[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the outcomes of one institute's experience regarding upper airway and feeding management in Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) neonates.
A retrospective review of 33 neonates was performed. Average daily weight gain for all patients and average length of stay for each group was calculated and the results were compared using Student's t test.
Average daily weight gain was 16.5 g in the mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) group (MDO; N = 12) and 5.6 g in the nonsurgical intervention (NSI) group (N = 18; P = .043). Average length of stay was longer in the MDO group (P = .01). In all, 67% of MDO patients were discharged with total PO (per os) feeds compared with 22% of NSI patients.
Neonates with PRS who do not require surgical airway intervention are more likely to require assisted feeding, have slower weight gain, and a shorter average hospital stay compared to neonates undergoing mandibular MDO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prenatal factors associated with the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and neonatal survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).
A retrospective cohort study of all cases of CDH seen in our center between 1998 and 2008. Prenatal ultrasound and neonatal records were reviewed. Both univariable and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the significant factors associated with the use of ECMO and survival.
Among 107 cases of CDH seen during the study period, 62 were evaluated prenatally in our center and 49 had information on all variables evaluated. The overall rate of ECMO use was 27/107 (25%) and survival rate was 53/107 (49.5%). The lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) and gestational age (GA) at delivery were the only significant factors associated with ECMO use, and the LHR and absence of liver herniation were significantly associated with survival. LHR values under 1.0 were associated with 57% need for ECMO and 100% neonatal death. Although, overall, the observed:expected LHR (O:E LHR) was not significantly associated with ECMO use or survival, levels below 65% were associated with 58% need for ECMO (p = 0.004) and 100% neonatal death (p = 0.002).
The study confirms the LHR, GA at delivery and liver herniation as significant prenatal predictors of the need for ECMO or survival in cases with CDH. This information is helpful for counseling women with fetuses complicated by CDH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the interval between clinical presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and bowel perforation in neonates.
Charts of neonates with discharge diagnosis of NEC (n = 124) from our NICU during 2004-2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data were collected. Acute episode of NEC was defined as the interval between clinical presentations to resumption of enteral feeds. Neonates are followed, as a standard of care, clinically and radiologically until resumption of enteral feeds at the discretion of the attending clinician. Abdominal radiograph results were reviewed serially to determine the interval between clinical presentation and bowel perforation using pneumoperitoneum as the surrogate radiological marker. Histological report of resected bowel specimens was reviewed for coagulative necrosis as evidence of NEC and to exclude spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). Neonates with stage 1 NEC and SIP were excluded from the results.
105 neonates with stage 2 NEC were included in the study. Forty-six needed surgical treatment (group 2) and 59 did not need surgery (group 1). Twenty-six (26/46, 56%) group 2 neonates had bowel perforation and hence required surgery. Pneumoperitoneum was noted at a median interval of 1 day after presentation of symptoms. Twenty neonates in group 2 needed surgery for clinical indications including worsening clinical examination, thrombocytopenia or persistent metabolic acidosis. Fifty-nine neonates (group 1) were treated with bowel rest, antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. Group 2 neonates were significantly more premature, weighed less and had less radiographs than group 1 neonates. Mortality was significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1.
Bowel perforation occurs at a median interval of 1 day after clinical presentation of NEC. Neonates not needing surgery for their disease are exposed to significantly more radiographs than those needing surgery. Radiological evaluation can be safely minimized or eliminated after 2 days of presentation.
Pediatric Surgery International 04/2010; 26(6):607-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compare 4 short-term outcomes--namely admission to special care nursery (SCN), length of stay (LOS), age at full feeds (AFF) and respiratory morbidity/need for ventilation--in 1015 late preterm singletons and 366 twins and triplets born at our institution over a 4-year period. Birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) rather than plurality of birth determined need for admission to SCN, LOS, AFF, and need for respiratory support. When matched for GA, compared to singletons, twins and triplets needed less admission to SCN and respiratory support at 36 weeks, whereas at 34 weeks, they had longer LOS and took longer to get to full feeds. We conclude that the outcomes of interest are affected by GA and BW rather than plurality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abdominal wall defects, particularly exomphalos, in newborn infants are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to review the outcomes of neonates with exomphalos in our neonatal intensive care unit during the last 12 years.
In this retrospective study 52 neonates with exomphalos were identified from 1996 to 2007. Exomphalos were stratified by the type of defect [exomphalos minor versus major (major defined as defect size more than 5 cm and/or liver in the sac)]. Clinical data, demographic data, and outcome measures of mortality, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation and age at full enteral feeds were studied. Associated anomalies were compared between the two groups.
Of the 52 neonates, 1 was transferred back to referring hospital after surgical repair of the defect and was not analyzed. Exomphalos minor accounted for 24 cases and exomphalos major in 27 cases. Mortality was higher in infants with exomphalos major (n = 9, 33%) compared to infants with exomphalos minor (n = 2, 8%). The median LOS (10 vs. 47 days, P = 0.023), median age at full enteral feeds (5 vs. 23 days, P = 0.004) and median duration of mechanical ventilation (7 vs. 23 days, P = 0.001) were shorter for exomphalos minor compared to exomphalos major. Bacteremia was present in 4 (15%) of neonates with exomphalos major. Syndromic associations were present in 8 neonates (33%) with exomphalos minor compared to 2 neonates (7%) with exomphalos major. Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome was most frequently noted in neonates with syndromic exomphalos minor. Trisomy 13 was the only chromosomal abnormality in the entire cohort (1/51 = 2%) and was seen in a single neonate (1/27 = 3.7%) with exomphalos major. Non-syndromic anomalies were seen in 12 (50%) and 14 neonates (52%) with the minor and major defects, respectively. Only four neonates with exomphalos minor (16%) and ten neonates with exomphalos major (37%) had no associated anomalies. Pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension were identified on either lung biopsy or autopsy (n = 5) as causes of mortality.
Neonates with exomphalos minor have better survival, decreased LOS, time to full enteral feeds and shorter duration of mechanical ventilation. Syndromic associations were more common in exomphalos minor. Respiratory failure was the major cause of mortality in infants with exomphalos major.
Pediatric Surgery International 01/2009; 25(2):139-44. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the short-term outcomes of late preterm neonates born between 34 and 36 (6/7) weeks gestational age (GA) in a 4-year period. A total of 1381/ 20554 (6.7%) births were between 34 and 36 weeks of GA and were predominantly Caucasian (87%). In all, 697/1381 (51%) were admitted to nursery whereas 684/1381 (49%) remained with their mothers. Of the babies born at 34, 35, and 36 weeks GA, 97%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, required admission and of these 30%, 33%, and 23%, respectively, required respiratory support. Air leaks developed in <4% infants. Median length of stay and age at full enteral feeds were 11, 6, and 4 days and 10, 6, and 3 days for 34, 35, and 36 weeks GA, respectively. It is concluded that late preterms have significant morbidity in the neonatal period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe outcomes of 70 infants with gastroschisis admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between 2001 and 2005. Demographic data and outcome measures including discharge or death, simple versus complex (intestinal atresia, perforation, bowel necrosis, or volvulus), length of stay, mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition, commencement of enteral feeds and age at reaching full feeds, and number of episodes of bacteremia were evaluated. In our study, 72% of the patients (n = 58) were simple cases, 28% were complex, and 44% had a positive blood culture. Median length of stay was 43 and 116 days for simple and complex cases, respectively. Median age at commencement of enteral feeds was 19 and 44 days for simple and complex cases, respectively. Six (14%) infants with simple and 8 (50%) with complex gastroschisis required an assisted feeding device (gastrostomy) tube before discharge. We concluded that the type of gastroschisis (simple versus complex) is an important determinant of outcome, including time to start and get to full feeds, duration of parenteral nutrition, length of stay, and survival. Although it is not always possible to determine whether the defect is simple or complex by antenatal scans, this information will be valuable to families with infants with gastroschisis and should be made available as soon as possible.
American Journal of Perinatology 10/2007; 24(8):461-5. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Netherton syndrome is a congenital skin disease associated with decreased skin barrier function and increased percutaneous absorption. We report an 11-year-old boy with Netherton syndrome who developed Cushing syndrome after application of 1% hydrocortisone ointment to his entire body for more than 1 year. This presentation illustrates that even low-potency steroid ointments should be used with caution in Netherton syndrome and warns about the use of long-term topical medications with potential systemic side effects when used in large quantities in any chronic skin disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A female infant (gestational age, 37 weeks) presented with respiratory distress and pulmonary hypertension. Incidental to her clinical course, she was discovered by abdominal ultrasound to have absent adrenal glands bilaterally. This is the first case report of congenitally absent adrenal glands noted at birth. The exons of the patient's SF-1 gene were sequenced, and despite identifying a single nucleotide polymorphism that preserves proline at position 125 of SF-1, none of the previously identified mutations were detected in our samples. The known role of SF-1 and its mutations in adrenal gland development are discussed.
American Journal of Perinatology 03/2006; 23(2):111-4. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is a potentially lethal condition, which affects adults and children alike. Genetic factors are implicated in the causation of primary pulmonary hypertension. We investigate the role of polymorphism in the 5HTT gene in the etiology of pulmonary hypertension in children aged 1-18.8 years. We have tested the hypothesis that the 5HTT gene does contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in children by comparing the allelic frequencies of both the long and short variants between children with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension secondary to underlying pulmonary disease. We found that homozygosity for the long variant of 5HTT was highly associated with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension in children, suggesting perhaps a more important role for 5HTT gene function in the pathogenesis of early onset disease.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2005; 334(2):376-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidural hematoma is a rare form of neonatal birth injury accounting for 2% of newborn intracranial hemorrhage. We report the first case of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of a cranial epidural hematoma in a neonate who also suffered subgaleal and intraparenchymal hemorrhage as a complication of vacuum extraction.
American Journal of Perinatology 12/2002; 19(8):401-4. · 1.60 Impact Factor