Ulrike Erben

Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (49)206.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of Tropheryma (T.) whipplei-stuffed macrophages in the duodenum, impaired T. whipplei-specific Th1 responses and weak secretion of IL-12 are hallmarks of classical Whipple's disease (CWD). This study addresses dendritic cell (DC) functionality during CWD. We documented composition, distribution and functionality of DC ex vivo or after in vitro maturation by FACS and by immunohistochemistry in situ. A decrease in peripheral DC of untreated CWD patients compared to healthy donors was due to reduced CD11c(high) myeloid DC (M-DC). Decreased maturation markers CD83, CD86 and CCR7 as well as low IL-12 production in response to stimulation disclosed an immature M-DC phenotype. In vitro generated monocyte-derived DC from CWD patients showed normal maturation and T cell-stimulatory capacity under pro-inflammatory conditions, but produced less IL-12 and failed to activate T. whipplei-specific Th1 cells. In duodenal and lymphoid tissues, T. whipplei was found within immature DC-SIGN(+) DC and DC and proliferating lymphocytes were reduced in LN of CWD patients compared to controls. Our results indicate that dysfunctional IL-12 production by DC provides suboptimal conditions for priming of T. whipplei-specific T cells during CWD and that immature DC carrying T. whipplei might contribute to the disseminate the bacterium.
    Infection and immunity. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background & AimsIn liver fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) secrete excess extracellular matrix, thus, represent key targets for antifibrotic treatment strategies. Intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channels (KCa3.1) are expressed in non-excitable tissues affecting proliferation, migration and vascular resistance rendering KCa3.1 potential targets in liver fibrosis. So far, no information about KCa3.1 expression and their role in HSC exists. Aim was to quantify the KCa3.1 expression in HSC depending on HSC activation and investigation of antifibrotic properties of the specific KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34 in vitro and in vivo.MethodsKCa3.1 expression and functionality were studied in TGF-β1-activated HSC by quantitative real time PCR, western-blot and patch-clamp analysis, respectively. Effects of TRAM-34 on HSC proliferation, cell cycle and fibrosis-related gene expression were assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, FACS-analysis and RT-PCR, respectively. In vivo, vascular resistance and KCa3.1 gene and protein expression were determined in bile duct ligated rats by in situ liver perfusion, Taqman PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.ResultsFibrotic tissues and TGF-β1-activated HSC exhibited higher KCa3.1-expressions than normal tissue and untreated cells. KCa3.1 inhibition with TRAM-34 reduced HSC proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest and reduced TGF-β1-induced gene expression of collagen I, alpha-smooth muscle actin and TGF-β1 itself. Further, TRAM-34 blocked TGF-β1-induced activation of TGF-β signaling in HSC. In vivo, TRAM-34 reduced the thromboxane agonist-induced portal perfusion pressure.Conclusion Inhibition of KCa3.1 with TRAM-34 downregulates fibrosis-associated gene expression in vitro, and reduces portal perfusion pressure in vivo. Thus, KCa3.1 may represent novel targets for the treatment of liver fibrosis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 09/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histomorphology remains a powerful routine evaluating intestinal inflammation in animal models. Emphasizing the focus of a given animal study, histopathology can overstate differences between established models. We aimed to systematize histopathological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models facilitating interstudy comparisons. Samples of all parts of the intestinal tract from well-established mouse models of intestinal inflammation were evaluated from hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections and specific observations confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemistry. Three main categories sufficiently reflected the severity of histopathology independent of the localization and the overall extent of an inflammation: (i) quality and dimension of inflammatory cell infiltrates, (ii) epithelial changes and (iii) overall mucosal architecture. Scoring schemata were defined along specified criteria for each of the three categories. The direction of the initial hit proved crucial for the comparability of histological changes. Chemical noxes, infection with intestinal parasites or other models where the barrier was disturbed from outside, the luminal side, showed high levels of similarity and distinct differences to changes in the intestinal balance resulting from inside events like altered cytokine responses or disruption of the immune cell homeostasis. With a high degree of generalisation and maximum scores from 4-8 suitable scoring schemata accounted specific histopathological hallmarks. Truly integrating demands and experiences of gastroenterologists, mouse researchers, microbiologists and pathologists we provide an easy-to-use guideline evaluating histomorphology in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Standard criteria and definitions facilitate classification and rating of new relevant models, allow comparison in animal studies and transfer of functional findings to comparable histopathologies in human disease.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 08/2014; 7(8):4557-4576. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During antimicrobial treatment of classic Whipple's disease (CWD), the chronic systemic infection with Tropheryma whipplei, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is a serious complication. The aim of our study was to characterize the immunological processes underlying IRIS in CWD. Following the definition of IRIS, we describe histological features of IRIS and immunological parameters of 24 CWD IRIS patients, 189 CWD patients without IRIS, and 89 healthy individuals. T cell reconstitution, Th1 reactivity, and the phenotype of T cells were described in the peripheral blood, and infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in the duodenal mucosa was determined. During IRIS, tissues were heavily infiltrated by CD3(+), predominantly CD45RO(+)CD4(+) T cells. In the periphery, initial reduction of CD4(+) cell counts and their reconstitution on treatment was more pronounced in CWD patients with IRIS than in those without IRIS. The ratio of activated and regulatory CD4(+) T cells, nonspecific Th1 reactivity, and the proportion of naive among CD4(+) T cells was high, whereas serum IL-10 was low during IRIS. T. whipplei-specific Th1 reactivity remained suppressed before and after emergence of IRIS. The findings that IRIS in CWD mainly are mediated by nonspecific activation of CD4(+) T cells and that it is not sufficiently counterbalanced by regulatory T cells indicate that flare-up of pathogen-specific immunoreactivity is not instrumental in the pathogenesis of IRIS in CWD.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonresolving inflammation is a hallmark of many types of tumors and the molecular mechanisms maintaining this inflammation are still largely unknown. In a two stage carcinogenesis model, we observed here that the lack of IFNγ receptor or neutralization of IFNγ accelerated spontaneous papilloma regression in mice. The impaired maintenance of local inflammation was associated with reduced IFNγ and enhanced biosynthesis of pro-resolution lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Interestingly, blocking LXA4 eliminated the effect of anti-IFNγ, while treatment of mice with a therapeutic dose of LXA4 accelerated papilloma regression in an IFNγ independent manner. These results link for the first time a cytokine-dependent maintenance of inflammation with a down-regulated production of pro-resolution lipid mediators. Strategies promoting spontaneous resolution of chronic inflammation by blocking IFNγ and/or increasing LXA4 may be useful for the treatment of inflammation-associated tumors.
    Cancer Research 01/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TNF, an inflammatory cytokine that is enriched in the tumor microenvironment, promotes tumor growth and subverts innate immune responses to cancer cells. We previously reported that tumors implanted in TNF receptor-deficient (Tnfr-/-) mice are spontaneously rejected; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this rejection are unclear. Here we report that TNF signaling drives the peripheral accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs expand extensively during inflammation and tumor progression in mice and humans and can enhance tumor growth by repressing T cell-mediated antitumor responses. Peripheral accumulation of MDSCs was drastically impaired in Tnfr-/- mice. Signaling of TNFR-2, but not TNFR-1, promoted MDSC survival through upregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and inhibition of caspase-8 activity. Loss of TNFRs impaired the induction of MDSCs from bone marrow cells, but this could be reversed by treatment with caspase inhibitors. These results demonstrate that TNFR-2 signaling promotes MDSC survival and accumulation and helps tumor cells evade the immune system.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2012; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In experimental models of and humans with intestinal inflammation, increased levels of the matrix-degrading gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 in inflamed tissues can be detected. The synthetic collagen analogue (Gly-Pro-Hyp)10, (GPO)10, has been identified as a relevant binding structure for proMMP-2/-9 and promotes enzymatic activity of proMMP-2. Since targeted MMP strategies might offer promising anti-inflammatory treatment options, we for the first time studied in vivo actions exerted by (GPO)10 applying an acute dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis model. Seven-day intraperitoneal (GPO)10 treatment ameliorated clinical symptoms and histopathological colonic changes as compared to placebo controls with severe colitis. (GPO)10-treated mice displayed a diminished influx of neutrophils, and T- and B-lymphocytes into their colonic mucosa whereas numbers of regulatory T-cells and regenerative cells were higher as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion was down-regulated in ex vivo colonic biopsies derived from (GPO)10-treated mice whereas higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in extra-intestinal compartments such as MLN and spleen could be detected. Strikingly, influx of inflammatory cells into lungs was abolished following (GPO)10 application. We therefore propose (GPO)10 as a promising effective and safe treatment option of intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions in humans.
    European journal of microbiology & immunology. 09/2012; 2(3):192-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Diseases such as liver fibrosis and intestinal inflammation are characterized by accumulated components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Given that fibrillar collagen structures were shown to serve as storage site for inactive proforms of matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs), modulating this MMP-collagen interaction might offer a rational interventional (therapeutic) approach to enhance degradation of accumulated ECM. The synthetic triple helical collagen analogue (Gly-Pro-Hyp)10 - (GPO)10 - was shown to trigger release and enzymatic activation of collagen sequestered proMMP-2. In the presented study, we, for the first time, investigated how MMP-(GPO)10 interaction impacts cellular responses in vitro. We found that recombinant proMMP-2 induced proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which was enhanced after addition of (GPO)10 reaching comparable levels following incubation with fully activated MMP-2. In addition, (GPO)10 induced HSC migration similar to the platelet-derived growth factor subunit-B. Further, the MMP-2-dependent invasion of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells through an ECM membrane was enhanced after addition of (GPO)10. Since cellular proliferation and migration concomitant with matrix degradation is stimulated, we conclude that the MMP-(GPO)10 interaction also functions in a physiological environment. Thus, a potential therapeutic effect of (GPO)10 should be further tested in animal models for MMP-associated diseases such as colitis or fibrosis.
    European journal of microbiology & immunology. 09/2012; 2(3):186-91.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Effects of immune cells on the beta 2 (β2)-defensin (HBD2) expression and its antibacterial activity in the intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases remains unclear. The small size of these proteins presents a major challenge in localizing antibacterial activities in human intestinal tissue. In this study, we evaluated the detection limits at mRNA and protein level by approaching HBD2 from small tissue samples. METHODS: HT-29 colonic epithelial cells were incubated with proinflammatory cytokines before HBD2 mRNA was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The HBD2 protein was assessed by Western blot analysis using HBD2 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (HBD2-EGFP). Purified HBD2 fused with the glutathione-S-transferase (GST-HBD2) was used to detect antibacterial activity in a densitometric assay. RESULTS: Interleukin (IL)-1β induced HBD2 mRNA in HT-29 cells; however, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 and IL-17 did not. The Western blot had a sensitivity of 1.5 pmol to detect recombinant HBD2, but did not detect HBD2 in either human intestinal or IL-1β-treated HT-29 cells. HBD2-EGFP was detected by HBD2-specific Western blot within cell lysates and culture supernants of transfected HT-29 and primary cells. In nanomolar ranges, GST-HBD2 reduced bacterial growth. The HBD2 bioactivity depended on solution conditions, but not on the size of the fusion partner. CONCLUSION: The established fusion proteins provide excellent tools to evaluate expression patterns and antibacterial effects of HBD2 in human intestinal tissue samples.
    Agents and Actions 08/2012; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and its associated health risks still demand for effective therapeutic strategies. Drugs and compositions derived from Oriental medicine such as green tea polyphenols attract growing attention. Previously, an extract from the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L. obtusiloba) traditionally used for treatment of inflammation and prevention of liver damage was shown to inhibit adipogenesis. Aiming for the active principle of this extract (+)-episesamin was identified, isolated and applied in adipogenic research using 3T3-L1 (pre)adipocytes, an established cell line for studying adipogenesis. With an IC(50) of 10μM (+)-episesamin effectively reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased hormone-induced 3T3-L1 differentiation as shown by reduced accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets and diminished protein expression of GLUT-4 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Mechanistically, the presence of (+)-episesamin during hormone-induced differentiation provoked a reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and β-catenin along with a reduced protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and a strongly increased protein expression of iNOS. Treatment of mature adipocytes with (+)-episesamin resulted in a reduction of intracellular stored lipid droplets and induced the proapoptotic enzymes caspases-3/-7. Besides interfering with adipogenesis, (+)-episesamin showed anti-inflammatory activity by counteracting the lipopolysaccharide- and tumor necrosis factor α-induced secretion of interleukin 6 by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In conclusion, (+)-episesamin seems to be the active drug in the L. obtusiloba extract being responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis and, thus, should be evaluated as a novel potential complementary treatment for obesity.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 07/2012; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Crohn's disease bacteria could be detected in the adjacent mesenteric fat characterized by hypertrophy of unknown function. This study aimed to define effector responses of this compartment induced by bacterial translocation during intestinal inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis served as a model of intestinal inflammation. Translocation of peptides and bacteria into mesenteric fat was evaluated. Innate functions of mesenteric fat and epithelium were characterized at whole tissue, cellular, and effector molecule levels. Orally applied peptides translocated in healthy wild-type (WT) mice. Bacterial translocation was not detected in healthy and acute but increased in chronic colitis. Mesenteric fat from colitic mice released elevated levels of cytokines and was infiltrated by immune cells. In MyD88(-/-) mice bacterial translocation occurred in health and increased in colitis. The exaggerated cytokine production in mesenteric fat accompanying colonic inflammation in WT mice was less distinct in MyD88(-/-) mice. In vitro studies revealed that fat not only increases cytokine production following contact with bacterial products, but also that preadipocytes are potent phagocytes. Colonic inflammation is accompanied by massive cytokine production and immune cell infiltration in adjacent adipose tissue. These effects can be considered as protective mechanisms of the mesenteric fat in the defense of bacterial translocation.
    Mucosal Immunology 05/2012; 5(5):580-91. · 7.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The creeping fat in Crohn's disease (CD) is infiltrated by macrophages; local adipokine levels are increased. This study aimed to link these observations to define a role for macrophages in the pathology of human CD. METHODS: Human peripheral blood CD14 cells were polarised in vitro into M1 and M2 macrophages. The effects on adipokine receptors, phenotypic surface markers, cytokines and chemokines were assessed after treatment with leptin and adiponectin. Immunohistochemistry visualised macrophage subtypes in samples of mesenteric fat tissue from patients with CD. The chemotactic potential of secreted macrophage products was determined by T cell migration and chemokine production in vitro. RESULTS: Although both adipokines altered the phenotype and function of M1 and M2 macrophages, M2 macrophages were more susceptible. M1 responded to leptin by increased cytokine production, but the stronger effect was seen in M2 macrophages with high expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor α. Adiponectin exerted similar effects and led to upregulated mannose receptor expression by M2 macrophages. Large macrophage numbers within the mesenteric fat tissue of patients with CD comprise a unique infiltration predominantly of M2 macrophages, leading to an IL-10-rich environment. While leptin increased the potency of both subtypes to attract CD3 T cells, adiponectin only affected M2 macrophages. CONCLUSION: The adipocyte-dependent microenvironment within the creeping fat of patients with CD modulates the local macrophage compartment to a preference for the M2 subtype. The findings in this study with human cells suggest a protective role for the mesenteric fat in CD in terms of an enveloping barrier with the potential to limit intestinal inflammation.
    Gut 04/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Well-established differences in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) elimination in resistant C57BL/6 and permissive A.SW/SnJ mice provide suitable models for studying the significance of the link between mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC), antioxidative stress components and mitochondrion-related apoptosis in the context of myocardial virus elimination. Distinct myocardial CVB3 titer in C57BL/6 (2.5 ± 1.4 × 10(4) plaque-forming units (p.f.u.)/g tissue) and A.SW/SnJ mice (1.4 ± 0.8 × 10(7) p.f.u./g) were associated with differences in the cardiac mitochondrial function 8 days post infection (p.i.). Infected C57BL/6 mouse hearts disclosed increased complex I (CI) and CIII activity, but restricted CII and normal CIV activity of RC. Reduced expression of the antioxidative catalase was accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO), indicating oxidative stress. Intrinsic apoptosis was activated demonstrated by elevated levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3 and DNA degradation. In contrast, all myocardial RC complex activities were restricted in CVB3-infected A.SW/SnJ mice. The antioxidative system provided sufficient protection against oxidative stress shown by an elevated catalase expression and unaltered LPO. Bax and Bcl-2 levels were unchanged in CVB3-infected A.SW/SnJ mice, while caspase 3 was moderately increased but no DNA degradation was detectable. Correlation analyses including data from the two mouse strains revealed that reduced CVB3 titer correlated with increased CI and CIII activity, oxidative stress as well as active apoptosis during acute myocarditis (MC). C57BL/6 mice completely eliminated CVB3 and inflammation and normalized all intracellular parameters, while A.SW/SnJ mice showed permanently restricted CI activity in chronic MC 90 days p.i., at which time the replicating virus was no longer detectable but immunological processes were still active. Consequently, the regulation of energy metabolism appears crucial for an effective virus elimination and may be of prognostic and therapeutic significance for patients with virus-induced MC.
    Laboratory Investigation 01/2012; 92(1):125-34. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gut-activated T cells migrating into the liver can cause extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. T cells acquire a gut-homing phenotype dependent on retinoic acid (RA) provided by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). We investigated whether liver antigen-presenting cells can induce gut tropism supporting an enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation. Priming of CD4(+) T cells by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) supported migration into gut and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. As observed for T cells primed by intestinal DCs, this gut tropism depended on α(4) β(7) integrin and CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) expression by LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells. The induction of gut-homing molecules was mediated by RA, a derivate of vitamin A that is stored in large amounts within the liver. LSECs expressed functional retinal dehydrogenases and could convert vitamin A to RA. Conversely, the lack of signaling via the RA receptor prevented the expression of α(4) β(7) integrin and CCR9 on LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells, consequently reducing their in vivo migration to the intestine. Other liver antigen-presenting cells failed to support high expression of α(4) β(7) integrin on CD4(+) T cells, thus, the potential to induce gut homing is restricted to LSECs. CONCLUSION: The capacity to promote gut tropism via vitamin A use is not unique for intestinal DCs but is also a feature of LSECs. Our data support the assumption that CD4(+) T cells can migrate from the liver to the gut as one branch of a postulated enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation.
    Hepatology 11/2011; 55(6):1976-84. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Treatment options, especially in advanced tumor stages, are still limited. Inhibition of signaling cascades involved in the pathogenesis of HCC - such as NF-ĸB - offer a promising therapeutic approach. Aim of this study was to examine anti-neoplastic effects of (+)-episesamin which has been isolated from an anti-fibrotic extract of Lindera obtusiloba on human HCC cells with particular interest in activation of NF-κB. The human HCC cell lines HepG2, Huh-7 and SK-Hep1 were treated with (+)-episesamin. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects of (+)-episesamin on NF-κB-activity, VEGF secretion and enzymatic MMP-9 activity were determined. Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by IL-6 ELISA using HCC cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. 10 μM (+)-episesamin reduced the proliferation of HCC cells by ~50%, suppressed invasion and induced apoptosis. DNA-binding ELISA experiments revealed that (+)-episesamin treated HCC cells showed a suppressed basal and TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and a subsequent suppression of TNFα- and LPS-induced IL-6 production. Further, (+)-episesamin exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity of recombinant MMP-9 and the secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF by HCC cells into their supernatants. Our findings show that anti-neoplastic effects of (+)-episesamin are mediated via suppressed activation of NF-κB which entails a decreased release of pro-inflammatory IL-6. In addition, (+)-episesamin inhibits MMP-9, which is strongly expressed in invasive HCC, and the production of proangiogenic VEGF. We conclude that (+)-episesamin has the potential to be further explored as a complementary treatment for HCC.
    Investigational New Drugs 11/2011; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is caused by chronic infection with Tropheryma whipplei that seems to be associated with an underlying immune defect. The pathognomonic hallmark of CWD is a massive infiltration of the duodenal mucosa with T. whipplei-infected macrophages that disperse systemically to many other organ systems. An alleviated inflammatory reaction and the absence of T. whipplei-specific Th1 reactivity support persistence and systemic spread of the pathogen. In this article, we hypothesized that regulatory T cells (T(reg)) are involved in immunomodulation in CWD, and we asked for the distribution, activation, and regulatory capacity of T(reg) in CWD patients. Whereas in the lamina propria of CWD patients before treatment numbers of T(reg) were increased, percentages in the peripheral blood were similar in CWD patients and healthy controls. However, peripheral T(reg) of CWD patients were more activated than those of controls. Elevated secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β in the duodenal mucosa of CWD patients indicated locally enhanced T(reg) activity. Enhanced CD95 expression on peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells combined with reduced expression of IFN-γ and IL-17A upon polyclonal stimulation by CD4(+) cells from untreated CWD patients further hinted to T(reg) activity-related exhaustion of effector CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, increased numbers of T(reg) can be detected within the duodenal mucosa in untreated CWD, where huge numbers of T. whipplei-infected macrophages are present. Thus, T(reg) might contribute to the chronic infection and systemic spread of T. whipplei in CWD but in contrast prevent mucosal barrier defect by reducing local inflammation.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(8):4061-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrolytic and profibrotic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 play a central role in liver fibrosis. Since binding to the extracellular matrix influences the activity of both gelatinases, here the role of fibrillar collagens as the most abundant matrix components in fibrotic tissue was investigated. In situ zymography and immunohistology showed association of enzymatically inactive prodomain-containing proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 but not of their activated forms to fibrillar collagen structures, which are not substrates of these gelatinases. In solid-phase binding studies with human collagens and collagen fragments, up to 45% of [125I]-labeled proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 but not of active (act)MMP-2 and actMMP-9 were retained by natural collagenous molecules and by synthetic analogs containing repeated Gly-Pro-Hyp triplets (GPO). Surface plasmon resonance yielded binding constants for the interaction of collagen type I (CI) with proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 in a nanomolar range. Values for actMMP-2 and actMMP-9 were 30-40 times higher. Tenfold molar excesses of (GPO)10 reduced the interaction of CI with pro- and actMMP-2 by 22- or 380-fold and resulted in prodomain release accompanied by high enzymatic activation and activity. Pointing to gelatine substrate displacement, higher (GPO)10 concentrations blocked the enzymatic activity. The MMP-2 prodomain-derived collagen-binding domain peptide (P33-42) binds to the collagen-binding domain of MMP-2, thereby preserving enzymatic inactivity. Synthetic P33-42 peptide competed with proMMP-2 binding to CI and prevented (GPO)10-mediated proMMP-2 activation. In contrast to (GPO)10, P33-42 did not activate proMMP-2, making triple helical and hydroxyproline-containing (GPO)10 unique in modulating gelatinase availability and activity. These findings suggest novel strategies using collagen analogs for the resolution of liver fibrosis via fibrotic matrix-sequestered gelatinases.
    Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair 01/2011; 4(1):1.
  • Journal of Hepatology - J HEPATOL. 01/2011; 54.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

323 Citations
206.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • • Institute of Medical Informatics
      • • Medical Department, Division of Hepatology and Gastroenterology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2003
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany