[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) case identification is challenging in older children since laboratory markers of congenital rubella virus (RUBV) infection do not persist beyond age 12 months.
We enrolled children with CRS born between 1998 and 2003 and compared their immune responses to RUBV with those of their mothers and a group of similarly aged children without CRS. Demographic data and sera were collected. Sera were tested for anti-RUBV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG avidity, and IgG response to the 3 viral structural proteins (E1, E2, and C), reflected by immunoblot fluorescent signals.
We enrolled 32 children with CRS, 31 mothers, and 62 children without CRS. The immunoblot signal strength to C and the ratio of the C signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration were higher (P < .029 for both) and the ratio of the E1 signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration lower (P = .001) in children with CRS, compared with their mothers. Compared with children without CRS, children with CRS had more RUBV-specific IgG (P < .001), a stronger C signal (P < .001), and a stronger E2 signal (P ≤ .001). Two classification rules for children with versus children without CRS gave 100% specificity with >65% sensitivity.
This study was the first to establish classification rules for identifying CRS in school-aged children, using laboratory biomarkers. These biomarkers should allow improved burden of disease estimates and monitoring of CRS control programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most infections with the rubella virus result in relatively minor sequelae, rubella infection in early pregnancy may lead to severe adverse outcomes for the fetus. First recognized in 1941, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can manifest with a diverse range of symptoms, including congenital cataracts, glaucoma, and cardiac defects, as well as hearing and intellectual disability. The gestational age of the fetus at the time of the maternal rubella infection impacts the probability and severity of outcomes, with infection in early pregnancy increasing the risks of spontaneous termination (miscarriage), fetal death (stillbirth), birth defects, and reduced survival for live-born infants. Rubella vaccination continues to change the epidemiology of rubella and CRS globally, but no models currently exist to evaluate the economic benefits of rubella management. This systematic review provides an overall assessment of the weight of the evidence for the outcomes associated with rubella infections in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. We identified, evaluated, and graded 31 studies (all from developed countries) that reported on the pregnancy outcomes of at least 30 maternal rubella infections. We used the available evidence to estimate the increased risks of spontaneous termination, fetal death, infant death, and CRS as a function of the timing of rubella infection in pregnancy and decisions about induced termination. These data support the characterization of the disability-adjusted life years for outcomes associated with rubella infection in pregnancy. We find significant impacts associated with maternal rubella infections in early pregnancy, which economic analyses will miss if they only focus on live births of CRS cases. Our estimates of fetal loss from increased induced terminations due to maternal rubella infections provide context that may help to explain the relatively low numbers of observed CRS cases per year despite potentially large burdens of disease. Our comprehensive review of the weight of the evidence of all pregnancy outcomes demonstrates the importance of including all outcomes in models that characterize rubella-related disease burdens and costs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) continues to cause disability among unvaccinated populations in countries with no or insufficient rubella vaccine coverage to prevent transmission. We systematically reviewed the literature on birth outcomes associated with CRS to estimate the duration, severity, and frequency of combinations of morbidities. We searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references from relevant articles for studies in English with primary data on the frequency of CRS manifestations for ≥20 cases and identified 65 studies representing 66 study populations that met our inclusion criteria. We abstracted available data on CRS cases with one or more hearing, heart, and/or eye defect following maternal rubella infection during the period of 0–20 weeks since the last menstrual period. We assessed the quality and weight of the available evidence using a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Most of the evidence originates from studies in developed countries of cohorts of infants identified with CRS in the 1960s and 1970s, prior to the development of standardized definitions for CRS and widespread use of vaccine. We developed estimates of undiscounted disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per CRS case for countries of different income levels. The estimates ranged from approximately 19 to 39 for high-income countries assuming optimal treatment and from approximately 29 to 39 DALYs lost per CRS case in low- and lower- middle-income countries assuming minimal treatment, with the lower bound based on 2010 general global burden of disease disability weights and the upper bound based on 1990 age-specific and treatment-specific global burden of disease disability weights. Policymakers and analysts should appreciate the significant burden of disability caused by CRS as they evaluate opportunities to manage rubella.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE To verify the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from the Western hemisphere, the Pan American Health Organization requested each member country to compile a national elimination report. The United States documented the elimination of endemic measles in 2000 and of endemic rubella and CRS in 2004. In December 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened an external expert panel to review the evidence and determine whether elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and CRS had been sustained. OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for sustained elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and CRS from the United States through 2011. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Review of data for measles from 2001 to 2011 and for rubella and CRS from 2004 to 2011 covering the US resident population and international visitors, including disease epidemiology, importation status of cases, molecular epidemiology, adequacy of surveillance, and population immunity as estimated by national vaccination coverage and serologic surveys. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Annual numbers of measles, rubella, and CRS cases, by importation status, outbreak size, and distribution; proportions of US population seropositive for measles and rubella; and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage levels. RESULTS Since 2001, US reported measles incidence has remained below 1 case per 1 000 000 population. Since 2004, rubella incidence has been below 1 case per 10 000 000 population, and CRS incidence has been below 1 case per 5 000 000 births. Eighty-eight percent of measles cases and 54% of rubella cases were internationally imported or epidemiologically or virologically linked to importation. The few cases not linked to importation were insufficient to represent endemic transmission. Molecular epidemiology indicated no endemic genotypes. The US surveillance system is adequate to detect endemic measles or rubella. Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage data indicate high levels of population immunity to measles and rubella. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The external expert panel concluded that the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and CRS from the United States was sustained through 2011. However, international importation continues, and health care providers should suspect measles or rubella in patients with febrile rash illness, especially when associated with international travel or international visitors, and should report suspected cases to the local health department.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cruise ship outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) such as rubella and varicella have been previously associated with introduction and spread among susceptible crew members originating from countries with endemic transmission of these diseases.
During February to April 2006, we investigated a cluster of rash illnesses due to measles, rubella, or varicella on a cruise ship sailing from Florida to the Caribbean. Case-finding measures included review of medical logs, active surveillance for rash illness among crew members, and passive surveillance for rash illness in the ship's infirmary lasting two incubation periods from the last case of measles. Passengers with potential exposure to these VPD were notified by letters. All susceptible crew members with potential exposure were administered the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine after informed consent.
A total of 16 cases were identified only among crew members: 1 rubella, 3 measles (two-generation spread), 11 varicella (three-generation spread), and 1 unknown diagnosis. Of 1,197 crew members evaluated, 4 had proof of immunity to measles and rubella. Based on passive surveillance, no cases were identified among passengers, the majority of whom resided in the United States.
The international makeup of the population aboard cruise ships combined with their semi-enclosed environment has the potential to facilitate introduction and spread of VPD such as measles, rubella, and varicella onboard and into communities. Cruise lines should ensure crew members have evidence of immunity to these diseases. Passengers should be up to date with all vaccinations, including those that are travel-specific, prior to embarking on cruise travel.
Journal of Travel Medicine 07/2012; 19(4):233-7. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2010, an expert advisory panel convened by the World Health Organization to assess the feasibility of measles eradication concluded that (1) measles can and should be eradicated, (2) eradication by 2020 is feasible if measurable progress is made toward existing 2015 measles mortality reduction targets, (3) measles eradication activities should occur in the context of strengthening routine immunization services, and (4) measles eradication activities should be used to accelerate control and elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The expert advisory panel also emphasized the critical role of research and innovation in any disease control or eradication program. In May 2011, a meeting was held to identify and prioritize research priorities to support measles and rubella/CRS control and potential eradication activities. This summary presents the questions identified by the meeting participants and their relative priority within the following categories: (1) measles epidemiology, (2) vaccine development and alternative vaccine delivery, (3) surveillance and laboratory methods, (4) immunization strategies, (5) mathematical modeling and economic analyses, and (6) rubella/CRS control and elimination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elimination of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by 2015 are established goals for Europe. Our aim was to review the epidemiology of rubella in relation to this goal.
National surveillance institutions from 32 European countries provided information on rubella and CRS surveillance systems and data for 2000-08. We reported the number of notified rubella cases by year for countries with a national mandatory notification system for rubella covering total country population consistently throughout 2000-08 and analysed rubella surveillance data for 2008.
Throughout 2000-08, 24 countries conducted passive routine surveillance based on mandatory reporting rubella covering total country population. Altogether these countries reported 526,751 rubella cases. The median incidence per million inhabitants declined from 7.2 in 2000 to 0.3 in 2008. By 2008, the number of countries with mandatory notification systems for rubella increased to 28. These countries reported 21,475 rubella cases of which 1.5% (n=317) were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases (n=21,075; 98%) were reported from Poland, Italy and Romania. Ten countries reported zero rubella cases and five others reported an incidence of <1 per million inhabitants. In 2008, 20 CRS cases were reported from five countries.
The overall decline in rubella incidence and increase in the number of countries conducting rubella surveillance through a mandatory notification system are notable achievements toward the goal of rubella elimination in Europe. However, in a few countries with high rubella incidence the risk for CRS still exists. Achievement and maintenance of the required high vaccination coverage and high-quality surveillance of rubella and CRS including laboratory testing of all suspected cases are fundamental to eliminate rubella and prevent CRS in Europe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On 29 October 2004, an expert panel was convened to review the status of elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the United States. Primarily based on 5 types of information presented--epidemiology of reported cases, molecular epidemiology, seroprevalence, vaccine coverage, and adequacy of surveillance--the panel unanimously agreed that rubella virus is no longer endemic in the United States. Since 2004, new data continue to support the conclusion that elimination has been achieved and maintained. In documenting elimination in the United States, each of the 5 types of data provided evidence for elimination and collectively provided much stronger evidence than any one type could individually. As countries document the elimination of rubella and CRS, many sources and types of data will likely be necessary. Rigorous data evaluation must be conducted to look for inconsistencies among the available data. To maintain elimination, countries should maintain high vaccine coverage, adequate surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204 Suppl 2:S593-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the significant teratogenicity of rubella virus and the use of a live-attentuated vaccine, pregnancy is a contraindication of receipt of rubella vaccine (RCV). Data collected from several countries that have observed susceptible women who had received RCV during pregnancy documented that no infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has been born, so the risk is theoretical. As part of the regional initiative to eliminate rubella and CRS in the Americas, one of the key strategies was the vaccination of women of childbearing age. The implementation of mass vaccination campaigns targeting women of childbearing age in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay provided an opportunity to further increase the body of knowledge on the safety of rubella vaccine if an unknowingly pregnant woman is vaccinated in early pregnancy.
Using a standard protocol, women who were unknowingly pregnant or become pregnant ≤ 30 days after receiving RCV were evaluated to determine immunity status (eg, susceptible, immune, and unknown) at the time of vaccination. Susceptible pregnant women were observed to determine the outcome of the pregnancy. For pregnancies that resulted in live births, serum samples were obtained from the newborn for rubella immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody testing. If the newborn's serum sample was IgM positive, the infant was evaluated for manifestations of CRS.
During the period 2001-2008, 48748253 women of childbearing age were vaccinated in the region of the Americas, 39542253 (81%) of whom were vaccinated in the 6 selected countries. Of these women, 30139 (0.07%) were pregnant or became pregnant ≤1 month after receiving vaccine and were followed up. On the basis of serological evaluation, 2894 (10%) women were classified as susceptible at the time of vaccination; of their pregnancies, 1980 (90%) resulted in a live birth. Sera from 70 (3.5%) of these infants were rubella IgM antibody positive, but none of the infants had features of CRS as a result of rubella vaccination. The maximum theoretical risk for CRS following rubella vaccination of susceptible pregnant women was 0.2%. Conclusions. The results of these studies from 6 select countries provides additional evidence showing an absence of risk of CRS associated with administering rubella vaccine shortly before or during pregnancy.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204 Suppl 2:S713-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the region of the Americas, goals for the elimination of endemic measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by the year 2000 and 2010, respectively were established. The successful implementation of measles elimination strategies in the region of the Americas resulted in the interruption of endemic measles transmission in 2002 and tremendous progress toward rubella and CRS elimination. In October 2007, the 27th Pan American Sanitary Conference adopted Resolution CSP27.R2 urging member states to begin documenting and verifying the interruption of endemic transmission of the measles and rubella viruses in the Americas. To ensure a standardized approach for the process of documentation and verification, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) developed a regional plan of action to guide countries and their national commissions as they prepare and consolidate evidence of the interruption of endemic measles and rubella transmission. This article summarizes the plan of action including the essential criteria and components of the guidelines.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204 Suppl 2:S683-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most developing countries, rubella vaccine has not been included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization because of lack of information on the burden of disease caused by rubella virus, increased cost associated with adding rubella vaccine, and the concern that if high vaccine coverage cannot be achieved and maintained, the risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) may increase. Data for 2009 reported by countries to the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund through the annual Joint Reporting Form were used to indicate patterns in the worldwide use of rubella vaccines, describe the number of reported rubella and CRS cases by WHO Region, and explore factors associated with decisions by countries to introduce rubella vaccine in their national childhood immunization programs. The number of WHO Member States using rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) in their national childhood immunization schedule increased from 83 (43%) in 1996 to 130 (67%) in 2009. Although scheduled ages for rubella vaccination vary across countries and regions, most countries have a 2-dose schedule using a combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Among 130 countries using RCV in 2009, median coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 90%-98%), compared with a median MCV1 coverage of 76% (IQR, 64%-88%) in countries not using RCV. The median per capita gross national income among 130 countries using RCV was US $6300 (IQR, $3227-$20 916), compared with $635 (IQR, $337-$1027) for 63 countries not using RCV. In 2009, 121 344 rubella cases from 167 countries were reported to WHO. However, only 165 CRS cases were reported globally, of which 67 were in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Further improvements in surveillance are needed to better document the burden of CRS, and new financing mechanisms will be required to catalyze the introduction of rubella vaccine in developing countries that currently meet the coverage criteria for introduction of rubella vaccine.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204 Suppl 2:S579-84. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of eliminating rubella from the Americas by 2010 was established in 2003. Subsequently, a systematic nomenclature for wild-type rubella viruses (wtRVs) was established, wtRVs circulating in the region were catalogued, and importations of wtRVs into a number of countries were documented. The geographic distribution of wtRVs of various genotypes in the Americas, interpreted in the context of the global distribution of these viruses, contributed to the documentation of rubella elimination from some countries. Data from virologic surveillance also contributed to the conclusion that viruses of genotype 2B began circulating endemically in the Americas during 2006-2007. Viruses of one genotype (1C), which are restricted to the Americas, will likely disappear completely from the world as they are eliminated from the Americas. Efforts to expand virologic surveillance for wtRVs in the Americas will also provide additional data aiding the elimination of rubella from the region. For example, identification of vaccine virus in specimens from rash and fever cases found during elimination can identify such cases as vaccine associated.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204 Suppl 2:S647-51. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rubella, usually a mild rash illness in children and adults, can cause serious consequences when a pregnant woman is infected, particularly in early pregnancy. These serious consequences include miscarriage, fetal death or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)). The primary purpose for rubella vaccination is the prevention of congenital rubella infection including CRS. Since 1969, several rubella virus vaccines have been licensed for use; however, until the 1990s, use of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) was limited primarily to developed countries. In 1996, it was estimated that 110,000 infants with CRS were born annually in developing countries. In 2000, the first World Health Organization rubella vaccine position paper was published to guide introduction of RCV in national childhood immunization schedules. From 1996 to 2009, the number of countries that introduced RCV into their national routine childhood immunization programs increased by 57% from 83 countries in 1996 to 130 countries in 2009. In addition, three of the six WHO regions established rubella control and CRS prevention goals: Region of the Americas and Europe rubella elimination by 2010 and 2015, respectively, and Western Pacific Region-accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention by 2015. Also, during this time period, the number of rubella cases reported decreased from 670,894 in 2000 to 121,344 in 2009. Rubella control and prevention of CRS can be accelerated by integrating with current global measles mortality reduction and regional elimination activities.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 204 Suppl 1:S24-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella.
We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008.
Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from <1 year to 60 years), with disproportionately higher percentage of cases among adolescent boys. Of 18 children with reported CRS cases from 1997 through 2008, 15 (83%) of their mothers had not been vaccinated. Measles-mumps-rubella dose 1 vaccination coverage ranged from 97% to 99%.
Poland had the highest incidence of rubella in the WHO European Region in 2007 and 2008. Rubella occurs predominantly in age and sex cohorts historically not included in vaccination recommendations. The risk for CRS continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 204 Suppl 1:S389-95. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Government of Nepal is interested in preventing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Surveillance data were analyzed and studies conducted to assess the burden of rubella and CRS and aid in developing a rubella vaccination strategy.
(1) Analysis of rubella cases reported through measles surveillance, 2004-2009; (2) in 2008, rubella seroprevalence among women 15 to 39 years of age was evaluated; and (3) in 2009, children attending a school for the deaf were examined for ocular defects associated with CRS.
From 2004-2009, there were 3,710 confirmed rubella cases and more than 95% of these cases were less than 15 years of age. Of 2,224 women of childbearing age (WCBA) tested for anti-rubella IgG, 2,020 (90.8%) were seropositive. Using a catalytic infection model, approximately 1,426 infants were born with CRS (192/100,000 live births) in 2008. Among 243 students attending a school for the deaf, 18 (7.4%) met the clinical criteria for CRS.
Rubella and CRS were documented as significant public health problems in Nepal. A comprehensive approach is necessary, including introducing rubella vaccine in the routine program, assuring immunity among WCBA, strengthening routine immunization, integrating rubella surveillance with measles case-based surveillance, and establishing CRS surveillance.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 204 Suppl 1:S433-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite elimination of endemic measles in the United States (US), outbreaks associated with imported measles continue to occur. In 2007, the initiation of a multistate measles outbreak was associated with an imported case occurring in a participant at an international youth sporting event held in Pennsylvania.
Case finding and contact tracing were conducted. Control measures included isolating ill persons and administering postexposure prophylaxis to exposed persons without documented measles immunity. Laboratory evaluation of suspected cases and contacts included measles serologic testing, viral culture, detection of viral RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and viral genotyping.
The index case occurred in a child from Japan aged 12 years. Contact tracing among 1250 persons in 8 states identified 7 measles cases; 5 (71%) cases occurred among persons without documented measles vaccination. Epidemiologic and laboratory investigation supported a single chain of transmission, linking the outbreak to contemporaneous measles virus genotype D5 transmission in Japan. Of the 471 event participants, 193 (41%) lacked documentation of presumed measles immunity, 94 (49%) of 193 were US-resident adults, 19 (10%) were non-US-resident adults (aged >18 years), and 80 (41%) were non-US-resident children.
Measles outbreaks associated with imported disease are likely to continue in the US. Participants in international events, international travelers, and persons with routine exposure to such travelers might be at greater risk of measles. To reduce the impact of imported cases, high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine coverage rates should be maintained throughout the US, and support should continue for global measles control and elimination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2006 mumps resurgence in the United States raised questions about the appropriate isolation period for people with mumps. To determine the scientific basis for isolation recommendations, we conducted a literature review and considered isolation of virus and virus load in saliva and respiratory secretions as factors that were related to mumps transmission risk. Although mumps virus has been isolated from 7 days before through 8 days after parotitis onset, the highest percentage of positive isolations and the highest virus loads occur closest to parotitis onset and decrease rapidly thereafter. Most transmission likely occurs before and within 5 days of parotitis onset. Transmission can occur during the prodromal phase and with subclinical infections. Updated guidance, released in 2007-2008, changed the mumps isolation period from 9 to 5 days. It is now recommended that mumps patients be isolated and standard and droplet precautions be followed for 5 days after parotitis onset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rubella, usually a mild febrile rash illness in children and adults, can produce devastating consequences of fetal death and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when a woman becomes infected early in pregnancy. In 1996, the burden of CRS in developing countries was estimated to be 110,000 cases.
In 1969, rubella vaccines were first licensed in the United States leading to widespread use in industrialized countries during the 1970s and 1980s. However, rubella vaccine was not included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization of most developing countries until after the mid-1990s due to several concerns which included increased cost for combination measles-rubella (MR) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and lack of burden of CRS disease information to support vaccine usage.
In 1996, 80 (42%) of 191 WHO member countries had introduced rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into their national childhood programs. By 2007, the number of countries introducing RCV into their routine program had increased to 125 (65%) with the most significant increases occurring in the Region of the Americas (57% to 97%), the European Region (73% to 96%) and the Western Pacific Region (37% to 67%). These significant increases have resulted in two WHO regions establishing goals for rubella and CRS elimination by 2010 (Americas Region), and for rubella elimination and prevention of congenital rubella infection by 2010 (European Region). While there has been significant progress toward control and elimination of rubella and CRS, more work needs to be done to document disease burden, build political and financial commitment for sustained financing and address remaining policy questions.
137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009