefit�risk ratio.
    European Journal of Neurology 07/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical gray matter thinning occurs during childhood due to pruning of inefficient synaptic connections and an increase in myelination. Preterms show alterations in brain structure, with prolonged maturation of the frontal lobes, smaller cortical volumes and reduced white matter volume. These findings give rise to the question if there is a differential influence of age on cortical thinning in preterms compared to controls.
    Early human development. 06/2014; 90(9):443-450.
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    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients generally experience less favorable outcomes and higher mortality after acute stroke than younger patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of age on outcome and safety after endovascular therapy in a large cohort of patients aged between 20 and 90 years. We prospectively acquired data of 1,000 stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy at a single center. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of outcome and linear regression analysis to evaluate the association of age and outcome after 3 months. Younger age was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (OR 0.954, p < 0.001) and survival (OR 0.947, p < 0.001) in multivariate regression analysis. There was a linear relationship between age and outcome. Ever increase in 26 years of age was associated with an increase in the modified Rankin Scale of 1 point (p < 0.001). However, increasing age was not a risk factor for symptomatic (p = 0.086) or asymptomatic (p = 0.674) intracerebral hemorrhage and did not influence recanalization success (p = 0.674). Advancing age was associated with a decline of favorable outcomes and survival after endovascular therapy. This decline was linear from age 20 to 90 years, but was not related to lower recanalization rates or higher bleeding risk in the elderly. The efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy seems to be preserved also in the elderly and other factors than efficacy of endovascular therapy such as decreased plasticity are likely to explain the worse outcome with advancing age.
    Journal of Neurology 06/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) enables visualization of thrombotic material in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to validate the accuracy of thrombus depiction on SWI compared to time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA), first-pass gadolinium-enhanced MRA (GE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Furthermore, we analysed the impact of thrombus length on reperfusion success with endovascular therapy. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions undergoing endovascular recanalization were screened. Only patients with a pretreatment SWI were included. Thrombus visibility and location on SWI were compared to those on TOF-MRA, GE-MRA and DSA. The association between thrombus length on SWI and reperfusion success was studied. Eighty-four of the 88 patients included (95.5 %) showed an MCA thrombus on SWI. Strong correlations between thrombus location on SWI and that on TOF-MRA (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.918, P < 0.001), GE-MRA (0.887, P < 0.001) and DSA (0.841, P < 0.001) were observed. Successful reperfusion was not significantly related to thrombus length on SWI (P = 0.153; binary logistic regression). In MCA occlusion thrombus location as seen on SWI correlates well with angiographic findings. In contrast to intravenous thrombolysis, thrombus length appears to have no impact on reperfusion success of endovascular therapy. • SWI helps in assessing location and length of thrombi in the MCA • SWI, MRA and DSA are equivalent in detecting the MCA occlusion site • SWI is superior in identifying the distal end of the thrombus • Stent retrievers should be deployed over the distal thrombus end • Thrombus length did not affect success of endovascular reperfusion guided by SWI.
    European Radiology 05/2014; · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) visible on MRI in acute stroke increase the risk for intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) or worse outcome after thrombolysis is unresolved. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of CMB detected with pretreatment susceptibility-weighted MRI on ICH occurrence and outcome. From 2010 to 2013 we treated 724 patients with intravenous thrombolysis, endovascular therapy, or intravenous thrombolysis followed by endovascular therapy. A total of 392 of the 724 patients were examined with susceptibility-weighted MRI before treatment. CMBs were rated retrospectively. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the impact of CMB on ICH and outcome. Of 392 patients, 174 were treated with intravenous thrombolysis, 150 with endovascular therapy, and 68 with intravenous thrombolysis followed by endovascular therapy. CMBs were detected in 79 (20.2%) patients. Symptomatic ICH occurred in 21 (5.4%) and asymptomatic in 75 (19.1%) patients, thereof 61 (15.6%) bleedings within and 35 (8.9%) outside the infarct. Neither the existence of CMB, their burden, predominant location nor their presumed pathogenesis influenced the risk for symptomatic or asymptomatic ICH. A higher CMB burden marginally increased the risk for ICH outside the infarct (P=0.048; odds ratio, 1.004; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.008). CMB detected on pretreatment susceptibility-weighted MRI did not increase the risk for ICH or worsen outcome, even when CMB burden, predominant location, or presumed pathogenesis was considered. There was only a small increased risk for ICH outside the infarct with increasing CMB burden that does not advise against thrombolysis in such patients.
    Stroke 04/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) accounts for more than half of the total radiation exposure from medical procedures, which makes dose reduction in CT an effective means of reducing radiation exposure. We analysed the dose reduction that can be achieved with a new CT scanner [Somatom Edge (E)] that incorporates new developments in hardware (detector) and software (iterative reconstruction). We compared weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values of 25 consecutive patients studied with non-enhanced standard brain CT with the new scanner and with two previous models each, a 64-slice 64-row multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner with 64 rows (S64) and a 16-slice 16-row MDCT scanner with 16 rows (S16). We analysed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in images from the three scanners and performed a quality rating by three neuroradiologists to analyse whether dose reduction techniques still yield sufficient diagnostic quality. CTDIVol of scanner E was 41.5 and 36.4 % less than the values of scanners S16 and S64, respectively; the DLP values were 40 and 38.3 % less. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios were best in S64; these differences also reached statistical significance. Image analysis, however, showed "non-inferiority" of scanner E regarding image quality. The first experience with the new scanner shows that new dose reduction techniques allow for up to 40 % dose reduction while still maintaining image quality at a diagnostically usable level.
    Clinical neuroradiology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7 to 12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106327. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The extent of hypoperfusion is an important prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have postulated that the extent of prominent cortical veins (PCV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) reflects the extent of hypoperfusion. Our aim was to investigate, whether there is an association between PCV and the grade of leptomeningeal arterial collateralization in acute ischemic stroke. In addition, we analysed the correlation between SWI and perfusion-MRI findings. Methods 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a thromboembolic M1-segment occlusion underwent MRI followed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and were subdivided into two groups with very good to good and moderate to no leptomeningeal collaterals according to the DSA. The extent of PCV on SWI, diffusion restriction (DR) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and prolonged mean transit time (MTT) on perfusion-imaging were graded according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS).The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission and the time between symptom onset and MRI were documented. Results 20 patients showed very good to good and 13 patients poor to no collateralization. PCV-ASPECTS was significantly higher for cases with good leptomeningeal collaterals versus those with poor leptomeningeal collaterals (mean 4.1 vs. 2.69; p = 0.039). MTT-ASPECTS was significantly lower than PCV-ASPECTS in all 33 patients (mean 1.0 vs. 3.5; P < 0.00). Conclusions In our small study the grade of leptomeningeal collateralization correlates with the extent of PCV in SWI in acute ischemic stroke, due to the deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin ratio. Consequently, extensive PCV correlate with poor leptomeningeal collateralization while less pronounced PCV correlate with good leptomeningeal collateralization. Further SWI is a very helpful tool in detecting tissue at risk but cannot replace PWI since MTT detects significantly more ill-perfused areas than SWI, especially in good collateralized subjects.
    European Journal of Radiology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS) are at risk of ipsilateral stroke and chronic compromise of cerebral blood flow. It is under debate whether the hypo-perfusion or embolism in CAS is directly related to cognitive impairment. Alternatively, CAS may be a marker for underlying risk factors, which themselves influence cognition. We aimed to determine cognitive performance level and the emotional state of patients with CAS. We hypo-thesised that patients with high grade stenosis, bilateral stenosis, symptomatic patients and/or those with relevant risk factors would suffer impairment of their cognitive performance and emotional state.
    Swiss medical weekly. 01/2014; 144:w13970.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on oxygenation changes noninvasively recorded by multichannel continuous-wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) during endovascular neuroradiologic interventions requiring temporary balloon occlusion of arteries supplying the cerebral circulation. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides reference data on the site, timing, and effectiveness of the flow stagnation as well as on the amount and direction of collateral circulation. This setting allows us to relate CW-NIRS findings to brain specific perfusion changes. We focused our analysis on the transition from normal perfusion to vessel occlusion, i.e., before hypoxia becomes clinically apparent. The localization of the maximal response correlated either with the core (occlusion of the middle cerebral artery) or with the watershed areas (occlusion of the internal carotid artery) of the respective vascular territories. In one patient with clinically and angiographically confirmed insufficient collateral flow during carotid artery occlusion, the total hemoglobin concentration became significantly asymmetric, with decreased values in the ipsilateral watershed area and contralaterally increased values. Multichannel CW-NIRS monitoring might serve as an objective and early predictive marker of critical perfusion changes during interventions-to prevent hypoxic damage of the brain. It also might provide valuable human reference data on oxygenation changes as they typically occur during acute stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 4 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.207.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stent retrievers have become an important tool for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to analyze outcome and complications in a large cohort of patients with stroke treated with the Solitaire stent retriever. The study also included patients who did not meet standard inclusion criteria for endovascular treatment: low or high baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≥80 years of age, extensive ischemic signs in middle cerebral artery territory, and time from symptom onset to endovascular intervention >8 hours. Consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation stroke treated with the Solitaire FR were analyzed. Data on characteristics of endovascular interventions, complications, and clinical outcome were collected prospectively. Patients who met standard inclusion criteria were compared with those who did not. A total of 227 patients were included. Mean age was 68.2±14.7 years, and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was 16 (range, 2-36). Reperfusion was successful (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction, 2b-3) in 70.9%. Outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2) in 57.7% of patients who met standard inclusion criteria and 30.3% of those who did not. The rates for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were 3.7% and 13.1%, for death 11.4% and 33.8%, and for symptomatic intraprocedural complications 2.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Patients <80 years of age, without extensive pretreatment ischemic signs, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤30 had high rates of favorable outcome and low periprocedural complication rates after Solitaire thrombectomy. Successful reperfusion was also common in patients not fulfilling standard inclusion criteria, but worse clinical outcomes warrant further research with a special focus on optimal patient selection.
    Stroke 11/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of acute stroke treatment with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular recanalization techniques is to rescue the penumbral tissue. Therefore, knowing the factors that influence the loss of penumbral tissue is of major interest. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the evolution of the penumbra in patients with proximal (M1 or M2) middle cerebral artery occlusion. Among these factors collaterals as seen on angiography were of special interest. Forty-four patients were included in this analysis. They had all received endovascular therapy and at least minimal reperfusion was achieved. Their penumbra was assessed with perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging. Perfusion-weighted imaging volumes were defined by circular singular value decomposition deconvolution maps (Tmax > 6 s) and results were compared with volumes obtained with non-deconvolved maps (time to peak > 4 s). Loss of penumbral volume was defined as difference of post- minus pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging volumes and calculated in per cent of pretreatment penumbral volume. Correlations between baseline characteristics, reperfusion, collaterals, time to reperfusion and penumbral volume loss were assessed using analysis of covariance. Collaterals (P = 0.021), reperfusion (P = 0.003) and their interaction (P = 0.031) independently influenced penumbral tissue loss, but not time from magnetic resonance (P = 0.254) or from symptom onset (P = 0.360) to reperfusion. Good collaterals markedly slowed down and reduced the penumbra loss: in patients with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2 b-3 reperfusion and without any haemorrhage, 27% of the penumbra was lost with 8.9 ml/h with grade 0 collaterals, whereas 11% with 3.4 ml/h were lost with grade 1 collaterals. With grade 2 collaterals the penumbral volume change was -2% with -1.5 ml/h, indicating an overall diffusion-weighted imaging lesion reversal. We conclude that collaterals and reperfusion are the main factors determining loss of penumbral tissue in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusions. Collaterals markedly reduce and slow down penumbra loss. In patients with good collaterals, time to successful reperfusion accounts only for a minor fraction of penumbra loss. These results support the hypothesis that good collaterals extend the time window for acute stroke treatment.
    Brain 09/2013; · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object The risk of recurrence of cerebrovascular events within the first 72 hours of admission in patients hospitalized with symptomatic carotid artery (CA) stenoses and the risks and benefits of emergency CA intervention within the first hours after the onset of symptoms are not well known. Therefore, the authors aimed to assess 1) the ipsilateral recurrence rate within 72 hours of admission, in the period from 72 hours to 7 days, and after 7 days in patients presenting with nondisabling stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or amaurosis fugax (AF), and with an ipsilateral symptomatic CA stenosis of 50% or more, and 2) the risk of stroke in CA interventions within 48 hours of admission versus the risk in interventions performed after 48 hours. Methods Ninety-four patients were included in this study. These patients were admitted to hospital within 48 hours of a nondisabling stroke, TIA, or AF resulting from a symptomatic CA stenosis of 50% or more. The patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (85 patients) or CA stenting (9 patients). At baseline, the cardiovascular risk factors of the patients, the degree of symptomatic CA stenosis, and the type of secondary preventive treatment were assessed. The in-hospital recurrence rate of stroke, TIA, or AF ipsilateral to the symptomatic CA stenosis was determined for the first 72 hours after admission, from 72 hours to 7 days, and after 7 days. Procedure-related cerebrovascular events were also recorded. Results The median time from symptom onset to CA intervention was 5 days (interquartile range 3.00-9.25 days). Twenty-one patients (22.3%) underwent CA intervention within 48 hours after being admitted. Overall, 15 recurrent cerebrovascular events were observed in 12 patients (12.8%) in the period between admission and CA intervention: 3 strokes (2 strokes in progress and 1 stroke) (3.2%), 5 TIAs (5.3%), and 1 AF (1.1%) occurred within the first 72 hours (total 9.6%) of admission; 1 TIA (1.1%) occurred between 72 hours and 7 days, and 5 TIAs (5.3%) occurred after more than 7 days. The corresponding actuarial cerebrovascular recurrence rates were 11.4% (within 72 hours of admission), 2.4% (between 72 hours and 7 days), and 7.9% (after 7 days). Among baseline characteristics, no predictive factors for cerebrovascular recurrence were identified. Procedure-related cerebrovascular events occurred at a rate of 4.3% (3 strokes and 1 TIA), and procedures performed within the first 48 hours and procedures performed after 48 hours had a similar frequency of these events (4.5% vs 4.1%, respectively; p = 0.896). Conclusions The in-hospital recurrence of cerebrovascular events was quite low, but all recurrent strokes occurred within 72 hours. The risk of stroke associated with a CA intervention performed within the first 48 hours was not increased compared with that for later interventions. This raises the question of the optimal timing of CA intervention in symptomatic CA stenosis. To answer this question, more data are needed, preferably from large randomized trials.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 08/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-parametric and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have come into the focus of interest, both as a research and diagnostic modality for the evaluation of patients suffering from mild cognitive decline and overt dementia. In this study we address the question, if disease related quantitative magnetization transfer effects (qMT) within the intra- and extracellular matrices of the hippocampus may aid in the differentiation between clinically diagnosed patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. We evaluated 22 patients with AD (n = 12) and MCI (n = 10) and 22 healthy elderly (n = 12) and younger (n = 10) controls with multi-parametric MRI. Neuropsychological testing was performed in patients and elderly controls (n = 34). In order to quantify the qMT effects, the absorption spectrum was sampled at relevant off-resonance frequencies. The qMT-parameters were calculated according to a two-pool spin-bath model including the T1- and T2 relaxation parameters of the free pool, determined in separate experiments. Histograms (fixed bin-size) of the normalized qMT-parameter values (z-scores) within the anterior and posterior hippocampus (hippocampal head and body) were subjected to a fuzzy-c-means classification algorithm with downstreamed PCA projection. The within-cluster sums of point-to-centroid distances were used to examine the effects of qMT- and diffusion anisotropy parameters on the discrimination of healthy volunteers, patients with Alzheimer and MCIs. The qMT-parameters T2r (T2 of the restricted pool) and F (fractional pool size) differentiated between the three groups (control, MCI and AD) in the anterior hippocampus. In our cohort, the MT ratio, as proposed in previous reports, did not differentiate between MCI and AD or healthy controls and MCI, but between healthy controls and AD.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever devices have been advocated to increase revascularization in intracranial vessel occlusion. We present the results of a large prospective study on the use of the Solitaire Flow Restoration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Solitaire Flow Restoration Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire Flow Restoration thrombectomy in patients with large vessel anterior circulation strokes treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Strict criteria for site selection were applied. The primary end point was the revascularization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) of the occluded vessel as determined by an independent core laboratory. The secondary end point was the rate of good functional outcome (defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale, 0-2). A total of 202 patients were enrolled across 14 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The median age was 72 years, 60% were female patients. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 17. Most proximal intracranial occlusion was the internal carotid artery in 18%, and the middle cerebral artery in 82%. Successful revascularization was achieved in 79.2% of patients. Device and procedure-related severe adverse events were found in 7.4%. Favorable neurological outcome was found in 57.9%. The mortality rate was 6.9%. Any intracranial hemorrhagic transformation was found in 18.8% of patients, 1.5% were symptomatic. In this single-arm study, treatment with the Solitaire Flow Restoration device in intracranial anterior circulation occlusions results in high rates of revascularization, low risk of clinically relevant procedural complications, and good clinical outcomes in combination with low mortality at 90 days. Unique identifier: NCT01327989.
    Stroke 08/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,100.45 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2014
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • • University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • Universität Bern
      • • Institute for Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Psychiatric Neurophysiologie
      Bern, BE, Switzerland
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2010
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2008
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 1999–2001
    • University of Zurich
      • Division of Neuropsychology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2000
    • University of Duisburg-Essen
      Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany