[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a growing evidence that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinases) play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders, especially with inflammatory etiology and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Despite the fact that gelatinases involve in liver cirrhosis is provided in the literature, their role in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis and non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases is still under investigation. DATA SOURCE: We carried out a PubMed search of English-language articles relevant to the involvement of gelatinases in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, pancreatitis, and non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases. RESULTS: The decreased activity of gelatinases, especially MMP-2, is related to the development of liver fibrosis, probably due to the decrease of capability for ECM remodeling. Similar situation can be found in chronic pancreatitis; however, reports on this matter are rare. The presence of non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases results in MMP-9 activity elevation. CONCLUSION: The fluctuation of gelatinases activity during liver fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis and non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases is observed, but the exact role of these enzymes demands further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloidosis is characterised by the accumulation of poorly soluble fibrous proteins in the extracellular space of various bodily organs. Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is recognised as the most common form of systemic amyloidosis. Light chains are deposited in the majority of bodily organs, and accumulation of them in the liver produces hepatomegaly. We report a case of AL-systemic amyloidosis with liver involvement in a 71-year-old woman. Hepatomegaly, weight loss and general malaise were the first manifestations of the disease. Liver biopsy found amyloid deposits along the sinusoids as well as in the space of Disse, inside the vascular wall and in connective tissue of the portal tracts, which showed a positive reaction in Congo Red stain. Further diagnosis showed the presence of systemic amyloidosis. The patient was put on cyclophosphamide and steroid therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron is an essential micronutrient of almost all organisms, which is involved in many metabolic processes. Disorders of serum iron balance that relate mainly to its deficiency are frequently observed in patients with liver diseases. The aim of the study was the evaluation of serum iron parameters in patients with different chronic liver diseases and analysis of the relationships between serum level of iron, ferritin and transferrin in women and men in groups examined.
The study includes 424 patients: 151 with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC), 53 with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 54 with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), 19 patients with hepatocellulare cancer (HOC), 34 with primary biliaris cirrhosis (PBC), 39 with chronic HCV hepatitis, 48 with chronic HBV hepatitis, 15 with primary sclerosans cholangitis (PSC) and 11 patients with hemochromatosis. Forty two healthy volunteers were the control group.
The highest mean serum level of iron was observed in patients with hemochromatosis and was 278.56 +/- 25.04 mg/dl. The mean level of iron was statistically significant different in patients with HCC in comparison to the patients with ALC (p = 0.0000), with AIH (p = 0.0108) and NAFLD (p = 0.00768). The mean level of ferritin was statistically significantly higher among patients with hemochromatosis (p = 0.0000), with ALC (p = 0.0037) and NAFLD (p = 0.0442) than in the controls. Patients with AIH, HCC, HCV infection, PSC and hemochromatosis showed higher serum level of transferin than the controls (p = 0.0000). The mean level of iron and ferritin was lowerin women than in men in the patients with ALC (p = 0.0088, p = 0.0018 respectively). The mean level of ferritin was significantly lower in men than in women among patients with NAFLD. (p = 0.0065). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean level of examined parameters between the sexes.
Reduced serum level of iron is observed in chronic liver diseases. Elevated ferritin level is typical for patients with ALC and NAFLD. Differences in the level of iron, ferritin and transferin between men and women concemrn the patients with ALC while among patients with NAFLD only ferritin level differences are found.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 08/2013; 35(206):77-81.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a very wide clinical spectrum. Advanced fibrosis that accompanies disease leads to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, identification of patients with advanced fibrosis is essential. The aim of the present study was to compare the usefulness of NAFLD fibrosis and BARD scores in predicting fibrosis in NAFLD and to determine the risk factors of advanced fibrosis. Material/Methods: The study included 126 patients with NAFLD. Fibrosis in liver biopsy was scored on a 5-point scale. The BARD and the NAFLD fibrosis scores were compared with the biopsy findings. Results: Liver biopsy revealed 27 patients with advanced and 99 with mild/moderate fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis was statistically significantly more common in older patients with obesity, AST/ALT ratio ≥0.8, diabetes mellitus, and thrombocytes ≤200×103/L. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value and AUROC curve for BARD score, and NAFLD fibrosis score were 68.57%, 96.70%, 0.865 and 70.59%, 98.11%, 0.919, respectively. Conclusions: Both scores are capable of ruling out advanced fibrosis and markedly reducing the need for liver biopsies in patients with NAFLD. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, thrombocytes ≤200×103/L, advanced age and AST/ALT ratio ≥0.8 are the risk factors of advanced fibrosis.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 12/2012; 18(12):CR735-740. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown the key role of genetic factors in the development of chronic pancreatitis.
