[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) regulates both vascular quiescence and angiogenesis through the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. We and another group previously showed that Ang1 and Tie2 form distinct signaling complexes at cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. We further demonstrated that the former up-regulates Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) only in the presence of cell-cell contacts. Because Dll4/Notch signal restricts sprouting angiogenesis and promotes vascular stabilization, we investigated the mechanism of how the Ang1/Tie2 signal induces Dll4 expression to clarify the role of the Dll4/Notch signal in Ang1/Tie2 signal-mediated vascular quiescence. Under confluent endothelial cells, the basal Notch signal was observed. Ang1, moreover, induced Dll4 expression and production of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Ang1 stimulated transcriptional activity of β-catenin through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Correspondingly, the GSK3β inhibitor up-regulated Dll4, whereas depletion of β-catenin by siRNA blocked Ang1-induced Dll4 expression, indicating the indispensability of β-catenin in Ang1-mediated up-regulation of Dll4. In addition, Dll4 expression by the GSK3β inhibitor was only observed in confluent cells, and was impeded by DAPT, a γ-secretase inhibitor, implying requirement of the Notch signal in β-catenin-dependent Dll4 expression. Consistently, we found that either Ang1 or NICD up-regulates Dll4 through the RBP-J binding site within intron 3 of the DLL4 gene and that β-catenin forms a complex with NICD/RBP-J to enhance Dll4 expression. Ang1 induced the deposition of extracellular matrix that is preferable for basement membrane formation through Dll4/Notch signaling. Collectively, the Ang1/Tie2 signal potentiates basal Notch signal controlling vascular quiescence by up-regulating Dll4 through AKT-mediated activation of β-catenin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin (Ang) 1 is a ligand for endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2. In adult vasculature, Ang1/Tie2 signaling is thought to regulate both maintenance of vascular quiescence and promotion of angiogenesis. However, it has been unknown how Tie2 signal regulates these distinct biological functions. Recently, we and Alitalo's group have clarified that Ang1 assembles distinct Tie2 signaling complexes in either presence or absence of endothelial cell-cell adhesions. Ang1 induces trans-association of Tie2 at cell-cell contacts, whereas Tie2 is anchored to the extracellular matrix (ECM) by Ang1 at the cell-substratum interface. Trans-associated Tie2 and ECM-anchored Tie2 activate distinct signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss how Ang1/Tie2 signal regulates both maintenance of vascular quiescence and promotion of angiogenesis, especially focusing on the roles of trans-associated Tie2 and ECM-anchored Tie2.
Histology and histopathology 03/2010; 25(3):387-96. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) binds to and activates Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Ang1-Tie2 signal has been proposed to exhibit two opposite roles in the controlling blood vessels. One is vascular stabilization and the other is vascular angiogenesis. There has been no answer to the question as to how Tie2 induces two opposite responses to the same ligand. Our group and Dr. Alitalos group have demonstrated that trans-associated Tie2 at cell-cell contacts and extracellular matrix (ECM)-anchored Tie2 play distinct roles in the endothelial cells. The complex formation depends on the presence or absence of cell-cell adhesion. Here, we review how Ang1-Tie2 signal regulates vascular maintenance and angiogenesis. We further point to the unanswered questions that must be clarified to extend our knowledge of vascular biology and to progress basic knowledge to the treatment of the diseases in which Ang1-Tie2-mediated signal is central.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 04/2009; 41(3):133-9. DOI:10.3858/emm.2009.41.3.016 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tie2 belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase family and functions as a receptor for Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1). Gene-targeting analyses of either Ang1 or Tie2 in mice reveal a critical role of Ang1-Tie2 signalling in developmental vascular formation. It remains elusive how the Tie2 signalling pathway plays distinct roles in both vascular quiescence and angiogenesis. We demonstrate here that Ang1 bridges Tie2 at cell-cell contacts, resulting in trans-association of Tie2 in the presence of cell-cell contacts. In clear contrast, in isolated cells, extracellular matrix-bound Ang1 locates Tie2 at cell-substratum contacts. Furthermore, Tie2 activated at cell-cell or cell-substratum contacts leads to preferential activation of Akt and Erk, respectively. Microarray analyses and real-time PCR validation clearly show the differential gene expression profile in vascular endothelial cells upon Ang1 stimulation in the presence or absence of cell-cell contacts, implying downstream signalling is dependent upon the spatial localization of Tie2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) regulates both vascular quiescence and angiogenesis through the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. We and another group have recently shown that Ang1 and Tie2 form distinct signaling complexes at cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts and further demonstrated that the former selectively induces expression of Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a transcription factor involved in vascular quiescence. Here, we investigated the mechanism of how Ang1/Tie2 signal induces KLF2 expression to clarify the role of KLF2 in Ang1/Tie2 signal-mediated vascular quiescence. Ang1 stimulated KLF2 promoter-driven reporter gene expression in endothelial cells, whereas it failed when a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-binding site of KLF2 promoter was mutated. Depletion of MEF2 by siRNAs abolished Ang1-induced KLF2 expression, indicating the requirement of MEF2 in KLF2 induction by Ang1. Constitutive active phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT increased the MEF2-dependent reporter gene expression by enhancing its transcriptional activity and stimulated the KLF2 promoter activity cooperatively with MEF2. Consistently, inhibition of either PI3K or AKT and depletion of AKT abrogated Ang1-induced KLF2 expression. In addition, we confirmed the dispensability of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) for Ang1-induced KLF2 expression. Furthermore, depletion of KLF2 resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect of Ang1 on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in endothelial cells and VEGF-mediated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that Ang1/Tie2 signal stimulates transcriptional activity of MEF2 through a PI3K/AKT pathway to induce KLF2 expression, which may counteract VEGF-mediated inflammatory responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), which belongs to the classical cadherin family, is localized at adherens junctions exclusively in vascular endothelial cells. Biochemical and biomechanical cues regulate the VE-cadherin adhesive potential by triggering the intracellular signals. VE-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is required for cell survival and endothelial cell deadhesion is required for vascular development. It is therefore crucial to understand how VE-cadherin-based cell adhesion is controlled. This review summarizes the inter-endothelial cell adhesions and introduces our recent advance in Rap1-regulated VE-cadherin adhesion. A further analysis of the VE-cadherin recycling system will aid the understanding of cell adhesion/deadhesion mechanisms mediated by VE-cadherin in response to extracellular stimuli during development and angiogenesis.
Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 04/2006; 39(2):132-9. DOI:10.5483/BMBRep.2006.39.2.132 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rap1 is a small GTPase that regulates adherens junction maturation. It remains elusive how Rap1 is activated upon cell-cell contact. We demonstrate for the first time that Rap1 is activated upon homophilic engagement of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at the cell-cell contacts in living cells and that MAGI-1 is required for VE-cadherin-dependent Rap1 activation. We found that MAGI-1 localized to cell-cell contacts presumably by associating with beta-catenin and that MAGI-1 bound to a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, PDZ-GEF1. Depletion of MAGI-1 suppressed the cell-cell contact-induced Rap1 activation and the VE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion after Ca2+ switch. In addition, relocation of vinculin from cell-extracellular matrix contacts to cell-cell contacts after the Ca2+ switch was inhibited in MAGI-1-depleted cells. Furthermore, inactivation of Rap1 by overexpression of Rap1GAPII impaired the VE-cadherin-dependent cell adhesion. Collectively, MAGI-1 is important for VE-cadherin-dependent Rap1 activation upon cell-cell contact. In addition, once activated, Rap1 upon cell-cell contacts positively regulate the adherens junction formation by relocating vinculin that supports VE-cadherin-based cell adhesion.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 03/2006; 17(2):966-76. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E05-07-0647 · 4.47 Impact Factor