Eun-Seok Park

Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (70)169.19 Total impact

  • Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2015; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to design and evaluate extended-release formulations of a model drug, nicorandil, in order to achieve the desired steady-state plasma concentration of drug in vivo. Simulation was employed to estimate optimum dissolution and absorption rate of nicorandil. The dissolution test was employed using pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 buffer solution, or water, to measure the in vitro release behaviors of nicorandil formulations. A single dose (15 mg) of each formulation was orally administered to four beagle dogs under fasted conditions, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The in vitro/in vivo relationship of the extended-release formulation was confirmed using in vitro dissolution profiles and plasma concentrations of drug in beagle dogs. Nicorandil was released completely within 30 min from the immediate-release tablets and released for 24 hr from the extended-release tablets. The nicorandil plasma concentration could be modified by adjusting the drug release rate from the extended-release formulation. The release rate of nicorandil was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption of drug from the extended-release formulations. These results highlight the potential of a nicorandil extended-release formulation in the treatment of angina pectoris.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, controlled-release microparticles for orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared using two different processes, spray drying and fluidized bed coating processes. Pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate (PRM), an anti-Parkinson's disease agent, was selected as a model drug. The in vitro release rate and morphology of microparticles were evaluated and compared. The size of microparticles prepared by spray drying (SD microparticles) and fluidized bed coating (FC microparticles) was around 10 and 200 µm, respectively. The latter size was defined by the size of an inert core bead. The release behavior of SD microparticles was characterized by a large initial burst release prior to slow release. In the case of FC microparticles, the initial burst release was smaller than that of SD microparticles and the compression process damaged the release-controlling layer, which led to a change in release rate. The results indicated the importance of carefully considering the manufacturing process for microparticles during the design of controlled-release ODT.
    Drying Technology 05/2014; 32(8):935-945. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the healing effects of a chitosan-based, film-forming gel containing tyrothricin (TYR) in various rat wound models, including burn, abrasion, incision, and excision models. After solidification, the chitosan film layer successfully covered and protected a variety of wounds. Wound size was measured at predetermined timepoints after wound induction, and the effects of the film-forming gel were compared with negative (no treatment) and positive control groups (commercially available sodium fusidate ointment and TYR gel). In burn, abrasion and excision wound models, the film-forming gel enabled significantly better healing from 1 to 6 days after wound induction, compared with the negative control. Importantly, the film-forming gel also enabled significantly better healing compared with the positive control treatments. In the incision wound model, the breaking strength of wound strips from the group treated with the film-forming gel was significantly increased compared with both the negative and positive control groups. Histological studies revealed advanced granulation tissue formation and epithelialization in wounds treated with the film-forming gel. We hypothesize that the superior healing effects of the film-forming gel are due to wound occlusion, conferred by the chitosan film. Our data suggest that this film-forming gel may be useful in treating various wounds, including burn, abrasion, incision and excision wounds.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 04/2014; 38(2). · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to prepare the particulate taste-masking system to mask the bitter taste of sildenafil citrate (SC), a well-known phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction (ED) and pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). It was evaluated for the taste masking efficiency by the in vitro measurement using electronic tongue (e-tongue) system and the in vivo human panel sensory test. Microcapsules were prepared by microencapsulation with a gastro-soluble polymer, Eudragit(®) E100 (E100), using a spray drying technique at four different weight ratios (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). Characters of prepared microcapsules and the effect of polymer ratio on the taste masking were investigated. The particle morphology and the distribution of SC in microcapsules were observed by SEM-EDS and physical properties were evaluated by PXRD, Raman spectroscopy, and DSC. By drug dissolution studies at pH 1.2 buffer and DW, it was found that E100 was not able to alter the drug release at stomach. As the result of taste evaluation studies, there were a good correlation (R(2)=0.9867) between the weight ratio of polymer and the taste masking efficiency expressed in the distances on the PCA map of the e-tongue data, and a relevance of the e-tongue measurement with the result of sensory test.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homosalate (HMS) is an ultraviolet (UV) filtering agent used in sunscreens and other cosmetics for skin protection purposes. Despite the widespread use of these products, absorption, disposition, and in vivo endocrine disrupting potential of HMS have not been characterized. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the percutaneous absorption, disposition, and exposure assessment of HMS in rats. Initially, sunscreen preparations of petrolatum jelly, oily solution, lotion, and gel were prepared and evaluated for in vitro permeation of HMS across excised rat skin. Dermal permeability was greatest for gel, and this preparation was used in subsequent in vivo topical application investigations. After iv injection (0.5, 2, or 5 mg/kg), the pharmacokinetics of HMS was linear and was characterized by a large Vd ss (13.2-17 L/kg), high Cls (4.5-6.1 L/h/kg), and long t1/2 (6.1-8.4 h). After topical application of gel, the bioavailability of HMS was 5.4 ± 1.1 and 4.2 ± 0.6% for high and low doses (10 and 20 mg), respectively. Consistent with the prolonged absorption (T max 11.2 ± 1.8 and 12 ± 0 h for low and high doses, respectively), the terminal t 1/2 was longer after topical application (23.6-26.1 h) compared to iv injection. A population pharmacokinetic model was further developed to simultaneously fit the time courses of plasma concentrations and dermal content data after iv injection and topical application. Findings of this study may be useful to further examine the relationship between exposure and endocrine disrupting potential of HMS in risk assessment.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 02/2014; 77(4):202-13. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to prepare hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-based matrix tablets prepared using the freeze-drying method for gastroretentive delivery of ecabet sodium (ECS), a locally acting antigastric ulcer drug, and to perform in vitro/in vivo characterizations. The freeze-dried gastroretentive tablets (FD-GRTs) had porous structures, while they had good friability as a pharmaceutical dosage form. The porous structures lowered the tablet density, allowing the tablet to float without any lag time. Buoyancy of FD-GRT was maintained until they were entirely disintegrated during an in vitro release study. Release rate of ECS could be controlled by the amount of ethylcellulose (EC) in FD-GRT. As amount of EC in the composition was increased, there was a decrease in both release rate and erosion rate of FD-GRT. When administered to a miniature pig, FD-GRT remained in the stomach for more than 12 h, which was significantly longer than a conventional sustained release tablet. The new FD-GRT do not contain any excipients for buoyancy and do not require any lag time for buoyancy, consequently it could be considered to be safer and more effective than conventional floating-type GRT. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:262–273, 2014
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2014; 103(1). · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to prepare hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC)-based porous matrix tablets for gastroretentive drug delivery and to characterize their physicochemical properties. Gabapentin (GBP) was used as a model drug. Paste containing GBP, HPMC and water was molded and freeze-dried to prepare freeze-dried gastroretentive matrix tablet (FD-GRT). In vitro drug release and erosion studies were also performed. Although FD-GRT exhibited porous structure, they had good tablet strength and friability. Density of FD-GRT ranged from 0.402 to 0.509 g/cm3 and thus they could float on the medium surface without any lag time. FD-GRT was remained floated until the entire matrix erosion or end of drug release during in vitro release test. Release behavior of GBP could be modulated by the amount and the viscosity grade of HPMC. However, large amount and high viscosity of HPMC caused trouble in molding prior to freeze-drying. Addition of ethylcellulose could retard the release rate of GBP, with relatively low increase in viscosity of paste. Since pores generated by freeze drying imparted buoyancy for gastric retention to FD-GRT, additional materials for buoyancy was not necessary and FD-GRT had no lag time for buoyancy due to low density. Therefore it could be a promising tool for gastroretentive drug delivery.
    Cellulose 12/2013; 20(6). · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gastric retention of ecabet sodium (ECS) on its mucoprotective effect in rat ulcer models. Mini-tablets containing 9 mg ECS were prepared using the direct compression method. The release rates of ECS mini-tablets were controlled by the amount and viscosity grade of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose incorporated. Gastric retention of ECS mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was visually confirmed using a fluorescence imaging system. Because ECS mini-tablets exhibited size-dependent gastric retention, their gastric retention time was prolonged as the release rate decreased. In the in vivo efficacy study, gastro-retentive dosage forms of ECS did not influence the mucoprotective effect in the immediate irritation model but enhanced the effect in the delayed irritation model compared with ECS suspension. This finding indicates that the duration of the mucoprotective effect of ECS can be extended by the employment of gastro-retentive dosage formulations and provides a rationale for development of ECS gastro-retentive dosage forms.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 11/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of the present study was to prepare desmopressin orally disintegrating microparticles (ODMs) using organic-aqueous crossover coating process which featured an organic sub-coating followed by an aqueous active coating. Sucrose beads and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as inert cores and a coating material, respectively. Characterizations including size distribution analysis, in-vitro release studies and in-vitro disintegration studies were performed. A pharmacokinetic study of the ODMs was also conducted in eight beagle dogs. It was found that sucrose beads should be coated using organic solvents to preserve their original morphology. For the active coating, the aqueous coating solution should be used for drug stability. When sucrose beads were coated using organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs with round shapes were produced with detectable impurities below limit of US Pharmacopeia. The median size of ODMs was 195.6 μm, which was considered small enough for a good mouthfeel. The ODMs dissolved in artificial saliva within 15 s because of hydrophilic materials including sucrose and HPC in the ODMs. Because of its fast-dissolving properties, 100% release of the drug was reached within 5 min. Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax and AUC24 indicated bioequivalence of the ODMs and the conventional immediate release tablets. Therefore, by using the organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs were successively prepared with small size, round shapes and good drug stability.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 11/2013; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aims of the present study were to prepare new dual-mode floating gastroretentive tablets (DF-GRT) containing itraconazole (ITR) and to evaluate influence of the dosage forms on pharmacokinetic parameters of ITR. The solubility of ITR was enhanced around 200 times (from 1.54 to 248.38 µg/mL) by preparing solid dispersion (SD) with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Buoyancy of DF-GRT containing ITR-SD was established by both camphor sublimation and gas generation. Camphor sublimation decreased density of DF-GRT by making pores in tablet matrix, which led to elimination of lag time for floating. Carbon dioxide generated by sodium bicarbonate and citric acid helped to maintain buoyancy of DF-GRT. Therefore DF-GRT floated on the medium without lag time until disintegrated entirely during in vitro release study. They released 89.11% of the drug at 2 h. Residual camphor was <0.5 wt% after sublimation. The pharmacokinetics of DF-GRT was evaluated in six miniature pigs and compared to immediate release tablets (IRT). Mean AUC ratio of GRT/IRT was 1.36 but there was no statistical difference between AUC values. However delayed tmax, increased MRT and equivalent Cmax of DF-GRT supposed it could be a promising tool for gastroretentive drug delivery system containing ITR.
    Drug Delivery 11/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four-arm PEG cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels containing PEGylated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL) were fabricated, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in pancreatic cell (Mia Paca-2)-xenografted mice. HA was conjugated with 4-arm PEG10k-amine (a cross-linker) at ratios of 100: 1 and 100: 2 using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride as a cross-linker, and TRAIL or PEG-TRAIL were incorporated into these HA hydrogels. HA hydrogels at a 100: 1 ratio were prepared in good yields (>88%), were moderately stiff, and gradually released PEG-TRAIL over ∼14 days in vitro and over ∼7 days in vivo (as determined by HPLC and infrared imaging). The released PEG-TRAIL was found to have obvious apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells. PEG-TRAIL HA hydrogels displayed remarkably more antitumor efficacy than TRAIL HA hydrogels in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volumes (size) and weights (453.2 mm(3) and 1.03 g vs. 867.5 mm(3) and 1.86 g). Furthermore, this improved antitumor efficacy was found to be due to the apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in vivo (determined by a TUNEL assay) despite its substantially lower cytotoxicity than native TRAIL (IC50 values: 71.8 and 202.5 ng/ml, respectively). This overall enhanced antitumor effect of PEG-TRAIL HA hydrogels appeared to be due to the increased stability of PEGylated TRAIL in HA hydrogels. Our findings indicate that this HA hydrogel system combined with PEG-TRAIL should be considered a potential candidate for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    Acta biomaterialia 09/2013; · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalable glycol chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing palmitic acid-modified exendin-4 (Pal-Ex4) (chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs) were prepared and characterized. The surface morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were investigated, and the adsorption and cytotoxicity of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Finally, the lung deposition characteristics and hypoglycemia caused by chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated after pulmonary administration in imprinting control region (ICR) and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Results showed that chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were spherical, compact and had a diameter of ~700 nm and a positive surface charge of +28.5 mV Chitosan-coated PLGA NPs were adsorbed onto A549 cells much more so than non-coated PLGA NPs. Pal-Ex4 release from chitosan-coated PLGA NPs was delayed by as much as 1.5 days as compared with chitosan-coated Ex4 PLGA NPs. In addition, chitosan-coated PLGA NPs remained in the lungs for ~72 hours after pulmonary administration, whereas most non-coated PLGA NPs were lost at 8 hours after administration. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic efficacy of inhaled chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs was 3.1-fold greater than that of chitosan Ex4 PLGA NPs in db/db mice. The authors believe chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs have considerable potential as a long-acting inhalation delivery system for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 08/2013; 8:2975-83. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respirable microparticles/nanoparticles of the antibiotics vancomycin (VCM) and clarithromycin (CLM) were successfully designed and developed by novel organic solution advanced spray drying from methanol solution. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of pump feeding rates of 25% (low P), 50% (medium P) and 75% (high P). Systematic and comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), Karl Fischer titration (KFT), laser size diffraction (LSD), gravimetric vapor sorption (GVS), confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and spectroscopy for chemical imaging mapping. These novel spray-dried (SD) microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) with high values in emitted dose (ED), respirable fraction (RF), and fine particle fraction (FPF). VCM DPIs displayed better aerosol dispersion performance compared to CLM DPIs which was related to differences in the physicochemical and particle properties of VCM and CLM. In addition, organic solution advanced co-spray drying particle engineering design was employed to successfully produce co-spray-dried (co-SD) multifunctional microparticulate/nanoparticulate aerosol powder formulations of VCM and CLM with the essential lung surfactant phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), for controlled release pulmonary nanomedicine delivery as inhalable dry powder aerosols. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of molar ratios of co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC. XRPD and DSC confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid-state was preserved following spray drying. Co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC dry powder aerosols demonstrated controlled release of antibiotic drug that was fitted to various controlled release mathematical fitting models. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model described the best data fit for all powders suggesting super case-II transport mechanism of controlled release. Excellent aerosol dispersion performance for all co-SD microparticulate/nanoparticulate DPIs was higher than the SD antibiotic drugs suggesting that DPPC acts as an aerosol performance enhancer for these antibiotic aerosol dry powders. Co-SD VCM:DPPC DPIs had higher aerosol dispersion parameters compared to co-SD CLM:DPPC which was related to differences in the physicochemical properties of VCM and CLM.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of polymeric excipients for dutasteride solid dispersion, experimental approaches together with physical interactions at molecular level were evaluated. The drug and various polymers (anionic, amphiphilic, and hydrophilic) were mixed physically into different ratios and their thermodynamic and physical properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The enhanced equilibrium solubility of dutasteride was also investigated. Dutasteride is non-ionic and showed low solubility in the tested pH ranges (lower than the detection limit of 20 ng/mL). Kollidon(®) MAE 100P, an anionic polymer, showed enhanced dutasteride solubility in aqueous solution followed by hydrophilic Kollidon(®) SR and the amphiphilic polymer, Soluplus(®). Melting point (T m ) of dutasteride was 249.7 °C and was decreased to 229.84 °C when mixed evenly with Kollidon(®) MAE 100P. However, the melting point was not detected at a ratio of 1:4 since it fully dissolved or dispersed in the polymer. Glass transition temperature (T g ) of different compositions exhibited strong interaction of polymer and drug. The result was supported by spectra evidence that Kollidon(®) MAE 100P forms hydrogen bonds with dutasteride presenting strong physical interaction with the primary amine group of dutasteride. This study supports a convenient method that together with microscopic observation can perform polymer selection and characterize solid dispersions.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 06/2013; 37(2). · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the method of excipients addition (intra-granularly or extra-granularly) and type of excipients on the stability of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate (PRM) tablets. Corn starch, pre-gelatinized starch, dibasic calcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose or lactose anhydrous were used as excipients. PRM tablets were prepared by a wet granulation method and stability tests were performed at 40 °C/75 % RH, 60 °C or 80 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of PRM. While PRM raw material was inherently stable, decreased content and increased related substances were detected for PRM tablets. By incorporating pre-gelatinized starch with the drug intra-granularly, the most stable PRM tablet formulation was achieved. The results of XRD, SEM and EDS suggested that PRM was at the surface of granules with an amorphous state. In general, as the amorphous form is more reactive than the crystalline form, compatibility between PRM and the excipient plays an important role for drug stability in the tablet. Therefore, it is essential to select proper excipients to improve stability of PRM tablets prepared using the wet granulation method.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To reduce the adverse effects of aceclofenac that accompanied with oral administration of this drug, transdermal patches in the form of drug-in-adhesive (DIA) patches, containing aceclofenac, were formulated. The effect of formulation factors on the skin permeation of the drug and physical properties of the patch were evaluated using excised rat skins. The optimized patch contained 12 % aceclofenac and 20 % lauryl alcohol in DT-2852 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the DIA patch were determined after application of the transdermal patches to human volunteers. The calculated relative bioavailability of the aceclofenac DIA patch was 18.2 % compared to oral administration of the drug. The findings of this study suggest that transdermal application of aceclofenac can substitute for oral administration of the drug.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 03/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doxazosin mesylate (DXM) sustained release pellets were prepared by an extrusion-spheronization and fluid-bed coating technique. The core pellets containing DXM were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique, and coated by a fluid-bed coater to control the release of DXM. The factors affecting to properties of pellets, such as diluent content, type and coating level of coating agents and plasticizers were studied in the present study. Polymethacrylate derivatives (Eudragit(®) RS PO and RL PO) were used for coating agents, and PEG 6000, TEC and castor oil were as plasticizers. To evaluate the properties of prepared pellets, the size of prepared pellets was investigated by sieve analysis technique and the morphology of pellets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Through the dissolution test, factors that have an effect on the dissolution of the drug were evaluated. As the content ratio of MCC had increased, the dissolution was proportionally sustained. Eudragit(®) RS PO had more marked sustaining effect on the dissolution rate than Eudragit(®) RL PO, and the effect was more pronounced with the increased coating level. PEG 6000 was an appropriate plasticizer for DXM pellets, and increasing the content of PEG 6000, was also slightly decreasing the dissolution rate.
    Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 02/2013; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation is aimed to formulate floating gastroretentive tablets containing metformin using a sublimation material. In this study, the release of the drug from a matrix tablet was highly dependent on the polymer concentrations. In all formulations, initial rapid drug release was observed, possibly due to the properties of the drug and polymer. The effect of the amount of PEO on swelling and eroding of the tablets was determined. The water uptake and erosion behavior of the gastroretentive (GR) tablets was highly dependent on the amount of PEO. The water uptake increased with increasing PEO concentration in the tablet matrix. The weight loss from tablets decreased with increasing amounts of PEO. Camphor was used as the sublimation material to prepare GR tablets that are low-density and easily floatable. Camphor was changed to pores in the tablet during the sublimation process. SEM revealed that the GR tablets have a highly porous morphology. Floating properties of tablets and tablet density was affected by the sublimation of camphor. Prepared floating gastroretentive tablets floated for over 24 h and had no floating lag time. However, as the amount of camphor in the tablet matrix increased, the crushing strength of the tablet decreased after sublimation. Release profiles of the drug from the GR tablets were not affected by tablet density or porosity. In pharmacokinetic studies, the mean plasma concentration of the GR tablets after oral administration was greater than the concentration of glucophase XR. Also, the mean AUC(0-∞) values for the GR tablets were significantly greater than the plasma concentrations of glucophase XR.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 12/2012; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to prepare a topical solution containing itraconazole (ITR)-phenol eutectic mixture and to evaluate its ex vivo skin permeation, in vivo deposition and in vivo irritation. The eutectic mixture was prepared by agitating ITR and phenol (at a weight ratio of 1:1) together at room temperature. The effects of additives on the skin permeation of ITR were evaluated using excised hairless mouse skin. The in vivo skin deposition and skin irritation studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rat and New Zealand white rabbit model. The permeability coefficient of ITR increased with addition of oleic acid in the topical solution. Otherwise, the permeability coefficient was inversely proportional to the concentration of the thickening agent, HPMC. The optimized topical solution contained 9 wt% of the ITR-phenol eutectic mixture, 9.0 wt% of oleic acid, 5.4 wt% of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and 76.6 wt% of benzyl alcohol. The steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of the optimized topical solution were 0.90 ± 0.20 μg/cm(2)·h and 22.73 ± 5.73 × 10(6) cm/h, respectively. The accumulated of ITR in the epidermis and dermis at 12 h was 49.83 ± 9.02 μg/cm(2). The topical solution did not cause irritation to the skins of New Zealand white rabbits. Therefore, the findings of this study indicate the possibilities for the topical application of ITR via an external preparation.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 11/2012; 35(11):1935-43. · 1.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

399 Citations
169.19 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2012
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tyundyu, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2011–2012
    • Pusan National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2007–2009
    • Wonkwang University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Iksan, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • KLE College of Pharmacy
      Belgaum, Karnātaka, India