[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Stimulation of cellular fatty acid uptake by induction of insulin signalling or AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation is due to translocation of the fatty acid-transporter CD36 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane (PM). For investigating the role of the four Cys-residues within CD36's cytoplasmic tails in CD36 translocation, we constructed CHO-cells expressing CD36 mutants in which all four, two, or one of the intracellular Cys were replaced by Ser. Intracellular and PM localization of all mutants was similar to wild-type CD36 (CD36wt). Hence, the four Cys do not regulate sub-cellular CD36 localization. However, in contrast to CD36wt, insulin or AMPK activation failed to induce translocation of any of the mutants, indicating that all four intracellular Cys residues are essential for CD36 translocation. The mechanism of defective translocation of mutant CD36 is unknown, but appears not due to loss of S-palmitoylation of the cytoplasmic tails or to aberrant oligomerization of the mutants.
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2014; 120(1):40-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acids not only are important metabolic substrates and building blocks of lipids but are increasingly being recognized for their modulatory roles in a wide variety of cellular processes including gene expression, together referred to as the ‘message-modulator’ function of fatty acids. Crucial for this latter role is the bioavailability of fatty acids, which is governed by their interaction with soluble proteins capable of binding fatty acids, i.e., plasma albumin and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (FABPc), and with both the lipid and protein components of biological membranes, including membrane-associated fatty acid-binding proteins such as the transmembrane protein CD36. Manipulating fatty acid availability holds promise as therapeutic approach for chronic diseases that are characterized by a perturbed fatty acid metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Fatty acid and glucose transporters translocate between the sarcolemma and intracellular compartments to acutely regulate substrate metabolism. We hypothesised that, during ischemia, fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) would translocate away from the sarcolemma, to limit fatty acid uptake when fatty acid oxidation is inhibited.
-Wistar rat hearts were perfused during pre-ischemia, low-flow ischemia and reperfusion, using (3)H-substrates for measurement of metabolic rates, followed by metabolomic analysis and subcellular fractionation. During ischemia, there was a 32% decrease in sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 accompanied by a 95% decrease in fatty acid oxidation rates, with no change in intramyocardial lipids. Concomitantly, the sarcolemmal content of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, increased by 90% during ischemia, associated with an 86% increase in glycolytic rates, 45% decrease in glycogen content and a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase. Following reperfusion, decreased sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 persisted, but fatty acid oxidation rates returned to pre-ischemic levels, resulting in a 35% decrease in myocardial triglyceride content. Elevated sarcolemmal GLUT4 persisted during reperfusion, in contrast, glycolytic rates decreased to 30% of pre-ischemic rates, accompanied by a 5-fold increase in intracellular citrate levels and restoration of glycogen content.
-During ischemia FAT/CD36 moved away from the sarcolemma as GLUT4 moved towards the sarcolemma, associated with a shift from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis, whilst intramyocardial lipid accumulation was prevented. This relocation was maintained during reperfusion, which was associated with replenishing glycogen stores as a priority, occurring at the expense of glycolysis and mediated by an increase in citrate levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in physiological processes, such as muscle contraction. Phospho-specific antibodies have become powerful tools to study these processes. Cardiac myosin bind-ing protein-C (cMyBP-C) is one of the proteins that make up the contractile apparatus of cardiomyocytes. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C is essential for normal cardiac function, since dephosphorylation of this pro-tein leads to its degradation and has been associated with cardiomyopathy. One of the upstream kinases, which phosphorylate cMyBP-C, is protein kinase D (PKD). While studying the role of PKD in cMyBP-C phosphorylation, we tried to analyze phosphorylation of PKD with a phospho-specific PKD-Ser744/748 an-tibody. Contrary to the expected 115 kDa, a signal was found for a 150-kDa protein. By MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we identified this protein to be cMyBP-C. These data were confirmed by immuno-staining using the p-PKD-Ser744/748 antibody, which displayed a striated pattern similar to the one ob-served for a regular cMyBP-C antibody. To our knowl-edge there are no antibodies commercially avail-able for phosphorylated cMyBP-C. Thus, the p-PKD-Ser744/748 antibody can accelerate research into the role of cMyBP-C phosphorylation in cardiomyo-cytes.
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 04/2013; 4:1-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During lipid oversupply, the heart becomes insulin resistant, as exemplified by defective insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and will develop diastolic dysfunction. In the healthy heart, not only insulin, but also increased contractile activity stimulates glucose uptake. Upon increased contraction both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase D (PKD) are activated, and mediate the stimulation of glucose uptake into cardiomyocytes. Therefore, each of these kinases is a potential therapeutic target in the diabetic heart because they may serve to bypass defective insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To test the preventive potential of these kinases against loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, AMPK or PKD were adenovirally overexpressed in primary cultures of insulin resistant cardiomyocytes for assaying substrate uptake, insulin responsiveness and lipid accumulation. To induce insulin resistance and lipid loading, rat primary cardiomyocytes were cultured in the presence of high insulin (100 nM; HI) or high palmitate (palmitate/BSA: 3/1; HP). HI and HP each reduced insulin responsiveness, and increased basal palmitate uptake and lipid storage. Overexpression of each of the kinases prevented loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Overexpression of AMPK also prevented loss of insulin signaling in HI- and HP-cultured cardiomyocytes, but did not prevent lipid accumulation. In contrast, overexpression of PKD prevented lipid accumulation, but not loss of insulin signaling in HI- and HP-cultured cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, AMPK and PKD prevent loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into cardiomyocytes cultured under insulin resistance-inducing conditions through different mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Focus on Cardiac Metabolism SI'.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 11/2012; · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac glucose utilization is regulated by reversible translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. During the onset of diet-induced insulin resistance, elevated lipid levels in the circulation interfere with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, leading to impaired glucose utilization. Recently, we identified vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2 and 3 to be required for insulin- and contraction-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, respectively, in cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated if overexpression of VAMP2 and/or VAMP3 could protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation under conditions of insulin resistance. HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes transiently overexpressing either VAMP2 or VAMP3 were cultured for 16 h with elevated concentrations of palmitate and insulin. Upon subsequent acute stimulation with insulin, we measured GLUT4 translocation, plasmalemmal presence of the fatty acid transporter CD36 and myocellular lipid accumulation. Overexpression of VAMP3, but not VAMP2, completely prevented lipid-induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, the plasmalemmal presence of CD36 and intracellular lipid levels remained normal in cells overexpressing VAMP3. However, insulin signaling was not retained, indicating an effect of VAMP3 overexpression downstream of PKB/Akt. Furthermore, we revealed that endogenous VAMP3 is bound by the contraction-activated protein kinase D (PKD), and contraction and VAMP3 overexpression protect insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation via a common mechanism. These observations indicate that PKD activates GLUT4 translocation via a VAMP3-dependent trafficking step, which pathway might be valuable to rescue constrained glucose utilization in the insulin-resistant heart.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increased cardiac fatty acid supply and increased sarcolemmal presence of the long-chain fatty acid transporter CD36 are associated with and contribute to impaired cardiac insulin sensitivity and function. In the present study we aimed at preventing the development of insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction in cardiomyocytes by blocking CD36-mediated palmitate uptake. Insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction were induced in primary cardiomyocytes by 48 h incubation in media containing either 100 nM insulin (high insulin; HI) or 200 μM palmitate (high palmitate; HP). Under both culture conditions, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were abrogated or markedly reduced. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes cultured in each medium displayed elevated sarcolemmal CD36 content, increased basal palmitate uptake, lipid accumulation and decreased sarcomere shortening. Immunochemical CD36 inhibition enhanced basal glucose uptake and prevented elevated basal palmitate uptake, triacylglycerol accumulation and contractile dysfunction in cardiomyocytes cultured in either medium. Additionally, CD36 inhibition prevented loss of insulin signalling in cells cultured in HP, but not in HI medium. In conclusion, CD36 inhibition prevents lipid accumulation and lipid-induced contractile dysfunction in cardiomyocytes, but probably independently of effects on insulin signalling. Nonetheless, pharmacological CD36 inhibition may be considered as a treatment strategy to counteract impaired functioning of the lipid-loaded heart.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-, and contraction-induced GLUT4 and fatty acid (FA) transporter translocation may share common trafficking mechanisms. Our objective was to examine the effects of partial Munc18c ablation on muscle glucose and FA transport, FA oxidation, GLUT4 and FA transporter (FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP1, FATP4) trafficking to the sarcolemma, and FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. In Munc18c(-/+) mice, insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 sarcolemmal appearance were impaired, but were unaffected by contraction. Insulin- and contraction-stimulated FA transport, sarcolemmal FA transporter appearance, and contraction-mediated mitochondrial FAT/CD36 were increased normally in Munc18c(-/+) mice. Hence, Munc18c provides stimulus-specific regulation of GLUT4 trafficking, but not FA transporter trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is involved in the regulation of cardiac myofilament contraction. Recent evidence showed that protein kinase D (PKD) is one of the kinases that phosphorylate cMyBP-C. However, the mechanism by which PKD-induced cMyBP-C phosphorylation affects cardiac contractile responses is not known. Using immunoprecipitation, we showed that, in contracting cardiomyocytes, PKD binds to cMyBP-C and phosphorylates it at Ser(315). The effect of PKD-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C on cardiac myofilament function was investigated in permeabilized ventricular myocytes, isolated from wild-type (WT) and from cMyBP-C knockout (KO) mice, incubated in the presence of full-length active PKD. In WT myocytes, PKD increased both myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (pCa(50)) and maximal Ca(2+)-activated tension of contraction (T(max)). In cMyBP-C KO skinned myocytes, PKD increased pCa(50) but did not alter T(max). This suggests that cMyBP-C is not involved in PKD-mediated sensitization of myofilaments to Ca(2+) but is essential for PKD-induced increase in T(max). Furthermore, the phosphorylation of both PKD-Ser(916) and cMyBP-C-Ser(315) was contraction frequency-dependent, suggesting that PKD-mediated cMyBP-C phosphorylation is operational primarily during periods of increased contractile activity. Thus, during high contraction frequency, PKD facilitates contraction of cardiomyocytes by increasing Ca(2+) sensitivity and by an increased T(max) through phosphorylation of cMyBP-C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For ~40 years it has been widely accepted that (i) the exercise-induced increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is dependent on the increased delivery of circulating fatty acids, and (ii) exercise training-induced FAO up-regulation is largely attributable to muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. These long standing concepts were developed prior to the recent recognition that fatty acid entry into muscle occurs via a regulatable sarcolemmal CD36-mediated mechanism. We examined the role of CD36 in muscle fuel selection under basal conditions, during a metabolic challenge (exercise), and after exercise training. We also investigated whether CD36 overexpression, independent of mitochondrial changes, mimicked exercise training-induced FAO up-regulation. Under basal conditions CD36-KO versus WT mice displayed reduced fatty acid transport (-21%) and oxidation (-25%), intramuscular lipids (less than or equal to -31%), and hepatic glycogen (-20%); but muscle glycogen, VO(2max), and mitochondrial content and enzymes did not differ. In acutely exercised (78% VO(2max)) CD36-KO mice, fatty acid transport (-41%), oxidation (-37%), and exercise duration (-44%) were reduced, whereas muscle and hepatic glycogen depletions were accelerated by 27-55%, revealing 2-fold greater carbohydrate use. Exercise training increased mtDNA and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase similarly in WT and CD36-KO muscles, but FAO was increased only in WT muscle (+90%). Comparable CD36 increases, induced by exercise training (+44%) or by CD36 overexpression (+41%), increased FAO similarly (84-90%), either when mitochondrial biogenesis and FAO enzymes were up-regulated (exercise training) or when these were unaltered (CD36 overexpression). Thus, sarcolemmal CD36 has a key role in muscle fuel selection, exercise performance, and training-induced muscle FAO adaptation, challenging long held views of mechanisms involved in acute and adaptive regulation of muscle FAO.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(28):23502-16. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fatty acid transporter and scavenger receptor CD36 is increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and its progression towards type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. The redistribution of CD36 from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane is one of the earliest changes occurring in the heart during diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This elicits an increased rate of fatty acid uptake and enhanced incorporation into triacylglycerol stores and lipid intermediates to subsequently interfere with insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment (i.e., insulin resistance). In the present paper we discuss the potential of CD36 to serve as a target to rectify abnormal myocardial fatty acid uptake rates in cardiac lipotoxic diseases. Two approaches are described: (i) immunochemical inhibition of CD36 present at the sarcolemma and (ii) interference with the subcellular recycling of CD36. Using in vitro model systems of high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, the results indicate the feasibility of using CD36 as a target for adaptation of cardiac metabolic substrate utilization. In conclusion, CD36 deserves further attention as a promising therapeutic target to redirect fatty acid fluxes in the body.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism during exercise has been associated with the release of calcium. We examined whether this increase in fatty acid oxidation was attributable to a calcium-induced translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma, thereby providing an enhanced influx of fatty acids to increase their oxidation.
Calcium release was triggered by caffeine (3 mm) to examine fatty acid oxidation in intact soleus muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice, while fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation were examined in giant vesicles and isolated mitochondria, respectively, from caffeine-perfused hindlimb muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice. Western blotting was used to examine calcium-induced signalling.
In WT, caffeine stimulated muscle palmitate oxidation (+136%), but this was blunted in CD36-KO mice (-70%). Dantrolene inhibited (WT) or abolished (CD36-KO) caffeine-induced palmitate oxidation. In muscle, caffeine-stimulated palmitate oxidation was not attributable to altered mitochondrial palmitate oxidation. Instead, in WT, caffeine increased palmitate transport (+55%) and the translocation of fatty acid transporters CD36, FABPpm, FATP1 and FATP4 (26-70%) to the sarcolemma. In CD36-KO mice, caffeine-stimulated FABPpm, and FATP1 and 4 translocations were normal, but palmitate transport was blunted (-70%), comparable to the reductions in muscle palmitate oxidation. Caffeine did not alter the calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation but did increase the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase comparably in WT and CD36-KO.
These studies indicate that sarcolemmal CD36-mediated fatty acid transport is a primary mediator of the calcium-induced increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ) in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased contraction enhances substrate uptake into cardiomyocytes via translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and the long chain fatty acid (LCFA) transporter CD36 from intracellular stores to the sarcolemma. Additionally, contraction activates the signaling enzymes AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1). Although AMPK has been implicated in contraction-induced GLUT4 and CD36 translocation in cardiomyocytes, the precise role of PKD1 in these processes is not known. To study this, we triggered contractions in cardiomyocytes by electric field stimulation (EFS). First, the role of PKD1 in GLUT4 and CD36 translocation was defined. In PKD1 siRNA-treated cardiomyocytes as well as cardiomyocytes from PKD1 knock-out mice, EFS-induced translocation of GLUT4, but not CD36, was abolished. In AMPK siRNA-treated cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocytes from AMPKα2 knock-out mice, both GLUT4 and CD36 translocation were abrogated. Hence, unlike AMPK, PKD1 is selectively involved in glucose uptake. Second, we analyzed upstream factors in PKD1 activation. Cardiomyocyte contractions enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using ROS scavengers, we found that PKD1 signaling and glucose uptake are more sensitive to changes in intracellular ROS than AMPK signaling or LCFA uptake. Furthermore, silencing of death-activated protein kinase (DAPK) abrogated EFS-induced GLUT4 but not CD36 translocation. Finally, possible links between PKD1 and AMPK signaling were investigated. PKD1 silencing did not affect AMPK activation. Reciprocally, AMPK silencing did not alter PKD1 activation. In conclusion, we present a novel contraction-induced ROS-DAPK-PKD1 pathway in cardiomyocytes. This pathway is activated separately from AMPK and mediates GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake, but not CD36 translocation/LCFA uptake.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(8):5871-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: The increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism during exercise has been associated with the release of calcium. We examined whether this increase in fatty acid oxidation was attributable to a calcium-induced translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma, thereby providing an enhanced influx of fatty acids to increase their oxidation. METHODS: Calcium release was triggered by caffeine (3 mm) to examine fatty acid oxidation in intact soleus muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice, while fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation were examined in giant vesicles and isolated mitochondria, respectively, from caffeine-perfused hindlimb muscles of WT and CD36-KO mice. Western blotting was used to examine calcium-induced signalling. RESULTS: In WT, caffeine stimulated muscle palmitate oxidation (+136%), but this was blunted in CD36-KO mice (-70%). Dantrolene inhibited (WT) or abolished (CD36-KO) caffeine-induced palmitate oxidation. In muscle, caffeine-stimulated palmitate oxidation was not attributable to altered mitochondrial palmitate oxidation. Instead, in WT, caffeine increased palmitate transport (+55%) and the translocation of fatty acid transporters CD36, FABPpm, FATP1 and FATP4 (26-70%) to the sarcolemma. In CD36-KO mice, caffeine-stimulated FABPpm, and FATP1 and 4 translocations were normal, but palmitate transport was blunted (-70%), comparable to the reductions in muscle palmitate oxidation. Caffeine did not alter the calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation but did increase the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase comparably in WT and CD36-KO. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that sarcolemmal CD36-mediated fatty acid transport is a primary mediator of the calcium-induced increase in muscle fatty acid oxidation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac patients often are obese and have hypertension, but in most studies these conditions are investigated separately. Here, we aimed at 1) elucidating the interaction of metabolic and mechanophysical stress in the development of cardiac dysfunction in mice and 2) preventing this interaction by ablation of the fatty acid transporter CD36. Male wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice and CD36(-/-) mice received chow or Western-type diet (WTD) for 10 wk and then underwent a sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) under anesthesia. After a 6-wk continuation of the diet, cardiac function, morphology, lipid profiles, and molecular parameters were assessed. WTD administration affected body and organ weights of WT and CD36(-/-) mice, but it affected only plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in WT mice. Cardiac lipid concentrations increased in WT mice receiving WTD, decreased in CD36(-/-) on chow, and remained unchanged in CD36(-/-) receiving WTD. TAC induced cardiac hypertrophy in WT mice on chow but did not affect cardiac function and cardiac lipid concentrations. WTD or CD36 ablation worsened the outcome of TAC. Ablation of CD36 protected against the WTD-related aggravation of cardiac functional and structural changes induced by TAC. In conclusion, cardiac dysfunction and remodeling worsen when the heart is exposed to two stresses, metabolic and mechanophysical, at the same time. CD36 ablation prevents the metabolic stress resulting from a WTD. Thus, metabolic conditions are a critical factor for the compromised heart and provide new targets for metabolic manipulation in cardioprotection.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2011; 301(4):E618-27. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets abundantly express glycoprotein CD36 with thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) as proposed ligands. How these agents promote platelet activation is still poorly understood.
Both TSP1 and oxLDL caused limited activation of platelets in suspension. However, immobilized TSP1 and oxLDL, but not LDL, strongly supported platelet adhesion and spreading with a major role of CD36. Platelet spreading was accompanied by potent Ca(2+) rises, and resulted in exposure of P-selectin and integrin activation, all in a CD36-dependent manner with additional contributions of α(IIb) β(3) and ADP receptor stimulation. Signaling responses via CD36 involved activation of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk. In whole blood perfusion, co-coating of TSP1 or oxLDL with collagen enhanced thrombus formation at high-shear flow conditions, with increased expression on platelets of activated α(IIb) β(3), P-selectin and phosphatidylserine, again in a CD36-dependent way.
Immobilized TSP1 and oxLDL activate platelets partly via CD36 through a Syk kinase-dependent Ca(2+) signaling mechanism, which enhances collagen-dependent thrombus formation under flow. These findings provide novel insight into the role of CD36 in hemostasis.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2011; 9(9):1835-46. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to a chronic high plasma concentration of long-chain fatty acids (FAs), the heart is forced to increase the uptake of FA at the cost of glucose. This switch in metabolic substrate uptake is accompanied by an increased presence of the FA transporter CD36 at the cardiac plasma membrane and over time results in the development of cardiac insulin resistance and ultimately diabetic cardiomyopathy. FA can interact with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which induce upregulation of the expression of enzymes necessary for their disposal through mitochondrial β-oxidation, but also stimulate FA uptake. This then leads to a further increase in FA concentration in the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. These metabolic changes are supposed to play an important role in the development of cardiomyopathy. Although the onset of this pathology is an increased FA utilization by the heart, the subsequent lipid overload results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramide. These compounds have a profound impact on signaling pathways, in particular insulin signaling. Over time the metabolic changes will introduce structural changes that affect cardiac contractile characteristics. The present mini-review will focus on the lipid-induced changes that link metabolic perturbation, characteristic for type 2 diabetes, with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocytes use glucose as well as fatty acids for ATP production. These substrates are transported into the cell by glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the fatty acid transporter CD36. Besides being located at the sarcolemma, GLUT4 and CD36 are stored in intracellular compartments. Raised plasma insulin concentrations and increased cardiac work will stimulate GLUT4 as well as CD36 to translocate to the sarcolemma. As so far studied, signaling pathways that regulate GLUT4 translocation similarly affect CD36 translocation. During the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, CD36 becomes permanently localized at the sarcolemma, whereas GLUT4 internalizes. This juxtaposed positioning of GLUT4 and CD36 is important for aberrant substrate uptake in the diabetic heart: chronically increased fatty acid uptake at the expense of glucose. To explain the differences in subcellular localization of GLUT4 and CD36 in type 2 diabetes, recent research has focused on the role of proteins involved in trafficking of cargo between subcellular compartments. Several of these proteins appear to be similarly involved in both GLUT4 and CD36 translocation. Others, however, have different roles in either GLUT4 or CD36 translocation. These trafficking components, which are differently involved in GLUT4 or CD36 translocation, may be considered novel targets for the development of therapies to restore the imbalanced substrate utilization that occurs in obesity, insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2011; 68(15):2525-38. · 5.62 Impact Factor