[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid metabolite, generated by cyclooxygenase (COX), is implicated in the colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Inhibiting COX may therefore have anti-carcinogenic effects. Results from use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibiting only COX have been conflicting. It has been postulated that this might result from the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway. Cancer cell viability is promoted by 5-LOX through several mechanisms that are similar to those of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of 5-LOX is upregulated in colorectal adenoma and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to the 5-LOX pathway by cyclooxygenase inhibition and to determine if this process antagonizes the anti-cancer effect in colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Three colorectal cancer cell lines (HCA7, HT-29 & LoVo) expressing 5-LOX and different levels of COX-2 expression were used. The effects of aspirin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) and rofecoxib (COX-2 selective) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion were quantified by ELISA. Proliferation and viability were studied by quantifying double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content and metabolic activity. Apoptosis was determined by annexin V and propidium iodide staining using confocal microscopy, and caspase-3/7 activity by fluorescent substrate assay. RESULTS: COX inhibitors suppressed PGE2 production but enhanced LTB4 secretion in COX-2 expressing cell lines (P <0.001). The level of COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells did not significantly influence the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of COX inhibitors due to the shunting mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of shunting between COX and 5-LOX pathways in the presence of unilateral inhibition, and may explain the conflicting anti-carcinogenic effects reported with use of COX inhibitors.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 09/2012; 10(1):200. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapeutic regimes have been the mainstay of systemic treatment for disseminated colorectal cancer for many years. However, it only produces a 25% response rate due to the drug-resistance. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in the anti-apoptotic process; its activation provides cancer cells with a survival advantage to escape the apoptotic challenge. This study assessed whether the p38 MAPK pathway is involved in 5-FU resistance in colorectal cancer cells. 5-FU only or 5-FU combined with a p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor (SB203580) was used to treat 5-FU-resistant colorectal cancer cells. The effect of the treatment on cell viability, death and caspase activities was assessed. Western blotting was used to investigate the responses of apoptosis-related proteins following the treatment. Results showed that p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly increased colorectal cancer cell sensitivity to 5-FU. SB203580 in combination with 5-FU significantly reduced cell viability (P<0.01), and increased cell death and cellular caspase activity (P<0.01). Western blotting data revealed that SB203580 sensitises cancer cells to 5-FU due to an increase in Bax expression. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in cancer cell survival, and that the inhibition of p38 MAPK can enhance 5-FU to kill colorectal cancer cells.
International Journal of Oncology 03/2011; 38(6):1695-702. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic grafts, namely expanded polytetrafluoroethlene (ePTFE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (Dacron), used for cardiovascular bypass surgery are thrombogenic. Lining the inner lumen ("seeding") of synthetic grafts with endothelial cells (ECs) increases patency rates similar to those of autologous grafts (e.g. saphenous vein). The major drawback with seeding grafts is the retention of cells present on the graft after implantation in vivo, where large portions of cell wash off. Preconditioning the seeded EC monolayer with shear stress has been shown to promote the reorganisation of the EC cytoskeleton and production of extracellular matrix, resulting in higher EC retention after exposure to blood flow. Vascular ECs have a number of essential and complex roles. ECs synthesise and secrete vasoconstrictors, vasodilators, growth factors, fibrinolytic factors, cytokines, adhesion molecules, matrix proteins and mitogens that modulate many physiological processes such as wound healing, hemostasis, vascular remodelling, inflammatory and immune responses. Vascular cells in vivo are exposed to hemodynamic forces created by the pulsatile flow of blood through the vessel. Due to their unique anatomical position, ECs are constantly exposed to shear stress forces and allow the vessel wall to adapt to changes by modulating EC structure and function. This review describes the mainly in vitro and in vivo studies used to define the molecular role hemodynamics have in vascular disease and its usage in developing tissue engineered vascular bypass grafts.
Current Vascular Pharmacology 03/2011; 9(2):167-87. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human peripheral blood (HPB) contains both circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor stem cells (EPCs), which may be suitable for use in regenerative medicine. There has been considerable interest in using these cells, but there is no "gold standard" technique for isolating these cells. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare a number of different extraction and culture techniques to develop a system to isolate and culture cells. EPC and CEC were isolated from HPB using either Histopaque-1077 or Lymphoprep. The two isolation methods were compared for the number of cells isolated, cell metabolism, and RNA expression. Both isolations produced viable cells and were comparable. The tissue culture method employed does have a significant effect on the cell population with regard to medium choice, fetal bovine serum concentration, and surface modification of the culture surface. In conclusion, it can be seen that although this study and previous work can suggest a basis for culture, further work to develop an optimized and agreed "gold standard" culture regime for EPC from HPB is required to maximize the potential of this source of cells for regenerative medicine and to translate its clinical use in the future.
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 01/2011; 58(5):328-34. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering has been conducted in the study of cardiovascular grafts for many years. Many obstacles have been overcome in this rapidly changing field, but one difficulty has remained until now: the large number of endothelial cells (ECs) needed for seeding the inner layer of bypass graft. Recent advances in endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) isolation and culture techniques have increased the interest in genetic studies. Despite these advances in EPC studies, the "gold standard" for the seeding of tissue engineering constructs or hybrid grafts remains mature human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigates the ability of HUVECs to be expanded in culture to provide sufficient cells for graft seeding. The levels of gene expression of key genes are then examined to ensure that these cells retain the EC phenotype. This study demonstrates that HUVECs may be cultured for up to 12 passages without alteration in phenotype. Subsequent passage numbers are sufficiently similar to those preceding them to allow cells of different passages to be mixed without gene expression anomalies.
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 01/2011; 58(5):371-5. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetracyclines have been long known for their antimicrobial role. They are one of the most widely used antibiotics in clinical practice since last 5 decades. Recently their role as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor and in apoptosis has widely attracted attention in biological field. Of them, doxycycline is one with long duration of actions and has recently been shown to have various anti-cancer properties, especially cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities. Here, we systematically reviewed the role of doxycycline in the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in various tissues. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched using a formal search strategy with definite inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction was performed for each included study using a custom designed data extraction form. A total of 81 references were identified through MEDLINE and 5 were identified through EMBASE. 74 references from MEDLINE and all 5 in EMBASE were excluded through reading titles, abstracts and full text. In total, 7 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Following systematic review of these studies, we concluded that doxycycline induces apoptosis through mitochondrial mediated pathway in different tissue cells however it may be cell specific. The caspase independent apoptosis as one of the mechanisms of actions of doxycycline needs further studies for better understanding.
Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 09/2010; 10(7):556-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has an important role in the pathogenesis of many muscle diseases. The major contributors to oxidative stress in muscle tissue are reactive oxygen species such as oxygen ions, free radicals, and peroxides. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase muscle mass and promote muscle cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We, therefore, hypothesized that IGF-I might also be cytoprotective for muscle cells during oxidative stress. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was used to induce oxidative stress/damage in two types of skeletal muscle cells. Apoptotic pathways were assessed after the oxidative damage and the effects of IGF-I on oxidative stress in muscle cells were examined. Different IGF-I sub-pathways were analyzed with measurement of the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins. It was found that H(2)O(2) diminishes muscle cell viability and induces a caspase-independent apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment with IGF-I protects muscle cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and enhances muscle cells survival. This effect appears to result from the promotion of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2. Further investigation shows that protection is via an IGF-I sub-pathway: PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. Protecting muscle cells from oxidative damage presents a potential application in the treatment of the muscle wasting, which appears in many muscle pathologies including Duchenne muscle dystrophy and sarcopenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third most-common cancer and the second most-common cause of cancer related death in UK. Although chemotherapy plays significant role in the treatment of colorectal cancer, morbidity and mortality due to drug resistance and cancer metastasis are yet to be eliminated. Recently, doxycycline has been reported to have cytotoxic and anti-proliferating properties in various cancer cells. In this study, whether doxycycline was apoptosis threshold lowering agent in colorectal cancer cells by targeting mitochondria was answered.
This study showed dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin and doxycycline in HT29 colorectal cancer cells. Doxycycline showed inhibition of cytochrome-c-oxidase activity in these cells over a time-period. The pre-treatment of doxycycline reported statistically significant increased cytotoxicity of cisplatin and oxaliplatin compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin alone. The caspase studies revealed significantly less expression and activity of caspase 3 in HT29 cells pre-treated with doxycycline compared to the cells treated with cisplatin and oxaliplatin alone.
It was concluded that doxycycline lowered the apoptotic threshold in HT 29 cells by targeting mitochondria. This also raised possible caspase-independent mechanisms of apoptosis in HT29 cells when pre-treated with doxycycline however this needs further research work.
Cancer Cell International 01/2010; 10:31. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering of the small intestine remains experimental despite worldwide attempts to develop a functional substitute for short bowel syndrome. Most published studies have reported predominant use of PLLA (poly-L-lactide acid)/PGA (polyglycolic acid) copolymer as the scaffold material, and studies have been limited by in vivo experiments. This lack of progress has inspired a fresh perspective and provoked further investigation and development in this field of tissue engineering. In the present paper, we exploit a relatively new nanocomposite of POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) and PCL [poly(caprolactone-urea)urethane] as a material to develop porous scaffolds using a solvent casting/particulate leaching technique to fabricate porous scaffolds in different pore sizes and porosities. Scaffolds were characterized for pore morphology and porosity using scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography. Rat intestinal epithelial cells were then seeded on to the polymer scaffolds for an in vitro study of cell compatibility and proliferation, which was assessed by Alamar Blue and lactate dehydrogenase assays performed for 21 days post-seeding. The results obtained demonstrate that POSS-PCL nanocomposite was produced as a macroporous scaffold with porosity over the range of 40-80% and pore size over the range of 150-250 microm. This scaffold was shown to support epithelial cell proliferation and growth. In conclusion, as a further step in investigating small intestinal tissue engineering, the nanocomposite employed in this study may prove to be a useful alternative to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) in the future.
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 10/2009; 54(4):221-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the western world. Chemotherapy is often ineffective to treat the advanced colorectal cancers due to the chemo-resistance. A major contributor to chemo-resistance is tumour-derived inhibition or avoidance of apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been known to play a prominent role in colorectal cancer development and progression. The role of IGF-I in cancer cell apoptosis is not completely understood.
Using three colorectal cancer cell lines and one muscle cell line, associations between IGF-I and activities of caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 have been examined; the role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in the caspase activation has been investigated.
The results show that exogenous IGF-I significantly increases activity of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 in all cell lines used; blocking IGF-I receptor reduce IGF-I-induced caspase activation. Further studies demonstrate that IGF-I induced caspase activation does not result in cell death. This is the first report to show that while IGF-I activates caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 it does not cause colorectal cancer cell death.
The study suggests that caspase activation is not synonymous with apoptosis and that activation of caspases may not necessarily induce cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by the partial suppression of apoptosis, which in turn gives tumours a selective advantage for survival and can cause current chemotherapy approaches to be ineffective. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of apoptosis in colorectal carcinogenesis has provided potential new targets for therapy. Here, we review recent studies of the regulation of apoptosis and its role in CRC initiation and progression, and we discuss the relationship between chemoresistance and the suppression of apoptosis. Recent progress in targeting apoptotic pathways and their regulators provide strategies for the exploration of novel therapies for CRC.
Trends in Molecular Medicine 05/2009; 15(5):225-33. · 9.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in the western world. At least 40% of colorectal cancer patients develop
metastases; chemotherapy alone or in combination with radiotherapy is usually used as adjuvant treatment for advanced disease.
Unfortunately adjuvant treatments are often ineffective due to the development of resistance. A major contributor to chemo-resistance
is the inhibition or avoidance of apoptosis. This chapter reviews the genetic mutations in colorectal tumorigenesis; the alterations
of apoptosis in colorectal cancer progression; and the relationship between mutations and apoptotic changes. The factors which
affect and regulate apoptosis in colorectal cancer development are evaluated. The dysfunction in different apoptotic pathways
through which colorectal cancer cells develop resistance to chemotherapies is discussed. Finally the potential molecular targets
and therapeutic strategies designed against these targets are proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, apart from antibacterial properties, doxycycline is reported to have cytotoxic and anti-proliferative actions in various cancers including colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer constitutes one of the most common cancers in the western population. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy plays crucial role in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin are most commonly used platinum compounds for the cancer chemotherapy. This study has looked for any impact of doxycycline on the cytotoxic effects of platinum compounds in colorectal cancer including its mechanisms of actions.
HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were used for this study. These cells were treated with cisplatin and oxaliplatin with or without doxycycline treatment. The caspase 3 gene expression was quantitated by gel electrophoresis and qualitated by real time polymerase chain reactions. The caspase 3 activity was assessed in HT 29 cells with fluorescence kit.
The results revealed increased caspase 3 gene expressions and activities in HT 29 cells treated with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and doxycycline; however the combination of doxycycline with cisplatin and oxaliplatin did not report increased caspase 3 gene expressions and activity compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin alone.
We concluded that doxycycline has role in apoptosis induction in the colorectal cancer. However, it did not show any synergy with platinum compounds in the colorectal cancer cells. This study also pointed towards possible caspase-independent actions of doxycycline with cisplatin and oxaliplatin. However, further work is required to underpin the mechanisms of actions of doxycycline.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/2009; 7:2. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of biocompatible polymers has greatly advanced the field of tissue engineering. Some tissues can be propagated on a nondegradable scaffold. Tissue such as cartilage, however, is a complex tissue in which the chondrocytes require their own synthesized extracellular matrix (ECM) to function. Suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering cartilage should provide mechanical strength and degrade at a similar rate to that of cell growth and ECM production. We have developed a biodegradable nanocomposite based on polycaprolactone and polycarbonate polyurethane (PCU) with an incorporated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) (POSS modified Poly(caprolactone/carbonate) urethane/urea). Previous work on POSS incorporated into PCU (POSS-PCU) has been shown to possess good mechanical strength, elasticity and resistance to degradation. This series of experiments involved exposing this polymer to a selection of accelerated degradative solutions for up to 8 weeks. The samples were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, contact angle analysis, and stress-strain mechanical analysis. Degradation of hard and soft segments of the nanocomposite was evident by infra-red spectroscopy in all conditioned samples. POSS nanocage degradation was evident in some oxidative/peroxidative systems accompanied by gross changes in surface topography and significant changes in mechanical properties. The hydrophobic polymer became more hydrophilic in all conditions. This biodegradable nanocomposite demonstrated steady degradation with protection of mechanical properties when exposed to hydrolytic enzymes and plasma protein fractions and exhibited more dramatic degradation by oxidation.This pattern may be potentially employed in tissue engineering scaffolds where controlled degradation and retained structural stability of the scaffold is required.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 01/2009; 91(3):834-44. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, endothelial cell (EC)-seeded nanocomposite grafts were preconditioned with 1-2 dynes/cm(2) in vitro to establish whether low shear stress resulted in improved cell adherence prior to physiological shear stress (15 dynes/cm(2)). Alamar blue cell viability was assessed. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta-1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), platelet EC adhesion molecule-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). The Alamar blue results demonstrated improved cellular retention following preconditioning (P < 0.001). VEGFR-2 and TGFbeta-1 expression was up-regulated, and VEGFR-1 down-regulated following preconditioning. This investigation confirms previous findings regarding the potential benefits of preconditioning, and demonstrates that these benefits can be applied to ECs seeded on the nanocomposite employed. It also demonstrates further the suitability and potential of nanocomposite for future use in tissue-engineered cardiovascular devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel nanocomposite has recently been developed based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane attached by direct reaction onto a urethane segment, as a potential vascular graft material; its trade name is UCL-Nano. The UCL-Nano has been demonstrated to have similar viscoelastic properties to the walls of a natural artery, to be resistant to degradation and to be able to sustain endothelial cell seeding. Human peripheral blood contains both circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells, which may be suitable for conduit seeding. The aim of this study was to develop a system with the potential to deliver an endothelial cell-seeded bypass graft in a realistic time frame.
Endothelial progenitor cells and circulating endothelial cells were isolated from human peripheral blood and were characterized by fluorescent-activated cell sorting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Isolated cells were seeded on nanocomposite and were maintained in culture for 35 days.
The UCL-Nano was successfully seeded with cells and a confluent cell layer was achieved after 14-day culture. Cells remained viable and confluent on the nanocomposite for 35 days.
In conclusion, these results suggest that this process has potential both for a realistic and achievable two-stage seeding process for vascular bypass grafts and for the potential development of a device, with the aim of achieving in situ seeding once implanted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance of tumour cells to apoptosis is a major contributor to the limited effectiveness of chemotherapies. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has potential to protect cancer cells from variety of apoptotic challenges. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a novel IGF-I receptor antagonist on apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
We have designed and synthesised a novel antagonist of IGF-I receptor. The effect of this antagonist on human colon cancer cell proliferation was examined by a non-radioactive assay; the apoptosis was revealed by determining the activities of cellular caspases3/7, 8 and 9. The apoptosis pathways were investigated by examining the levels of pro-apoptosis proteins with Western blotting. Following 40 hours treatment with the novel antagonist peptide, colon cancer cell Caspase 3/7 activities increased 2-7 times; Caspase 8 activities increased 2-5 times and Caspase 9 increased 1.2-1.6 times. The proliferation of cancer cell was inhibited by 14-15%. The data showed that the antagonist induced colon cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation. The different changes of Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 activities suggested that the extrinsic pathways may play a major role in the antagonist peptide-induced apoptosis.
This is the first report on this novel antagonist to induce human colon cancer cell apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. These results suggest that IGF-I receptor antagonists may have the potential to be developed as a novel therapy for colon cancers in the future.
Molecular Cancer 02/2008; 7:17. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integrin family of cell surface receptors were principally thought to be involved in cell adhesion. Intense study has shown that these glycoproteins also regulate a diverse range of physiological processes. Inappropriate activation of integrins has been implicated in many pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that these molecules play a key role in the early stages of liver metastasis in colorectal cancer. In vivo experiments have demonstrated that integrins are involved in tumour cell targeting, arrest, adhesion and migration within the hepatic microcirculation. Indeed functional blocking of specific integrins has been shown to significantly impair these early stages of metastasis development. This review examines the current knowledge of integrin participation in this area and highlights the future therapeutic implications. Future targeted therapy against specific integrins would allow not only functional blocking but would provide the potential to deliver specific anti-cancer therapy.
Current pharmaceutical design 02/2008; 14(3):296-305. · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Definite evidence of the importance of cancer stem cells in the progression of cancer has now come to light. Key markers of these cells have been identified in many solid tumours as well as leukaemias. Specific studies modelling the tumour induction of specific cells isolated by surface antigens such as CD44 have demonstrated that these cells are not only present in tumours but that they are the key units in their tumourgenecity. These findings provide useful insight for disease progression, treatment and metastasis. The wide variety of proposed markers, and their similarity to endothelial progenitor cells found in angiogenesis, complicates these studies. Definite proof falls only in the induction of tumours in vivo. Here we review the developments in cancer stem cells and the markers that have been found for these cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I induces proliferation of transformed cells. Its binding proteins (IGFBP) are involved in local regulation of IGF. This study assessed the effects of overexpression of IGFBP-4 on the development of cancer in vivo.
Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with HT-29 colorectal cancer cells (3 x 10(6)). When the tumour became visible (1 week after inoculation), animals received either 150 microg of mammalian expression vector containing IGFBP-4 cDNA or vector alone (n = 6 each) by peritumoural injection. Tumour size was measured during the growth. After 3 weeks of IGFBP-4 induction, animals were killed and tumour tissue samples were collected for examining the level of IGFBP-4 expression. Tumour mitotic activities were determined by counting numbers of mitotic cells on the tissue section. Apoptosis was investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP nick end labelling assay.
Following IGFBP-4 treatment, tumour showed large necrotic areas, significantly increased numbers of apoptotic cells (36.67 +/- 7.36 vs 7.07 +/- 1.91, P < 0.01 vs control), decreased cells undergoing mitosis (2.31 +/- 0.32 vs 3.61 +/- 0.27, P < 0.01 vs control) and higher expression of IGFBP-4 (P < 0.05 vs control).
IGFBP-4 gene transfer increased apoptosis and decreased mitosis, but tumour volume was not significantly altered possibly due to cellular debris filling the centre of tumours.