Arlène K van Vliet

Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (31)113.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) models have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) are involved in complement activation. Binding of CRP and IgM to damaged cell membranes initiates complement activation and aggravates I/R injury in various organs. However, the time course of CRP- and IgM-mediated complement activation and the relation to hepatocellular injury and inflammation in liver I/R are unknown. Aim: To evaluate the time course of IgM- and CRP-related complement activation and the relation to hepatocellular injury and inflammation in a hepatic I/R rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated to (1) five groups of animals exposed to 60 min of partial ischemia (70%) induced via clamping of the left segmental portal triad, followed by 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h of reperfusion (n = 6 in each group); (2) five groups of sham-operated animals with corresponding reperfusion times (n = 5), and (3) a control group sacrificed before ischemia (n = 5). Hepatocellular injury, inflammatory response, rat plasma CRP and IgM levels and immunohistochemical depositions of CRP, IgM and C3 were assessed for each group. Results: Histopathological injury scores of hematoxylin and eosin sections of ischemic liver lobes demonstrated increasing values throughout the reperfusion time with a peak at 12 h. Plasma aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) significantly increased after 3 h of reperfusion, peaking at 6 h (3,100 ± 800 U/l; p < 0.05). Hepatic neutrophil influx significantly increased from 3 to 6 h of reperfusion (p < 0.05) and demonstrated the highest value at 12 h (1.1 ± 0.2 U/mg of protein). Plasma IL-6 levels in the ischemia groups showed peak values after 6 h of reperfusion, decreasing significantly thereafter (p < 0.05). Plasma CRP values reached highest levels after 3 h of reperfusion (mean 91 ± 5% of control pool), decreasing significantly thereafter. Rat IgM concentrations in plasma did not significantly change throughout the reperfusion time. Immunohistochemical depositions of IgM, CRP and C3 in ischemic lobes demonstrated a similar pattern in time, reaching maximum values at 12 h of reperfusion. The percentages of depositions of CRP and IgM were significantly correlated [r(S) = 0.569; p < 0.001; Spearman test]. The time course of C3 and CRP depositions throughout reperfusion and C3 and IgM staining were significantly similar [r(S) = 0.797 and r(S) = 0.656, respectively; p < 0.0001; ANOVA]. Conclusions: CRP and IgM depositions demonstrate a parallel time course throughout the reperfusion to hepatocellular damage, inflammatory response and activated complement deposition in this rat hepatic I/R model. Furthermore, the time course of CRP and IgM depositions was significantly similar to that of activated complement depositions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    European Surgical Research 03/2014; 52(1-2):50-62. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of hepatic ischemia and cholestasis, both identified as risk factors for oxidative stress, potentially enhances postischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury. Preoperative biliary drainage relieves oxidative stress and therefore seems a worthwhile intervention in cholestatic patients undergoing major liver resection. To assess the effect of biliary decompression on I/R injury in a reversible bile duct ligation (BDL) model in the rat. Male Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups. The first group underwent 30 minutes of partial liver ischemia after 7 days BDL; the second group underwent internal drainage (ID) after 7 days BDL and after 5 days, were subjected to partial liver ischemia. The last group (control animals) underwent 2 sham laparotomies and subsequent ischemia. Inflammatory response (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, GRO/KC, and interferon-gamma), hepatic damage and oxidative stress were assessed during 24 hours of reperfusion. Cholestatic rats, as compared with the ID and control groups, showed significantly increased I/R injury as determined by transaminase release, histologic injury score and neutrophil infiltration. Plasma IL-6, IL-10, and GRO/KC (a CXC chemokine) were significantly increased in the BDL group (P < .05 vs control and ID). Moreover, the hepatic antioxidant capacity was strongly decreased in the BDL group (P < .01 vs control and ID). No significant differences for most parameters were seen in the ID group as compared to the control group. The cholestatic rat is more susceptible to postischemic liver injury and these injurious effects were significantly attenuated by biliary decompression.
    Surgery 08/2008; 144(1):22-31. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothermic perfusion (HP) of the liver is applied during total vascular exclusion (TVE) to reduce ischemic injury during liver resection. No studies have been performed comparing different perfusion solutions for HP. The aim of this experimental study was to compare Ringer-lactate solution (RL) with Celsior solution (Cs) for HP in a pig model of 60-min TVE. Twenty pigs underwent 60-min TVE of the liver. Groups were TVE without HP (no-HP, n = 9), TVE with HP using RL (n = 6), and TVE with HP using Cs (n = 5). Blood and liver tissue samples were taken before TVE and during 24-h reperfusion. In the no-HP group, plasma aspartate aminotransferase values were significantly increased during reperfusion (p < 0.05), while liver tissue pO(2) levels (p < 0.01) were decreased when compared to the HP groups. After 24-h reperfusion, bile production and liver tissue glutathione content were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Cs group (42.0 +/- 1.7 mL/h and 44.9 +/- 2.2 nmol/mg, respectively) as compared to the RL group (31.5 +/- 3.5 mL/h and 19.6 +/- 1.8 nmol/mg, respectively). The protective effect of HP during TVE was confirmed in this study. HP with Cs was more effective in reducing ischemic injury as compared to HP with RL.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 03/2008; 394(1):143-50. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small-animal models are crucial to gain insights in the complex recovery mechanisms of liver function during liver regeneration. (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) has been introduced for noninvasive assessment of liver function in the clinical setting as well as in experimental research. However, HBS is restricted to planar modalities in small animals because hepatic kinetics are generally too fast for SPECT acquisition. (99m)Tc-DTPA-galactosyl serum albumin (where DTPA is diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) ((99m)Tc-GSA) scintigraphy is an alternative, receptor-mediated, noninvasive liver function test. After hepatic uptake, (99m)Tc-GSA remains trapped in the liver, which readily enables additional SPECT for the assessment of both liver function and liver functional volume within one test. In this study we evaluated the use of (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy combined with SPECT for the assessment of liver function and liver functional volume in normal and regenerating rat livers. The reproducibility of (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy and SPECT was investigated by repeated measurements within the same rat. For the assessment in a regenerating liver, (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy with SPECT was performed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 d (n = 6 rats per time point) after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The correlation between repeated (99m)Tc-GSA measurements was strong (r = 0.75, P = 0.019). In normal rat livers, there was a strong, significant correlation between liver functional volume and conventional liver volume (r = 0.93; < 0.0001). The correlation between (99m)Tc-GSA uptake and liver volume was moderate (r = 0.62, P = 0.043). During the regeneration process, (99m)Tc-GSA uptake was significantly lower compared with both liver volume (P < 0.001) and liver functional volume (P < 0.001), when expressed as a percentage of baseline levels. There was a strong correlation between liver functional volume and conventional liver volume in the regenerating liver (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001). (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy combined with SPECT is a feasible, noninvasive method to assess hepatic functional volume in normal rat liver as well as in the regenerating rat liver. However, the hepatic (99m)Tc-GSA uptake as a liver function test seems to underestimate hepatic regeneration in comparison to liver volume.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2008; 49(1):122-8. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of C-reactive protein (CRP), natural immunoglobulin M (IgM), and natural IgM against phosphorylcholine (anti-Pc IgM) was investigated in relation with complement activation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (II/R). The effect of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh) on this complement activation along with other inflammatory mediators was also studied. Rats were subjected to 1 h of superior mesenteric artery occlusion and 3 h of reperfusion. Intravenous administration of vehicle (human albumin) or C1-Inh (200 U/kg) was performed before (n = 8) or after ischemia (n = 8). II/R increased levels of C4b/c, CRP, IgM, anti-Pc IgM, and myeloperoxidase activity in the intestinal homogenates and induced vascular leakage. A good correlation was observed in the intestinal homogenates between C4b/c and CRP levels. Clear depositions of C3, CRP, and IgM in intestinal tissue were demonstrated after II/R, and a strong correlation of both CRP and IgM with complement was observed. C1-Inh administered before ischemia reduced the complement activation response after II/R, as reflected by decreased levels of C4b/c in conjunction with reduced anti-Pc IgM in the intestinal homogenates. C1-Inh also decreased leakage of albumin when administered before ischemia. C1-Inh after ischemia reduced C4b/c levels and myeloperoxidase activity in the homogenates. CRP and IgM depositions correlated well with local complement activation, which suggests a role of these molecules in complement activation. Furthermore, C1-Inh inhibited potentially II/R injury either administered before or after ischemia, by attenuating complement activation induced by CRP and/or natural IgM antibodies.
