[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red bone marrow (RBM) toxicity is dose-limiting in (pretargeted) radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Previous blood-based and two-dimensional (2D) image-based methods have failed to show a clear dose-response relationship. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) image-based RBM dosimetry approach using the Monte Carlo-based 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) software and determined its additional value for predicting RBM toxicity.
RBM doses were calculated for 13 colorectal cancer patients after pretargeted RIT with the two-step administration of an anti-CEA × anti-HSG bispecific monoclonal antibody and a 177Lu-labeled di-HSG-peptide. 3D-RD RBM dosimetry was based on the lumbar vertebrae, delineated on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans acquired directly, 3, 24, and 72 h after 177Lu administration. RBM doses were correlated to hematologic effects, according to NCI-CTC v3 and compared with conventional 2D cranium-based and blood-based dosimetry results. Tumor doses were calculated with 3D-RD, which has not been possible with 2D dosimetry. Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios were calculated and compared for 177Lu-based pretargeted RIT and simulated pretargeted RIT with 90Y.
3D-RD RBM doses of all seven patients who developed thrombocytopenia were higher (range 0.43 to 0.97 Gy) than that of the six patients without thrombocytopenia (range 0.12 to 0.39 Gy), except in one patient (0.47 Gy) without thrombocytopenia but with grade 2 leucopenia. Blood and 2D image-based RBM doses for patients with grade 1 to 2 thrombocytopenia were in the same range as in patients without thrombocytopenia (0.14 to 0.29 and 0.11 to 0.26 Gy, respectively). Blood-based RBM doses for two grade 3 to 4 patients were higher (0.66 and 0.51 Gy, respectively) than the others, and the cranium-based dose of only the grade 4 patient was higher (0.34 Gy). Tumor-to-RBM dose ratios would increase by 25% on average when treating with 90Y instead of 177Lu.
3D dosimetry identifies patients at risk of developing any grade of RBM toxicity more accurately than blood- or 2D image-based methods. It has the added value to enable calculation of tumor-to-RBM dose ratios.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) participates in an immune checkpoint system involved in preventing autoimmunity. PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and other cells in the tumor microenvironment. Anti-PD-L1 antibodies are active against a variety of cancers, and combined anti-PD-L1 therapy with external beam radiotherapy has been shown to increase therapeutic efficacy. PD-L1 expression status is an important indicator of prognosis and therapy responsiveness, but methods to precisely capture the dynamics of PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment are still limited. In this study, we developed a murine anti-PD-L1 antibody conjugated to the radioactive isotope Indium-111 (111In) for imaging and biodistribution studies in an immune-intact mouse model of breast cancer. The distribution of 111In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1 in tumors as well as the spleen, liver, thymus, heart, and lungs peaked 72 hours after injection. Co-injection of labeled and 100-fold unlabeled antibody significantly reduced spleen uptake at 24 hours, indicating that an excess of unlabeled antibody effectively blocked PD-L1 sites in the spleen, thus shifting the concentration of 111In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1 into the blood stream and potentially increasing tumor uptake. Clearance of 111In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1 from all organs occurred at 144 hours. Moreover, dosimetry calculations revealed that radionuclide-labeled anti-PD-L1 antibody yielded tolerable projected marrow doses, further supporting its use for radiopharmaceutical therapy. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using anti-PD-L1 antibody for radionuclide imaging and radioimmunotherapy, and highlight a new opportunity to optimize and monitor the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition therapy.
Cancer Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2141 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Dosimetric accuracy depends directly upon the accuracy of the activity measurements in tumors and organs. The authors present the methods and results of a retrospective tumor dosimetry analysis in 14 patients with a total of 28 tumors treated with high activities of 153Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) for therapy of metastatic osteosarcoma using planar images and compare the results with three-dimensional dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Analysis of phantom data provided a complete set of parameters for dosimetric calculations, including buildup factor, attenuation coefficient, and camera dead-time compensation. The latter was obtained using a previously developed methodology that accounts for the relative motion of the camera and patient during whole-body (WB) imaging. Tumor activity values calculated from the anterior and posterior views of WB planar images of patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP for pediatric osteosarcoma were compared with the geometric mean value. The mean activities were integrated over time and tumor-absorbed doses were calculated using the software package OLINDA/EXM. Results: The authors found that it was necessary to employ the dead-time correction algorithm to prevent measured tumor activity half-lives from often exceeding the physical decay half-life of 153Sm. Measured half-lives so long are unquestionably in error. Tumor-absorbed doses varied between 0.0022 and 0.27cGy/MBq with an average of 0.065cGy/MBq; however, a comparison with absorbed dose values derived from a three-dimensional analysis for the same tumors showed no correlation; moreover, the ratio of three-dimensional absorbed dose value to planar absorbed dose value was 2.19. From the anterior and posterior activity comparisons, the order of clinical uncertainty for activity and dose calculations from WB planar images, with the present methodology, is hypothesized to be about 70%. Conclusion: The dosimetric results from clinical patient data indicate that absolute planar dosimetry is unreliable and dosimetry using three-dimensional imaging is preferable, particularly for tumors, except perhaps for the most sophisticated planar methods. The relative activity and patient kinetics derived from planar imaging show a greater level of reliability than the dosimetry.
Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 11/2015; 30(9):369-379. DOI:10.1089/cbr.2014.1803 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives The Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is part of an immune checkpoint system that is co-opted by tumor cells to suppress immune recognition of cancer. PD-L1 is expressed on tumor cells, tumor associated macrophages and other cells in the tumor microenvironment that can inhibit CD8+ T-cell effector function. Anti-PD-L1 antibodies (Ab) have been developed, and are currently in clinical trial against a variety of cancers. The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of PD-L1 in tumors and normal tissues to evaluate the potential combination use of this Ab with radiopharmaceutical therapy, and to demonstrate the feasibility of PD-L1 imaging to identify tumors that are amenable to anti-PD-L1 therapy.
Methods 6-week old healthy and tumor bearing female neu-N mice were injected i.v. with 10 µCi 111In labeled anti-PD-L1 Ab. The mice were sacrificed at 1, 24, 72 and 240 h p.i, normal tissues and tumors were collected and measured with a gamma counter. Tumor bearing mice were injected i.v. with 200 µCi 111In labeled anti-PD-L1 Ab, and SPECT imaged 1, 24 and 72 h p.i.
Results The anti-PD-L1 Ab showed clearance from blood and other normal tissues except for spleen, which showed an increase and peaked at 72 h p.i. The tumor reached an uptake of about 6 %ID/g at 72 h p.i. No cross-reactivity with kidneys was observed and the kidney showed lower uptake than the tumors at 24 h p.i. After 240 h p.i. only the spleen and liver had higher uptake of anti-PD-L1 Ab than the tumors. Transient uptake in marrow regions was observed that was consistent with the blood kinetics. This suggests that there is no specific uptake in the marrow.
Conclusions The anti-PD-L1 Ab showed a higher uptake in the tumors than the kidneys and marrow, with the highest uptake in the spleen. The results show a potential of use of anti-PD-L1 labeled Ab, taking into account the effect from the Ab itself as well as the attached radionuclide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a recognized target for imaging prostate cancer. Here we present initial safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry results with [(18)F]DCFPyL, a second-generation fluorine-18-labeled small-molecule PSMA inhibitor, in patients with prostate cancer.
Biodistribution was evaluated using sequential positron-emission tomography (PET) scans in nine patients with prostate cancer. Time-activity curves from the most avid tumor foci were determined. The radiation dose to selected organs was estimated using OLINDA/EXM.
No major radiotracer-specific adverse events were observed. Physiologic accumulation was observed in known sites of PSMA expression. Accumulation in putative sites of prostate cancer was observed (SUVmax up to >100, and tumor-to-blood ratios up to >50). The effective radiation dose from [(18)F]DCFPyL was 0.0139 mGy/MBq or 5 mGy (0.5 rem) from an injected dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi).
[(18)F]DCFPyL is safe with biodistribution as expected, and its accumulation is high in presumed primary and metastatic foci. The radiation dose from [(18)F]DCFPyL is similar to that from other PET radiotracers.
Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 04/2015; 17(4). DOI:10.1007/s11307-015-0850-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has the potential to provide better prediction of response of normal tissues and tumors and is based on 3D estimates of the activity distribution in the patient obtained from emission tomography. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) are an important summary measure of 3D dosimetry and a widely used tool for treatment planning in radiation therapy. Accurate estimates of the radioactivity distribution in space and time are desirable for accurate 3D dosimetry. The purpose of this work was to develop and demonstrate the potential of penalized SPECT image reconstruction methods to improve DVHs estimates obtained from 3D dosimetry methods.
Medical Physics 11/2014; 41(11):112507. DOI:10.1118/1.4897613 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precision medicine is the selection of a treatment modality that is specifically tailored to the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of a particular patient's disease. In cancer, the objective is to treat with agents that inhibit cell signalling pathways that drive uncontrolled proliferation and dissemination of the disease. To overcome the eventual resistance to pathway inhibition therapy, this treatment modality has been combined with chemotherapy. We propose that pathway inhibition therapy is more rationally combined with radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT), a cytotoxic treatment that is also targeted. RPT exploits pharmaceuticals that either bind specifically to tumours or accumulate by a broad array of physiological mechanisms indigenous to the neoplastic cells to deliver radiation specifically to these cells. Consistent with pathway inhibition therapy and in contrast to chemotherapy, RPT is well tolerated. However, the potential of RPT has not been fully exploited; for the most part, treatment has been implemented without using the ability to customise RPT by imaging and deriving individual patient tumour and normal organ radiation absorbed doses. These are more closely related to biological response and their determination should enable RPT treatment administration to maximum therapeutic benefit by treating to normal organ tolerance or demonstrating futility via tumour dosimetry. This is the essence of precision medicine.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 06/2014; 50(13). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.04.025 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) is a treatment modality that involves the use of radioactively labeled targeting agents to deliver a cytotoxic dose of radiation to tumor while sparing normal tissue. The biologic function of the target and the biologic action of the targeting agent is largely irrelevant as long as the targeting agent delivers cytotoxic radiation to the tumor. Preclinical RPT studies use imaging and ex vivo evaluation of radioactivity concentration in target and normal tissues to obtain biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data that can be used to evaluate radiation absorbed doses. Since the efficacy and toxicity of RPT depend on radiation absorbed dose, this quantity can be used to translate results from preclinical studies to human studies. The absorbed dose can also be used to customize therapy to account for pharmacokinetic and other differences among patients so as to deliver a prespecified absorbed dose to the tumor or to dose-limiting tissue. The combination of RPT with other agents can be investigated and optimized by identifying the effect of other agents on tumor or normal tissue radiosensitivity and also on how other agents change the absorbed dose to these tissues. RPT is a distinct therapeutic modality whose mechanism of action is well understood. Measurements can be made in preclinical models to help guide clinical implementation of RPT and optimize combination therapy using RPT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (e.g., nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (e.g., Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities such as chemotherapy, wherein imaging is not generally used. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled ((90)Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5mm) are no longer sufficient. This limitation may be overcome by using preclinical models to implement macromodeling to micromodeling. In contrast to chemotherapy, RPT offers the possibility of evaluating radiopharmaceutical distributions, calculating tumor and normal tissue absorbed doses, and devising a treatment plan that is optimal for a specific patient or specific group of patients.
Seminars in nuclear medicine 05/2014; 44(3):172-178. DOI:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2014.03.007 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (αRPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, αRPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of α-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by α-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or β-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(α/β), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(α/β), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(α/β), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the α particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either α particles or a single fraction of low-LET (137)Cs γ rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(α/β) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82-6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(α/β) and EQD2(α/β) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, α particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(α/β) is independent of absorbed dose for α-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an α-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop αRPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies.
Radiation Research 02/2014; 181(1):90-8. DOI:10.1667/RR13483.1 · 2.91 Impact Factor