The aim of the study was to establish whether the frequency of the N34S mutation of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene differs between patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, alcoholics without any digestive organ damage, and controls. We also sought to investigate whether the frequency of this mutation differs between women and men, and whether the mutation is associated with the age of patients at first diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.
The study included 207 patients: 67 with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 35 with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 43 alcoholics with no damage to digestive organs, and 62 healthy volunteers who served as controls. The N34S mutation of the SPINK1 gene was detected with the polymerase chain reaction.
The N34S mutation of the SPINK1 gene occurred in 15 of 207 patients (7.25%). The mutation was most frequent in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (10 patients, 16.39%) and was more frequent compared with the control group (2 patients, 3.23%) (P = 0.047). There were no statistically significant differences between the other groups: patients with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (2 patients, 5.71%), alcoholics without digestive organ damage (1 patient, 2.33%), and controls. The mutation was more frequent in men than in women (P = 0.043). There were no differences between patients with and without the mutation in terms of the age at first diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (P >0.05).
The N34S mutation of the SPINK1 gene seems to be significantly correlated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.
Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 06/2012; 122(6):277-83. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have implicated essential role of genetic factors in development of chronic panreatitis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the frequency differences of the NS34 mutation of SPINK1 gene between patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, alcoholics without any digestive organ damage and controls. We wanted to find out if this mutation occurs with different frequency among males and females and if the mutations affects the age of chronic pancreatitis onset. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 207 patients were qualified for the study: 67 with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 35 with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 43 alcoholics with no damage to digestive organs and 62 healthy volunteers who were the control group. The NS34 mutation of SPINK1 gene was detected with polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In the study group of 207 patients the NS34 mutation of SPINK1 gene occurred in 15 patients (7.25% frequency). This mutation was the most frequent in the group with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (10 patients, 16.39%) and was more frequent in comparison to the control group (2 patients, 3.23%) (p=0.047), differences between other groups: nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (2 patients, 5.71%), alcoholics without any digestive organ damage (1 patient, 2.33%) and controls- were statistically insignificant. This mutation was more frequent in males than females (p=0.043). The age of chronic pancreatitis onset was not different between the groups of patients with the NS34 mutation of SPINK1 gene and without it (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The NS34 mutation of SPINK1 gene seems to be significantly correlated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.
Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 06/2012; · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumor marker used in clinical diagnosis and for monitoring the course of treatment. Serum concentration of AFP in excess of several hundred ng/ml is nearly 100 percent positive predictive value for hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was evaluation of AFP serum concentration in patients with different chronic liver diseases and the relationship between the concentration of AFP and gender in the studied groups of patients.
The study includes 359 patients: 72 with autoimmune hepatitis, 27 with cancer metastatic to the liver, 53 with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, 207 with liver cirrhosis and 40 healthy volunteers as control group. The concentration of AFP was examined in all patients.
The highest AFP concentration occurred in the patients with autoimmune hepatitis, with metastatic liver cancer and with liver cirrhosis 16.81 +/- 5.49 ng/ml, 9.67 +/- 1.48 ng/ml i 8.42 +/- 2.73 ng/ml (p < 0.001 compared to the control group) respectively. Considering the classification of cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh Score the mean concentrations of AFP were: in Class A - 7.03 +/- 2.29 ng/ml, B - 7.59 +/- 2.45 ng/ml i C - 10.02 +/- 2.40 ng/ml. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean AFP concentrations between the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the control group. Also showed no differences in the average concentration of AFP in men and women in study groups of patients (p > 0.05).
Elevated serum AFP concentration typically up to several ng/ml is observed in autoimmune hepatitis, metastatic liver cancer and liver cirrhosis. Concentration of AFP correlates with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Simple steatosis of liver as one of the forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by normal serum concentration of AFP. No relationship between AFP concentration and gender in patients with chronic liver disease is observed.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 06/2012; 32(192):374-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of ascites is usually associated with portal hypertension, usually due to cirrhosis of the liver, with portal vein thrombosis, congestive cardiac failure, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, tuberculosis. Approximately 10% of all cases of ascites occurs in malignant tumors, mostly of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this publication is to present the case of 63-year-old woman who has a basic and initial sole manifestation of disease--cancer of the ovary--was increasing ascites.
Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 10/2011; 31(184):233-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in asymptomatic patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis.
Patients (pts) with symptoms of decompensation of liver cirrhosis, ascites, and no signs indicating SBP were included to our study. Exclusion criteria include: 1/ clinical symptoms of infection, 2/ developing de novo or worsening hepatic encephalopathy, 3/ gastrointestinal bleeding within the last month, 4/ renal failure, 5/ antibiotic treatment or norfloxacin prophylaxis at admission. About 60 ml of ascitic fluid were drawn for lab examination. Pathologic assessment for atypical cells was also performed.
37 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 56.2 ± 12.1. The Child-Pugh classification revealed 13 (35.1%) patients of class B and 24 (64.9%) patients of class C. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score in this group was 16.6 ± 6.8. The mean ascitic protein content was 1.85 ± 1.09 g/dL and mean neutrophil count 144.8 ± 445.1/mm3. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed: signs of bacterascites in 6 of 37 (16.2%) pts; neutrocytic ascites in 1 of 37 (2.7%) pts; and 2 of 37 (5.4%) pts met criteria for SBP. C-reactive protein level was the best predictor of infection [SBP(+) 47.9 ± 40.9 versus SBP(-) 11.7 ± 5.1; p= 0.0005].
The prevalence of SBP in asymptomatic cirrhotics with ascites is low. We observed the trend towards more frequent occurrence of the infection in patients suffered from severe liver disease (Child-Pugh C group).
Advances in Medical Sciences 06/2011; 56(1):13-7. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence poses a serious medical and sociological problem. It is influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors, which may determine differences in alcohol metabolism. Genetic polymorphism of the enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism is highly ethnically and race dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences, if present, in the allele and genotype frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B), ADH1C and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS/CYP2E1) between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls and also to determine if these genotypes cause a difference in the age at which the patients become alcohol dependent. The allele and genotype frequencies of ADH1B, ADH1C, and CYP2E1 were determined in 204 alcohol dependent men and 172 healthy volunteers who do not drink alcohol (control group). Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP methods on white cell DNA. ADH1B*1 (99.3%) and ADH1C*1 (62.5%) alleles and ADH1B*1/*1 (N = 201) and ADH1C*1/*1 (N = 85) genotypes were statistically more frequent among alcohol-dependent subjects than among controls (99.3 and 62.5%, N = 201 and 85 vs 94.5 and 40.7%, N = 153 and 32, respectively). Differences in the CYP2E1 allele and genotype distribution between groups were not significant. The persons with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes became alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes (28.08, 25.67 years vs 36.0, 45.05, 34.45 years, respectively). In the Polish men examined, ADH1C*1 and ADH1B*1 alleles and ADH1C*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*1 genotypes favor alcohol dependence. The ADH1B*2 allele may protect from alcohol dependence. However, subjects with ADH1C*1/*1 and CYP2E1*c1/*c2 genotypes become alcohol dependent at a considerably younger age than the subjects with ADH1C*1/*2, ADH1C*2/*2 and CYP2E1*c1/*c1 genotypes.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2010; 43(3):257-61. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the role of PPAR ligands in the course of inflammation and of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-gamma-specific agonist, on the course of experimental acute pancreatitis (EAP).
EAP was induced by administration of 5% sodium taurocholate injected into the pancreatic duct. The inflammatory activity was evaluated by biochemical scores (alpha-amylase, lipase, aminotransferases, and bilirubin), morphological changes (determined by light microscopy, H+E stained), and immunohistochemical reactions (ICAM, nitrotyrosine).
Rosilgitazone administered in the course of EAP at a dose 50 mg/kg p.o. decreased the intensity of morphological changes (edema, inflammatory infiltrates, necrosis, and erythrocyte extravasations). In the rosiglitazone-treated animals all the biochemical parameters of EAP were statistically significantly decreased. Immunohistochemical reactions against ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine showed that rosiglitazone decreased the intensity of inflammatory reactions in the groups of treated animals.
PPAR-gamma agonists modulate the course of the inflammatory reaction. The administration of rosiglitazone decreased the intensity of the inflammatory process in the course of sodium taurocholate-induced EAP.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 02/2009; 15(1):BR21-9. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In gastroenterology non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is health hazard. Frequency of occurrence accounts for 40-150 cases per 100000 inhabitants with death rate of 7-14%. Researches which goal is to improve treatment effectiveness as well as to establish standardized procedures for managing patients with symptoms of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding; have been conducted since many years. At the moment of admission, designed standards enable appropriate elaboration of patients' health state, referral to the right clinic and implementation of the most accurate treatment methods. Increase of suppression of primary bleeding as well as prevention of recurrence is associated with dynamic development of endoscopic treatment methods as well as with optimization of pharmacological treatment. In significant percentage, efficiency of non - variceal bleedings treatment depends on clinic's character (availability of equipment, experience of personnel) and on cooperation between several specialists (including gastroenterologist, surgeon, anesthetist, operative radiologist). Aim of the work is to present the latest evaluation of the mentioned subject, based on accessible literature. This work includes the basic principles for determination of bleeding intensity and risk of its recurrence as well as directions referring to fluids resuscitation and to monitoring of patients. Information on currently applied endoscopic methods for inhibition of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (injection, mechanical and thermo-coagulation techniques), comparison of their efficiency and possibility of application is provided in the work. The paper work also presents the newest directives for pharmacological treatment and guidelines for possible surgical treatment.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 08/2008; 59 Suppl 2:215-29. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In last years significant progress in recognizing mechanisms of portal hypertension pathophysiology was done. However, some unclear topics in this disease still exist. Portal hypertension is primarily caused by the increase in resistance to portal outflow and secondly by an increase in splanchnic blood flow. Portal hypertension is associated with changes in the intrahepatic, systemic, and portosystemic collateral circulation. Alterations in vasoreactivity (vasodilation and vasoconstriction) play a central role in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension by contributing to increased intrahepatic resistance, hyperdynamic circulation, and expansion of the collateral circulation. Among vasoactive substances which are activated in portal hypertension nitric oxide (NO) is considered as the most important vasodilator. Endothelin-1 and cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins are the main vasoconstrictor factors. The imbalance between the hyperresponsiveness and overproduction of vasoconstrictors and the hyporesponsiveness and impaired production of vasodilators are the mechanisms responsible of the increased vascular one in the sinusoidal area of the liver. New concepts in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension find the significant role of hepatic stellate cells activated by endothelial factors which cause vascular remodeling as an adaptive response of the portal vessels wall. The most frequent causes of portal hypertension include portal vein thrombosis, storage diseases of the liver, hepatic cirrhosis (independent of etiology), hepatic veins thrombosis and schistosomiasis. Understanding the pathophysiology of portal hypertension could be of great utility in preventing and curing the complications of portal hypertension, such as esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 08/2008; 59 Suppl 2:231-8. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disease, in which the exocrine function of the gland is gradually lost and fibrosis develops due to repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of RAS inhibitors on the apoptosis of acinar cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) elimination in experimental CP induced by dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). CP was induced by administration of DBTC to the femoral vein. Simultaneously captopril, losartan, enalapril and lisinopril were administered intraperitoneally. The rats were decapitated after 60 days and tissue of pancreas was collected. In rats treated by DBTC the features of inflammatory infiltration, ductal lumen dilatation, fibrosis were found. Strong reactivity with caspase2(L) and clusterin-beta antibodies was observed in areas of fibrosis. In animals treated with RAS inhibitors inflammatory changes and fibrosis were less severe. In groups of rats treated with DBTC and RAS inhibitors immunoreactivity of caspase(2L) and clusterin-beta was weak. Positive immunostaining against smooth muscle actine and desmin was observed in the elongated cells (PSC-s). This reaction was weak in groups of rat treated with DBTC and RAS inhibitors. Treatment of CP rats with RAS inhibitors alleviate apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells and induces PSCs elimination.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 08/2008; 59 Suppl 2:239-49. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies in Western countries. The lifetime risk of developing CRC is estimated at 5-6%. Available data indicate that the epidemiologic situation in Poland leaves a lot to be desired. Approximately 8000 patients die of CRC each year in Poland and outcomes of the disease treatment expressed as the 5-year survival rate are among the worst in Europe, not exceeding 25%. Colorectal cancer is a disease which requires activities promoting early diagnostics and wide-scale prevention due to the fact that it meets the pathologic criteria suitable for the population screening tests. Different screening tests are used in routine medical practice and their use depends on their availability to a patient, according to the principle of superiority of any screening over no screening. This article reviews different screening methods according to their practical value assessed on the basis of the best available evidence.
Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 05/2008; 118(4):224-7. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the myenteric ganglion cells, termed the interstitial Cajal cells. The majority, i.e. 95% of GIST, show expression of the membrane receptor protein CD117 with a tyrosine kinase activity c-kit. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors constitute less than 1% of all digestive tract tumors. They may be benign or malignant (30%), and occur in every part of the gastrointestinal tract, however the stomach is the most common localization. They develop with the same prevalence in men and in women, usually above the age of 50 years. The peak incidence is observed between the fifth and the sixth decade of life. Symptoms are not typical and depend on the localization and the tumor size. About 10-30% of GIST are completely asymptomatic, and are discovered accidentally during the endoscopy or X-rays evaluation as well as during surgical interventions performed for various reasons. The malignant tumors metastasize most commonly to the liver and peritoneum. The metastases are rarely found in the lungs, pleura and bones. The detection of GIST is based on imaging, endoscopy, histological and immunohistochemical examinations. A useful and promising diagnostic procedure is positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis is mostly based on the pathologic findings of the removed tumor. The prognosis of GIST depends on its size, mitotic activity in 50 high power fields and mucosal infiltration. Radical surgery is the best treatment of GIST.
Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 05/2008; 118(4):216-21. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis develops in 5-10% of alcohol addicts. In developed societies, alcohol is the cause of chronic pancreatitis in at least 70-80% of cases. The genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism is relevant in the etiopathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to find the ADH, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 alleles and genotypes in the Polish population that are likely to be responsible for higher susceptibility to chronic alcohol pancreatitis.
We determined the allele and genotype of ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 in 141 subjects: 44 with alcohol chronic pancreatitis (ACP), 43 healthy alcoholics and 54 healthy non-drinkers as the controls. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RELP methods on white cell DNA.
ADH2*1, ADH3*1 alleles and ADH2*1/*1, ADH3*1/*1 genotypes were statistically more frequent among the patients with ACP than among the controls. The ADH3*2/*2 genotype was more frequent among "healthy alcoholics" and in the controls than among those with ACP. In the studied group, only the ALDH2*1 allele was detected, all patients were ALDH2*1/*1 homozygotic. Differences in the CYP2E1 allele and genotype distribution in the examined groups were not significant.
In the Polish population examined, ADH3*1 and ADH2*1 alleles may be risk factors for the development of alcoholism. The ADH3*2/*2 genotype may confer protection against ACP. CYP2E1 gene polymorphism is not related to alcoholism and ACP. The Polish population examined is ALDH2*1/*1 homozygotic.