    Surgery 12/2007; 142(5):722-33. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Choline deficient (CD) and methione-choline deficient (MCD) diets are rodent models for steatosis, with potentially dissimilar biochemical backgrounds. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic and pathological derangements in rats fed CD and MCD diets. Male Wistar rats received CD or MCD diet up to 7 weeks. Nutritional status, liver histopathology, Kupffer cell-mediated inflammation and injury, oxidative stress via thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS), hepatic and plasma glutathione (GSH) and insulin homeostasis were assessed. In CD-fed rats, mainly microvesicular steatosis developed with occasional inflammatory cells. In MCD-fed rats, macrovesicular steatosis progressed to steatohepatitis (collagen deposition, activated stellate cells). Hepatic TBARS was increased and GSH decreased in the MCD-fed rats compared to no changes in the CD-fed rats. The CD-fed rats developed obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, in contrast to undetectable plasma lipids, unaffected insulin homeostasis and loss of body weight in the MCD-fed rats. The CD diet induced uncomplicated steatosis as compared to progressive inflammation and fibrinogenesis in the MCD diet. CD and MCD diets represent two pathogenically different models of steatosis. Although equivalence for the outcome of both diets can be found in clinical steatosis, the results of models using these diets should be compared with caution.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2007; 22(9):1526-33. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important determinants of the outcome of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is the onset of the inflammatory response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. It inhibits the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which however, also is involved in priming hepatocyte proliferation. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects and the influence on the regenerative response of exogenous as well as endogenous IL-10 in a rat model of hepatic I/R injury. Seventy percent Liver I/R was induced in male Wistar rats for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. One group underwent a midline laparotomy with recombinant rat (rr)IL-10 administration (SHAM + IL-10). The other groups underwent 60 min ischemia with administration of saline (I/R + saline), rrIL-10 [at two different time-points, i.e., I/R + IL-10pre(ischemia) and I/R + IL-10end(ischemia)] or anti-rat IL-10 antibody (I/R + antiIL-10). Parenchymal damage, as assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, was significantly reduced by rrIL-10 and by endogenous IL-10 (P < 0.05). Also, rrIL-10 significantly reduced IL-6 production and the accumulation of neutrophils in liver and lung tissue, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity. Necrosis and apoptosis were significantly reduced and hepatocyte proliferation was stimulated by rrIL-10. RrIL-10 and, to a lesser extent, endogenous IL-10, attenuate damage and inflammation, while rrIL-10 also promotes proliferation after hepatic I/R injury in rats. Therefore, rrIL-10 has potential use to prevent I/R injury and to promote liver regeneration after partial liver resection with temporary inflow occlusion.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2007; 141(2):176-82. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mild steatosis has been thought not to affect outcome after liver resection. However, recent studies have reported impaired postoperative recovery of patients with mild steatosis. This study evaluated the recovery of hepatic functional reserve during regeneration in a rat model of mild steatosis and liver resection. Male Wistar rats had a standard methione- and choline-deficient diet to induce mild steatosis before 70 per cent liver resection. Evaluation of hepatobiliary function was by (99m)Tc-labelled mebrofenin scintigraphy. Mebrofenin uptake rate, the time for maximum uptake (T peak) and the time required for peak activity to decrease by 50 per cent (T(1/2) peak) were assessed 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after liver resection, along with regeneration of the remnant liver, hepatocellular and sinusoidal damage, and hepatic adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels. Liver regeneration and proliferative response in mild steatotic rats were no different from those in controls. However, the mebrofenin uptake rate was lower (P < 0.050) and the recovery of hepatic ATP impaired (P < 0.050) in animals with mild steatosis. Hepatocellular damage was increased (P < 0.050) but sinusoidal endothelial cell function was not affected after liver resection in mildly steatotic rats. Mild steatosis impaired functional recovery and increased hepatocellular damage after liver resection.
    British Journal of Surgery 08/2007; 94(8):1002-8. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major part of morbidity and mortality after liver resections is caused by inadequate remnant liver function leading to liver failure. It is therefore important to develop accurate diagnostic tools that can predict the risk of liver resection-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, preoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy of the future remnant liver and CT volumetric measurement of the future remnant liver were performed on patients who were to undergo liver resection. The accuracy of risk assessment for postoperative morbidity, liver failure, and mortality was evaluated. Forty-six patients who were scheduled for liver resection because of hepatobiliary tumors, including 17 patients with parenchymal disease (37%) and 13 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (28%), were assessed preoperatively. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed by drawing regions of interest around the future remnant to calculate (99m)Tc-mebrofenin uptake in it. CT volumetry was used to measure the volume of the total liver, the tumors, and the future remnant. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was performed to assess cutoff values for risk assessment of morbidity, liver failure, and mortality. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors related to morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality rates were 61% and 11%, respectively. Liver failure occurred in 6 patients (13%). Significantly decreased uptake in the future remnant was found in patients in whom liver failure and liver failure-related mortality developed (P=0.003 and 0.02, respectively). The volume of the future remnant was not significantly associated with any of the outcome parameters. In receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, uptake cutoff values for liver failure and liver failure-related mortality were 2.5%/min/body surface area and 2.2%/min/body surface area, respectively. In multivariate analysis, uptake was the only significant factor associated with liver failure. Preoperative measurement of (99m)Tc-mebrofenin uptake in the future remnant liver on hepatobiliary scintigraphy proved more valuable than measurement of the volume of the future remnant on CT in assessing the risk of liver failure and liver failure-related mortality after partial liver resection.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2007; 48(5):685-92. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver grafts are frequently discarded due to steatosis. Steatotic livers can be classified as suboptimal and deteriorate rapidly during hypothermic static preservation, often resulting in graft nonfunction. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) has been introduced for preservation of donor livers instead of cold storage (CS), resulting in superior preservation outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare CS and MP for preservation of the steatotic donor rat liver. Liver steatosis was induced in male Wistar rats by a choline-methionine-deficient diet. After 24 hours hypothermic CS using the University of Wisconsin solution (UW) or MP using UW-Gluconate (UW-G), liver damage (liver enzymes, perfusate flow, and hyaluronic acid clearance) and liver function (bile production, ammonia clearance, urea production, oxygen consumption, adenosine triphosphate [ATP] levels) were assessed in an isolated perfused rat liver model. Furthermore, liver biopsies were visualized by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Animals developed 30 to 60% steatosis. Livers preserved by CS sustained significantly more damage as compared to MP. Bile production, ammonia clearance, urea production, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were significantly higher after MP as compared to CS. These results were confirmed by histology. In conclusion, MP improves preservation results of the steatotic rat liver, as compared to CS.
    Liver Transplantation 04/2007; 13(4):497-504. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review present knowledge of the influence of hepatic steatosis in liver surgery as derived from experimental and clinical studies. Hepatic steatosis is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Fatty accumulation affects hepatocyte homeostasis and potentially impairs recovery of steatotic livers after resection. This is reflected clinically in increased mortality and morbidity after liver resection in patients with any grade of steatosis. Because of the epidemic increase of obesity, hepatic steatosis will play an even more significant role in liver surgery. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE and key words related to experimental and clinical studies concerning steatosis. Experimental studies show the increased vulnerability of steatotic livers to various insults, attributed to underlying metabolic and pathologic derangements induced by fatty accumulation. In clinical studies, the severity of steatosis has an important impact on patient outcome and mortality. Even the mildest form of steatosis increases the risk of postoperative complications. Hepatic steatosis is a major factor determining patient outcome after surgery. Further research is needed to clarify the clinical relevance of all forms and severity grades of steatosis for patient outcome. Standardized grading and diagnostic methods need to be used in future clinical trials to be able to compare outcomes of different studies.
    Annals of Surgery 02/2007; 245(1):20-30. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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    Reeta Veteläinen, Arlène K van Vliet, Thomas M van Gulik
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of severe steatosis with inflammation on hepatocellular recovery after 70% hepatectomy in a rat model of diet-induced steatosis. Patients with steatosis have an increased risk of inflammatory complications after liver resection. This might be attributable to Kupffer cell-mediated inflammation in steatotic livers causing progressive injury. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard methionine- and choline-deficient diet for 1 or 5 weeks. A 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed, after which rats were killed at 24, 48, or 72 hours. The extent of steatosis and inflammation was determined by assessment of hepatic triglycerides, cytokine content, and histopathology. Outcome parameters were: liver regeneration (MIB-5 proliferation rate, mitotic index, and regenerating liver mass), hepatocellular injury (plasma aminotransferases, lipid peroxidation, histopathology, and apoptosis), Kupffer cell-mediated proinflammatory response (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 in plasma and liver) and antioxidant content (total glutathione). Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induced uncomplicated steatosis after 1 week (<30% hepatocytes affected without inflammation) and severe steatosis after 5 weeks (>60% hepatocytes affected, including prominent inflammation) as confirmed by histopathology. After PH, liver regeneration was impaired at all time points in the severe steatosis group as compared with the mild and control groups (P < 0.05). Hepatocellular injury was significantly increased in the severe steatosis group at all time points (P < 0.05). Kupffer cell-mediated inflammatory responses were aggravated in the severe steatosis group along with decreased antioxidant content (P < 0.05). Necrosis was the main type of cell death in severe steatotic livers compared with mainly apoptotic cell death in mild steatotic and normal livers. Steatosis with prominent inflammation impaired liver regeneration probably because of increased hepatocellular lipid peroxidation and damage in concert with Kupffer cell-mediated proinflammatory responses. These results suggest an increased risk of performing extensive liver resection in the presence of severe steatosis.
    Annals of Surgery 02/2007; 245(1):44-50. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During peritonitis, intra-abdominal fibrin entraps bacteria and hampers their elimination. Systemic administration of anticoagulant activated protein C improves survival in patients with severe sepsis, but its precise mode of action is unclear. This study in polymicrobial peritonitis assessed the effects of local activated protein C administration in peritoneal lavage fluid on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and survival. Prospective, randomized study. University-based research laboratory. C57BL/6 mice. Twenty-four hours after induction of peritonitis by cecal ligation and puncture, mice underwent peritoneal lavage with activated protein C (1.0 microg/mL) or saline. Peritoneal lavage fluid, blood, and lungs were sampled after 24, 48, or 72 hrs (n = 8/group/time point). For survival analysis, maximum observation was 96 hrs (n = 22/group). Clotting time, tissue factor expression, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrin degradation products (D-dimers), plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor were used to assess coagulation and fibrinolysis responses. Activated protein C lavage reduced abdominal bacterial load, abdominal and pulmonary clotting times, D-dimers (p < .05 vs. saline), pulmonary tissue factor expression, and fibrin depositions, without clear effects on systemic thrombin generation. Activated protein C lavage decreased plasma and abdominal tissue plasminogen activator levels with increased inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels (p < .05) but had reverse effects on pulmonary fibrinolysis. Survival improved from 55% (saline) to 80% after intra-abdominal activated protein C administration (p = .03). Peritoneal lavage with activated protein C may rebalance coagulation and fibrinolysis within compartments and improve survival in polymicrobial peritonitis.
    Critical Care Medicine 11/2006; 34(11):2799-805. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the utility of non-invasive assessment of hepatobiliary function by 99mTc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy in a rat model of diet-induced steatosis. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were fed a standard methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for up to 5 weeks, thereby inducing hepatic fat accumulation, progressive inflammation and fibrogenesis corresponding with clinical steatosis. 99mTc-mebrofenin pinhole scintigraphy was used to evaluate the hepatocyte mebrofenin uptake rate, the time of maximum hepatic uptake (T(peak)) and the time required for peak activity to decrease by 50% (T(1/2peak)). Scintigraphic parameters were correlated with biochemical and serological parameters and with liver histopathology. MCD diet induced mild steatosis after 1 week and severe steatosis with prominent inflammation after 5 weeks. T(peak), T(1/2peak) prolonged and the uptake rate decreased significantly, while the severity of steatosis increased (p<0.05). There was a strong, significant correlation between the severity of steatosis (histopathology, hepatic triglyceride content) and the 99mTc-mebrofenin uptake rate (r2=0.83, p<0.0001 and r2=0.82, p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, the uptake rate correlated significantly with the increased inflammation (plasma and hepatic TNF-alpha, r2=0.72, p<0.0001 and r2=0.52, p=0.001, respectively). The correlation of the uptake rate with hepatocellular damage was weak (AST and ALT, r2=0.29 and 0.32, respectively), but correlation with synthetic function was strong (prothrombin time, r2=0.70, p<0.001). Hepatobiliary function assessed by 99mTc-mebrofenin scintigraphy correlates with the extent and progression of steatosis. These results suggest a potential role for mebrofenin scintigraphy as a non-invasive functional follow-up method for disease progression in steatotic patients.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 10/2006; 33(10):1107-14. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual embolization of the hepatic artery and portal vein (PV) has been proposed to enhance contralateral liver regeneration before resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PV ligation compared with simultaneous or sequential dual ligation on regeneration, proinflammatory response, and liver damage. Single hepatic artery ligation (HAL), PV ligation (70%), or dual ligation of the hepatic artery and PV (70%) simultaneously or sequentially within a 48-hour interval was performed in a rat model. Liver regeneration, proinflammatory mediators, hepatocellular synthetic function and injury, histopathology, and apoptosis were assessed at a maximum of 14 days after surgery. Sequential dual ligation resulted in a faster increase in hepatocyte proliferation at 24 hours without additional increase in liver mass compared with PV ligation after 14 days. Both dual ligations significantly increased proinflammatory response in plasma and in the regenerating liver compared with PV ligation alone. Fourteen days after PV ligation, the hepatic parenchyma was completely restored, whereas fibronecrosis was seen in the sequentially dual-ligated groups and complete necrosis was seen in simultaneously ligated groups. Increased apoptosis in the regenerating liver and prolonged hepatic dysfunction were observed after both dual ligations. PV ligation is as effective as dual ligation in inducing liver regeneration. No additional benefit of arterial ligation was observed.
    Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 08/2006; 17(7):1181-8. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In situ hypothermic perfusion (HP) can be applied to attenuate ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury during liver resection under total vascular exclusion (TVE). This study examines the protective effect of cooling by HP at 20 and 28 degrees C as compared with no HP during TVE in a porcine liver I/R model. Twenty-one pigs underwent 60 min TVE of the liver followed by 24 h reperfusion. HP was performed via the portal vein using ringerlactate solution of 4 degrees C. Pigs were assigned to three groups: TVE without HP (no-HP, n=9), TVE with HP at 28 degrees C (HP-28, n=6) and TVE with HP at 20 degrees C (HP-20, n=6). Perfusion volumes during TVE were 5.1+/-0.5 and 17.3+/-1.7 l in HP-28 and HP-20, respectively (P<0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) after 24 h reperfusion was 1172+/-440 U/l in no-HP as compared with 223+/-69 and 180+/-22 U/l in HP-28 and HP-20, respectively (P<0.05). No differences in liver function or histopathology were found between the HP-28 and HP-20 groups. HP at 20 degrees C is equally effective in preserving liver function and preventing hepatocellular injury under TVE as compared with HP at 28 degrees C. HP at 28 degrees C is advised, because of the lesser perfusion volume necessary for cooling of the liver.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 05/2006; 26(4):486-93. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharides mediate inflammation in liver ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) and partial liver resection (PHX). Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (BIAP) detoxifies lipopolysaccharides by dephosphorylation and reduces inflammation in models of sepsis. This study examined the protective effects of BIAP administration in models of partial (70 per cent) liver I/R with or without partial resection of all non-ischaemic lobes during ischaemia (30 per cent). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: I/R + BIAP, I/R + saline, I/R + PHX + BIAP and I/R + PHX + saline, PHX only or sham laparotomy only. A single dose of BIAP (0.5 units/g) or vehicle (saline) was administered 5 min before reperfusion. Inflammatory response, and hepatic and pulmonary injury were assessed during 24 h of reperfusion. I/R, with or without PHX, increased all markers of inflammation, and hepatic and pulmonary damage (P < 0.050 versus sham operation). I/R + PHX significantly increased release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic neutrophil influx compared with I/R only (P < 0.050). BIAP treatment decreased hepatic wet/dry ratios, neutrophil influx and histopathological damage after I/R with or without PHX (P < 0.050), and also AST, ALT and interleukin (IL)-6 production after I/R + PHX (P < 0.050). BIAP treatment reduced the neutrophil influx after I/R, and pulmonary histopathological injury was decreased after I/R with or without PHX. BIAP attenuates hepatic and pulmonary injury after partial liver I/R and PHX.
    British Journal of Surgery 04/2006; 93(4):448-56. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-invasive evaluation of liver function in small animal models remains a challenge. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) enables the assessment of total and regional liver function for both uptake and excretion in larger species. To validate quantitative liver function assessment with dedicated pinhole HBS in rats. To illustrate an application of this technique, liver function was assessed in two surgical models of liver regeneration. HBS was performed in 12 rats with 99mTc-mebrofenin on a dedicated animal pinhole gamma camera. The hepatic uptake rate was calculated twice by different observers to establish a normal range and the reproducibility of processing. The degree of hepatocellular injury and synthesis function were assessed by serum liver tests. Liver function was compared with liver weight. Subsequently, three groups of three rats were scanned on three separate days to assess the reproducibility of HBS. Finally, to illustrate an application of this technique, liver function was assessed in two surgical models of liver regeneration. HBS in rats was feasible without mortality. The mean liver uptake rate was 77.29+/-1.29% . min(-1). Calculation of the liver uptake (% . min(-1)) was highly reproducible (r=0.95, P<0.001). There was a good correlation between liver weight and function measured by HBS at baseline and after partial resection (r=0.94, P<0.001). HBS offers a unique combination of functional liver uptake and excretion assessment with the ability to determine the liver function reserve before and after an intervention in rats.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/2005; 26(11):1005-12. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributes importantly to morbidity and mortality in sepsis. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (BIAP) was demonstrated to detoxify LPS through dephosphorylation. LPS injection combined with BIAP reduced inflammation and improved survival in various experimental settings. In this study, single-dose intravenous administration of BIAP (0.15 IU/g) was applied in a murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis. Saline was given as control (S group). Treatment with BIAP prior to CLP (prophylaxis; BIAP-P group) or shortly after (early treatment; BIAP-ET group) reduced cytokine concentrations in plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha peak levels decreased from 170 pg/ml (S) to 57.5 (BIAP-P) and 82.5 (BIAP-ET) in plasma and in PLF from 57.5 pg/ml (S) to 35.3 (BIAP-P) and 16.8 (BIAP-ET) (all, P < 0.05). Peak interleukin-6 levels in plasma decreased from 19.3 ng/ml (S) to 3.4 (BIAP-P) and 11.5 (BIAP-ET) and in PLF from 32.6 ng/ml (S) to 13.4 (BIAP-P) and 10.9 (BIAP-ET) (all, P < 0.05). Macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 peak levels in plasma decreased from 2.0 ng/ml (S) to 1.0 (BIAP-P) and 0.7 (BIAP-ET) and in PLF from 6.4 (S) to 2.3 (BIAP-P) and 1.3 ng/ml (BIAP-ET) (all, P < 0.05). BIAP-treated groups showed decreased transaminase activity in plasma and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung, indicating reduced associated hepatocellular and pulmonary damage. Survival was not significantly altered by BIAP in this single-dose regimen. In polymicrobial secondary peritonitis, both prophylactic and early BIAP treatment attenuates the inflammatory response both locally and systemically and reduces associated liver and lung damage.
    Infection and Immunity 08/2005; 73(7):4309-14. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For experimental machine perfusion (MP) of the liver, the modified University of Wisconsin solution (UW-G) is most often used. In our search for an enriched MP preservation solution, Polysol was developed. Polysol is enriched with various amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients for the liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare Polysol with UW-G for MP preservation of the liver. Rat livers were preserved during 24 hours with hypothermic MP using UW-G (n = 5) or Polysol (n = 5). Hepatocellular damage (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alpha-glutathione-S-transferase [alpha-GST]) and bile production were measured during 60 minutes of reperfusion (37 degrees C) with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Control livers were reperfused after 24 hours of cold storage in UW (n = 5). MP using UW-G or Polysol showed less liver damage when compared with controls. Livers machine perfused with Polysol showed less enzyme release when compared to UW-G. Bile production was higher after MP using either UW-G or Polysol compared with controls. In conclusion, machine perfusion using Polysol results in better quality liver preservation than cold storage with UW and machine perfusion using UW-G.
    Liver Transplantation 06/2005; 11(5):539-46. · 3.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

539 Citations
113.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2008
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2007
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands