Brett D Owens

Keller Army Community Hospital , West Point, New York, United States

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Publications (144)262.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A medial collateral ligament (MCL) knee sprain is a prevalent injury in athletic populations that may result in significant time lost to injury. Remarkably little is known of the epidemiology of this injury. PURPOSE:To define the incidence of MCL tears and to determine the demographic and athletic risk factors. STUDY DESIGN:Descriptive epidemiological study. METHODS:A longitudinal cohort study was performed to examine the epidemiology of isolated MCL sprains at the United States Military Academy (USMA) between 2005 and 2009. Charts and radiographic studies were reviewed by an independent orthopaedic surgeon to identify all new isolated MCL sprains resulting in time lost to sport and activity that occurred within the study period. Incidence rates (IRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated per 1000 person-years at risk and by sex, sport, and level of competition. The IR per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) was also determined. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and respective 95% CIs were calculated between male and female students, intercollegiate and intramural athletes, and male and female intercollegiate athletes involved in selected sports. Chi-square and Poisson regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between the variables of interest and the incidence of MCL sprains, with statistical significance set at P < .05. RESULTS:A total of 128 cadets sustained isolated MCL injuries during 17,606 student person-years from 2005 to 2009. This resulted in an IR of approximately 7.3 per 1000 person-years. Of the 128 injuries, 114 were in male athletes (89%) and 14 were in female athletes (11%). Male cadets had a 44% higher IR than did female cadets (7.60 vs 5.36, respectively), although this was not significant (P = .212). Of 5820 at-risk intercollegiate athletes, 59 (53 male, 6 female) sustained an isolated MCL sprain during 528,523 (407,475 male, 121,048 female) AEs for an overall IR of 10.14 per 1000 person-years and 0.11 per 1000 AEs. The IRR of MCL sprains of men compared with women involved in intercollegiate athletics was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.24-8.18) per 1000 person-years and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.13-7.47) per 1000 AEs. Of 21,805 at-risk intramural athletes, with quarterly participation, 16 (all male) sustained isolated MCL injuries during 225,683 AEs for an overall IR of 0.07 per 1000 AEs. The IRs of MCL injuries of intercollegiate and intramural athletes did not differ significantly. In intercollegiate sports, wrestling (0.57), judo (0.36), hockey (0.34), and rugby (men's, 0.22; women's, 0.23) had the highest IRs per 1000 AEs. When examining men's intercollegiate athletics, the IRRs of wrestling (13.41; 95% CI, 1.80-595.27) and hockey (8.12; 95% CI, 0.91-384.16) were significantly higher compared with that of lacrosse. Among women's intercollegiate sports as well as intramural sports, there were no significant differences in IRs. A median of 16 days was lost to injury, with 2407 total days lost for all injuries. Grade 1 MCL injuries lost a median of 13.5 days, while higher grade injuries lost a median of 29 days. CONCLUSION:Medial collateral ligament injuries are relatively common in athletic cohorts. The most injurious sports are contact sports such as wrestling, hockey, judo, and rugby. Male athletes are at a greater risk than female athletes. Intercollegiate athletes are at a greater risk than intramural athletes. The average amount of time lost per injury was 23.2 days, with greater time lost with higher grade sprains than grade 1 sprains.
    The American journal of sports medicine 03/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify the rate of surgical failure after anterior shoulder stabilization procedures, as well as to identify demographic and surgical risk factors associated with poor outcomes. All Army patients undergoing arthroscopic or open Bankart repair for shoulder instability were isolated from the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool between 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables (age, gender) and surgical variables (treatment facility volume, admission status, surgical technique) were extracted. Rates of surgical failure, defined as subsequent revision surgery or medical discharge with persistent shoulder complaints, were recorded from the electronic medical record and US Army Physical Disability Agency database. Risk factor analysis was performed with univariate t tests, χ(2) tests, and a multivariable logistic regression model with failure as the outcome. A total of 3,854 patients underwent Bankart repair during the study period, with most procedures having been performed arthroscopically (n = 3,230, 84%) and on an outpatient basis (n = 3,255, 84%). Patients were predominately men (n = 3,531, 92%), and the mean age was 28.0 years (SD, 7.5 years). A total of 193 patients (5.0%) underwent revision stabilization whereas 339 patients (8.8%) were medically discharged with complaints of shoulder instability, for a total combined failure rate of 13.8% (n = 532). Univariate analyses showed no significant effect for gender; however, younger age, higher facility volume, open repair, and inpatient status were significant factors associated with subsequent surgical failure. Multivariable analyses confirmed that young age (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 0.96; P < .001), open repair (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.75; P = .001), and inpatient status (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.84; P = .004) were independently associated with failure by revision surgery. Young age remains a significant risk factor for surgical failure after Bankart repair. Patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair had a significantly lower surgical failure rate (4.5%) than patients who underwent open anterior stabilization (7.7%). Despite advances in surgical technique, 1 in 20 military service members required revision surgery after failed primary stabilization in this study. Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 02/2014; 30(2):172-7. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To quantify the rate of surgical failure after anterior shoulder stabilization procedures, as well as to identify demographic and surgical risk factors associated with poor outcomes. Methods All Army patients undergoing arthroscopic or open Bankart repair for shoulder instability were isolated from the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool between 2003 and 2010. Demographic variables (age, gender) and surgical variables (treatment facility volume, admission status, surgical technique) were extracted. Rates of surgical failure, defined as subsequent revision surgery or medical discharge with persistent shoulder complaints, were recorded from the electronic medical record and US Army Physical Disability Agency database. Risk factor analysis was performed with univariate t tests, χ2 tests, and a multivariable logistic regression model with failure as the outcome. Results A total of 3,854 patients underwent Bankart repair during the study period, with most procedures having been performed arthroscopically (n = 3,230, 84%) and on an outpatient basis (n = 3,255, 84%). Patients were predominately men (n = 3,531, 92%), and the mean age was 28.0 years (SD, 7.5 years). A total of 193 patients (5.0%) underwent revision stabilization whereas 339 patients (8.8%) were medically discharged with complaints of shoulder instability, for a total combined failure rate of 13.8% (n = 532). Univariate analyses showed no significant effect for gender; however, younger age, higher facility volume, open repair, and inpatient status were significant factors associated with subsequent surgical failure. Multivariable analyses confirmed that young age (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 0.96; P < .001), open repair (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.75; P = .001), and inpatient status (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.84; P = .004) were independently associated with failure by revision surgery. Conclusions Young age remains a significant risk factor for surgical failure after Bankart repair. Patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair had a significantly lower surgical failure rate (4.5%) than patients who underwent open anterior stabilization (7.7%). Despite advances in surgical technique, 1 in 20 military service members required revision surgery after failed primary stabilization in this study. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 01/2014; 30(2):172–177. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shoulder pathology, particularly SLAP (superior labrum anterior-posterior) lesions, is prevalent in overhead athletes and physically active individuals. The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of SLAP lesions in the military and establish risk factors for diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of all service members diagnosed with a SLAP lesion (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code 840.70) in the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database between 2002 and 2009 was performed. Available epidemiological risk factors including age, sex, race, military rank, and branch of service were evaluated using multivariate Poisson regression analysis, and cumulative and subgroup incidence rates were calculated. During the study period, approximately 23,632 SLAP lesions were diagnosed among a population at risk of 11,082,738, resulting in an adjusted incidence rate of 2.13 per 1,000 person-years. The adjusted annual incidence rate for SLAP lesions increased from 0.31 cases per 1,000 person-years in 2002 to 1.88 cases per 1,000 person-years in 2009, with an average annual increase of 21.2 % (95 % CI 20.7 %, 22.0 %, p < 0.0001) during the study period. Age, sex, race, branch of military service, and military rank were independent risk factors associated with the incidence rate of SLAP lesion (p < 0.01). Male service members were over twofold more likely (IRR, 2.12; 95 % CI 2.01, 2.23) to sustain a SLAP lesion when compared with females. Increasing age category was associated with a statistically significant increase in the incidence rate for SLAP lesions in the present study (p < 0.001). After controlling for the other variables, those individuals of white race, enlisted ranks, or Marine Corps service experienced the highest incidence rates for SLAP. This is the first study to establish the epidemiology of SLAP lesions within an active military cohort in the American population. Sex, age, race, military rank, and branch of military service were all independently associated with the incidence rate of SLAP lesions in this physically active population at high risk for shoulder injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bony avulsion of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare but potentially devastating injury for athletes. Pectoralis major rupture typically occurs in 20 to 39 year-old males. The shoulder region is one of the most frequently injured areas in Judo athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe diagnosis and treatment following a pectoralis major bony avulsion due to an atypical mechanism of injury in a young Judo athlete. A 19-year-old military cadet and competitive judo athlete reported to a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic 7 weeks after incurring a shoulder injury during a judo match. He complained of shoulder pain and weakness with the inability to perform pushups. He presented with horizontal adduction weakness and visible discontinuity of the pectoralis muscle with resisted adduction. Radiographs demonstrated a bony avulsion of the pectoralis major from its humeral attachment. The patient underwent surgical repair of the lesion the next week and was able to resume most military cadet activities within 5 months post-operation. Bony avulsions are exceptionally rare injuries, and are even more uncommon in athletes under the age of 20. It is important for clinicians to perform a thorough history and physical examination in order to avoid missing this diagnosis. Surgery is likely the best option for a young athletic population; while conservative management may be optimal for the older, inactive population. 4.
    International journal of sports physical therapy. 12/2013; 8(6):862-70.
  • Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 09/2013; 5(5):400-1.
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have focused on management of shoulder instability in the adolescent and young adult population. However, a paucity of literature exists regarding shoulder dislocation in the skeletally immature population. The presence of an open physis makes the dislocated pediatric shoulder a challenging clinical problem. In general, management includes prompt reduction and sling immobilization. In athletic patients aged ≥14 years with a Bankart lesion, early surgical intervention may be warranted because of the higher risk of recurrent instability. However, the literature on younger skeletally immature patients is less clear in terms of risk of further instability and the necessity of surgical intervention. In the skeletally immature population, a relatively low rate of recurrent instability after primary dislocation has been reported in the recent literature. Surgical intervention should be considered for patients with recurrent instability.
    The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 09/2013; 21(9):529-537. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although occupational driving has been associated with low back pain, little has been reported on the incidence rates for this disorder. To determine the incidence rate and demographic risk factors of low back pain in an ethnically diverse and physically active population of US military vehicle operators. Retrospective database analysis. All active-duty military service members between 1998 and 2006. Low back pain requiring visit to a health-care provider. A query was performed using the US Defense Medical Epidemiology Database for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for low back pain (724.20). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate of low back pain among military vehicle operators and control subjects per 1,000 person-years, while controlling for sex, race, rank, service, age, and marital status. A total of 8,447,167 person-years of data were investigated. The overall unadjusted low back pain incidence rate for military members whose occupation is vehicle operator was 54.2 per 1,000 person-years. Compared with service members with other occupations, motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for low back pain of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.17). Female motor vehicle operators, compared with males, had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain of 1.45 (95% CI 1.39-1.52). With senior enlisted as the referent category, the junior enlisted rank group of motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain: 1.60 (95% CI 1.52-1.70). Compared with Marine service members, those motor vehicle operators in both the Army, 2.74 (95% CI 2.60-2.89), and the Air Force, 1.98 (95% CI 1.84-2.14), had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain. The adjusted IRRs for the less than 20-year and more than 40-year age groups, compared with the 30- to 39-year age group, were 1.24 (1.15-1.36) and 1.23 (1.10-1.38), respectively. Motor vehicle operators have a small but statistically significantly increased rate of low back pain compared with matched control population.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 08/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:While posterior glenohumeral instability is becoming increasingly common among young athletes, little is known of the risk factors for injury. PURPOSE:To determine the modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for posterior shoulder instability in a high-risk cohort. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS:A prospective cohort study in which 714 young athletes were followed from June 2006 through May 2010 was conducted. Baseline testing included a subjective history of instability, instability testing by a sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon, range of motion, strength measurement with a handheld dynamometer, and bilateral noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. A musculoskeletal radiologist measured glenoid version, height, depth, rotator interval (RI) height, RI width, RI area, and RI index. Participants were followed to document all acute posterior shoulder instability events during the 4-year follow-up period. The time to the posterior shoulder instability event during the follow-up period was the primary outcome of interest. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the data. RESULTS:Complete data on 714 participants were obtained. During the 4-year surveillance period, 46 shoulders sustained documented glenohumeral instability events, of which only 7 were posterior in direction. The baseline factors that were associated with subsequent posterior instability during follow-up were increased glenoid retroversion (P < .0001), increased external rotation strength in adduction (P = .029) and at 45° of abduction (P = .015), and increased internal rotation strength in adduction (P = .038). CONCLUSION:This is the largest known prospective study to follow healthy participants in the development of posterior shoulder instability. Posterior instability represents 10% of all instability events. The most significant risk factor was increased glenoid retroversion. While increased internal/external strength was also associated with subsequent instability, it is unclear whether these strength differences are causative or reactive to the difference in glenoid anatomy. This work confirms that increased glenoid retroversion is a significant prospective risk factor for posterior instability.
    The American journal of sports medicine 08/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Biomarkers of cartilage turnover and joint metabolism have a potential use in detecting early degenerative changes after a traumatic knee joint injury; however, no study has analyzed biomarkers before an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and again after injury or in comparison with a similar group of uninjured controls. HYPOTHESIS:Changes in serum biomarker levels and the ratio of cartilage degradation to synthesis, from baseline to follow-up, would be significantly different between ACL-injured patients and uninjured controls. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:This case-control study was conducted to examine changes in serum biomarkers of cartilage turnover following ACL injury in a young athletic population. Specifically, 2 markers for type II collagen and aggrecan synthesis (CPII and CS846, respectively) and 2 markers of types I and II degradation and type II degradation only (C1,2C and C2C, respectively) were studied. Preinjury baseline serum samples and postinjury follow-up samples were obtained for 45 ACL-injured cases and 45 uninjured controls matched for sex, age, height, and weight. RESULTS:Results revealed significant decreases in C1,2C (P = .042) and C2C (P = .006) over time in the ACL-injured group when compared with the controls. The change in serum concentrations of CS846 from baseline to follow-up was also significantly different between the ACL-injured patients and uninjured controls (P = .002), as was the change between groups in the ratio of C2C:CPII over time (P = .013). No preinjury differences in the ratio of C1,2C:CPII or C2C:CPII were observed between groups; however, postinjury differences were observed for both ratios. CONCLUSION:Changes in biomarker concentrations after an ACL injury suggest an alteration in cartilage turnover and joint metabolism in those sustaining ACL injuries compared with uninjured matched controls.
    The American journal of sports medicine 07/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Collegiate Athletic Association classifies women's rugby as an emerging sport. Few studies have examined the injury rates in women's collegiate rugby or compared injury rates between sexes. Injury rates will differ between female and male intercollegiate club rugby players. Descriptive epidemiological study. Five years of injury data were collected from the men's and women's rugby teams at a US service academy using the institution's injury surveillance system. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence rate of injury during the study period per 10,000 athlete exposures. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using a Poisson distribution to compare the rates by sex. During the study period, the overall incidence rate for injury was 30% higher (IRR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.54) among men when compared with women; however, the distribution of injuries varied by sex. The incidence rate for ACL injury among women was 5.3 times (IRR = 5.32, 95% CI: 1.33, 30.53) higher compared with that among men. Men were 2.5 times (IRR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.52) more likely to sustain a fracture. The rate of acromioclavicular joint injury was 2.2 times (IRR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.19) higher among men when compared with women. Men were 6.6 times (IRR = 6.55, 95% CI: 2.65, 20.91) more likely to have an open wound than women. There are differences in injury rates and patterns between female and male American rugby players. The differences in injury patterns may reflect distinct playing styles, which could be the result of the American football background common among many of the male players.
    Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 07/2013; 5(4):327-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There has been increased interest in the number of concussions occurring in college football over the past year. In April 2010, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) published new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of concussions in student athletes. Purpose: To determine the number of concussions that occurred on 3 collegiate Division I military academy football teams prior to and following recent changes in the NCAA concussion management policy. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury reports were reviewed from 3 Division I military academy football teams. The number of concussions that occurred over the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons, including those sustained in practice and game situations, was determined for each team. Incidence rates were compared using the exact binomial method. Results: The combined concussion incidence rate doubled from 0.57 per 1000 athlete exposures in the 2009-2010 season to 1.16 per 1000 athlete exposures in the 2010-2011 season (incidence rate ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.2-3.55; P = 0.01). The combined numbers of concussions for the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons were 23 (40,481 exposures) and 42 (36,228), respectively. Conclusion: The combined incidence rate of concussions for the 2010-2011 season doubled from the previous season after the implementation of new NCAA policies on concussion management. While the institution of a more formalized concussion plan on the part of medical staff is one possible factor, another may have been the increased recognition and reporting on the part of players and coaches after the rule change.
    Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Shoulder instability is a common problem in young athletes and can lead to pain and decreased ability to participate in high-level activities. Little is known about the modifiable risk factors for glenohumeral joint instability. Hypothesis: Isometric shoulder strength at baseline would be a modifiable risk factor associated with subsequent first-time anterior instability events. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Study participants were freshmen entering the United States Military Academy in June 2006. All participants completed bilateral isometric strength evaluations with a hand-held dynamometer at baseline upon entry into the study. Variables measured included internal and external rotation at 0� (IR0, ER0) and internal and external rotation at 45� of abduction (IR45, ER45). All subjects were followed for subsequent glenohumeral joint instability events until graduation in May 2010. Independent t tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Baseline strength data were available for 1316 shoulders with no prior history of instability, of which 26 went on to have an acute first-time anterior shoulder instability event while the individuals were at the academy. There were no significant differences in mean strength between shoulders that did not go on to develop instability (uninjured; n ¼ 1290) and those that did develop anterior instability (injured; n ¼ 26). The mean strength values in pounds of force for uninjured and injured shoulders, respectively, were as follows: IR0 (49.80 vs 49.29; P ¼ .88), ER0 (35.58 vs 33.66; P ¼ .27), IR45 (47.38 vs 46.93; P ¼ .88), and ER45 (40.08 vs 38.98; P ¼ .59). Conclusion: No association was found between isometric shoulder strength measures at baseline and subsequent first-time anterior glenohumeral joint instability within the high-risk athletic population studied in this prospective cohort. Keywords: isometric shoulder strength; shoulder instability; rotator cuff strength; risk factor
    Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 05/2013; 1(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Relaxin was originally described as a reproductive hormone that mediated joint laxity in pregnant women and has been minimally studied in men. The purpose of this descriptive laboratory and clinical study was to evaluate serum relaxin in a young, primarily male population and compare levels between the sexes. In addition, the authors evaluated the relationship between relaxin and generalized laxity.
    Orthopedics 02/2013; 36(2):128-31. · 1.05 Impact Factor
  • Brendan D Masini, Brett D Owens
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    ABSTRACT: Braces are often used during various stages of recovery from an anterior cruciate ligament tear despite there being sparse definitive research supporting their use. This article reviews the literature on brace use for patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears in order to provide a guide for clinicians. There is evidence to support immediate postoperative bracing, with the goals of maintaining full extension and decreasing effusion. There may be a psychological benefit for its use in return to sport; however, this should be weighed against decreased performance. In the context of modern graft-fixation techniques and early mobilization protocols, empiric functional brace prescription is not required for successful long-term clinical outcomes and return to sport.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 02/2013; 41(1):35-9. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Current methods for estimating glenoid bone loss in patients with chronic shoulder instability include computed tomography imaging with 3-dimensional reconstruction, specialized computer software, and imaging of the contralateral shoulder. An ideal method of glenoid measurement would require only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injured shoulder. PURPOSE:To determine whether MRI measurement of glenoid height, as well as sex, could be used to estimate glenoid width in healthy subjects with no history of shoulder instability. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Bilateral shoulder MRIs were obtained in a healthy cohort of young athletes as part of the baseline assessment in a prospective cohort study. A musculoskeletal radiologist measured glenoid height and width using the sagittal MRI cuts. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine whether demographic and MRI measurements of the glenoid could be used to estimate glenoid width. RESULTS:Of the 1264 shoulder MRIs evaluated, the mean glenoid width was 26.67 mm (±2.49 mm), and the mean glenoid height was 42.15 mm (±3.00 mm). There were significant differences between the 129 female glenoids and the 1035 male glenoids for both width (23.1 mm, 27.1 mm, respectively, P < .0001) and height (37.9 mm, 42.7 mm, respectively, P < .0001); however, the relationship between glenoid height and width was similar for both men and women. The glenoid width was found to correlate with the height measurement (r = 0.56) for the entire cohort. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, controlling for the influence of sex, a formula was created that represents the relationship between these variables for male subjects: Glenoid Width = (1/3 Height) + 15 mm. Female patients are estimated with a formula that represents the same slope but a different intercept: W = 1/3 H + 13 mm. CONCLUSION:Significant differences in glenoid height and width were found by sex; however, the relationship between height and width was similar. These variables are correlated, and the resultant formula can be used to estimate the expected glenoid width in a patient with bone loss. This formula allows for easy calculation of the amount of glenoid bone loss with only a ruler and an MRI of the injured shoulder.
    The American journal of sports medicine 01/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The use of patient-reported outcome measures to assess clinical outcomes after injury and surgery has become common in treating young athletes with orthopaedic injuries; however, normative data for these measures are limited and often include a wide range of ages and activity levels. PURPOSE:To provide normative data for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in a young and athletic population, and to compare scores between participants with a history of knee ligament injury and those with no history. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:We administered the KOOS and WOMAC to 1177 college freshmen entering the United States Military Academy in June 2011. All participants were healthy and had been medically screened to meet the physical induction standards for military service. We calculated means, standard deviations, percentiles, ranges, and interquartile ranges for the KOOS and WOMAC by sex and injury history. We also compared median scale scores for those with a history of knee ligament injury with those with no history using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS:Among the 1177 participants, 971 were male (age, 18.8 ± 0.9 years), and the remaining 206 were female (age, 18.7 ± 0.8 years). Normative median values and interquartile ranges (IQRs) for the KOOS scale scores among men with no history of knee ligament injury were the following: Symptoms (96.4; IQR, 10.7), Pain (100; IQR, 2.8), Functional Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (100; IQR, 0.0), Sports and Recreation Function (100; IQR, 5.0), and Knee-Related Quality of Life (QOL) (100; IQR, 12.5). For women with no history of knee ligament injury, the KOOS scale scores were the following: Symptoms (92.9; IQR, 14.3), Pain (100; IQR, 5.6), Functional ADL (100; IQR, 2.9), Sports and Recreation Function (100; IQR, 10.0), and Knee-Related QOL (93.8; IQR, 18.8). Among the men, 139 (14%) reported a history of knee ligament injury, while 33 (16%) women also reported a history of injury. All KOOS scale scores and the WOMAC Stiffness and Function scale scores were significantly lower (P < .05) for men who reported a history of knee ligament injury. Similarly, Symptoms, Pain, and Knee-Related QOL on the KOOS and Pain on the WOMAC were significantly lower among women with a history of knee ligament injury. CONCLUSION:Normative values for all KOOS scales suggest a high level of functioning among participants with no history of knee ligament injury. Despite meeting the medical standards for military service, participants with a history of knee ligament injury had significantly lower KOOS and WOMAC scores upon entry to military service.
    The American journal of sports medicine 01/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In chronic pectoralis tendon tears, primary repair may not be possible and allograft reconstruction may be required. The goal of this study was to report the authors' experience with chronic pectoralis major tendon reconstructions using an Achilles tendon allograft in three military patients. Three consecutive patients presenting with chronic, complete pectoralis major tendon tears underwent reconstruction by a single surgeon using the same described technique at a mean of 22.2 months after initial injury. Final outcomes were assessed at a mean of 24.5 months postoperatively, yielding one excellent and two good results. All patients were satisfied. All patients returned to full active duty military service and recreational weight lifting by 6 months. Achilles allograft reconstruction of chronic pectoralis major tendon ruptures is a viable treatment option. Good to excellent results can be achieved in active patients, even when reconstruction is performed nearly 2 years from the time of injury.
    Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances 01/2013; 22(1):95-102.
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    ABSTRACT: It is common clinical practice to assess muscle strength during examination of patients following shoulder injury or surgery. Strength comparisons are often made between the patient's injured and uninjured shoulders, with the uninjured side used as a reference without regard to upper extremity dominance. Despite the importance of strength measurements, little is known about expected normal baselines of the uninjured shoulder. The purpose of this study was to report normative values for isometric shoulder strength for physically active college-age men and women without history of shoulder injury. University students-546 males (18.8 ± 1.0 years, 75.3 ± 12.2 kg) and 73 females (18.7 ± 0.9 years, 62.6 ± 7.0 kg)-underwent thorough shoulder evaluations by an orthopaedic surgeon and completed bilateral isometric strength measurements with a handheld dynamometer. Variables measured included internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, supine internal rotation and external rotation at 45°, and lower trapezius in prone flexion. Significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant shoulder for internal rotation, internal rotation at 45°, abduction, and prone flexion in males and in internal rotation at 45° and prone flexion for females (P ≤ 0.01).
    Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 01/2013; 5(1):17-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Subscapularis tendon tears are a well-established cause of shoulder pain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the associated shoulder pathology in patients with full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears using magnetic resonance imaging. Forty-seven magnetic resonance imaging studies taken between 2008 and 2009 with a diagnosis of full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were reviewed. The size of the subscapularis tendon tear, amount of muscle volume loss, Goutallier grade, biceps tendon pathology, coracohumeral distance, and associated rotator cuff tears were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. Patients 55 years and older vs those 54 years and younger had an average subscapularis tear size of 35 vs 19 mm, an average Goutallier grade of 2.7 vs 0.8, and a total muscle volume loss of 25% vs 5%, respectively. Patients with a dislocated vs normal biceps tendons had an average subscapularis tear size of 37 vs 23 mm, an average Goutallier grade of 3 vs 0.9, and a total muscle volume loss of 28% vs 7%, respectively. Patients with vs without concomitant rotator cuff tears had an average subscapularis tear size of 32 vs 17 mm, an average Goutallier grade of 2.3 vs 0.6, and a total muscle volume loss of 21% vs 3%, respectively. Overall average coracohumeral distance measured in the axial plane was 10.8±4.6 mm. Average coracaohumeral distance was 14.8 vs 8.1 mm in patients with a Goutallier grade of 0 vs 3 or 4, resepectively, and 13.6 vs 8.5 mm in patients with no rotator cuff tear vs those with a supra- and infraspinatus tear, respectively.Increased age, dislocated biceps tendons, and concomitant rotator cuff tears in patients with full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears are associated with larger subscapularis tendon tear size, higher Goutallier grades, and increased subscapularis muscle volume loss. Decreased coracohumeral distance is associated with a higher Goutallier grade and rotator cuff tears.
    Orthopedics 01/2013; 36(1):e44-50. · 1.05 Impact Factor

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Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Keller Army Community Hospital
      West Point, New York, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Tripler Army Medical Center
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • Brooke Army Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • William Beaumont Army Medical Center
      El Paso, Texas, United States
    • United States Army
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • United States Military Academy
      West Point, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Kinesiology
      University Park, MD, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
      • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Orthopaedics
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2010
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Medicine
      Tucson, AZ, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Charlotte
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States