[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insect cell lines have been widely used in recombinant baculovirus expression systems and transient gene expression studies. Critical to these applications have been the transfection of foreign DNA. This has been frequently done using labor intensive and cytotoxic liposome-based transfection reagents. In the current study we have optimized a new kind of polyethylenimine-based DNA transfection reagent on the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line. A plasmid vector that transiently expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) was effectively delivered into Sf9 cells. A transfection efficiency of 54% and cell viability of 85-90% were obtained for Sf9 cells. The developed transfection protocol has now been successfully used to transfect eight insect cell lines derived from Bombyx mori, Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis virescens and S. frugiperda with GFP and GUS with transfection efficiencies of at least 45%. This method provides high heterologous protein expression levels, transfection efficacy and cell viability, and could be used for transient gene expression in other lepidopteran cell lines. (Note: Exgen 500 PEI reagent is no longer available, Polyplus Fectofly is a comparable reagent that works with similar efficiency to Exgen500 on insect cells)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent brighteners significantly lower the LC50 and LT50 in a variety of nucleopolyhedrovirus-insect host systems. In larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a European NPV strain of virus (LdMNPV) does not normally replicate in the midgut, but addition of a fluorescent brightener (Calcofluor M2R) to the virus suspension results in productive infections. In the current study, we show that LdMNPV also does not replicate in a larval midgut primary cell culture system unless a fluorescent brightener (Blankophor P167) is added. Morphological and cellular changes characteristic of apoptotic cell death were noted in infected midgut cells in vitro. We used the TUNEL assay to measure apoptosis in virus-challenged midgut cell cultures at 24-48 h post-inoculation. A significant decrease in apoptotic midgut cells was noted in the presence of 0.01 M brightener. The inhibition of apoptosis and presumptive inhibition of shedding of infected midgut cells in the presence of fluorescent brightener in the insect midgut appeared to promote virus replication and are likely to be partly responsible for enhancement of LdMNPV activity that is observed in gypsy moth larvae.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of 12 unique lepidopteran insect cell lines from Anticarsia gemmatalis, Heliothis virescens, Lymantria dispar (two lines), Mamestra brassica, Plutella xylostella, Spodoptera frugiperda (two lines), and Trichoplusia ni (three lines) to support production of a recombinant polydnavirus (PDV) protein (GiPDV 1.1) expressed using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was examined. Polydnavirus gene GiPDV 1.1 was cloned into the pFastBac baculovirus vector under the control of the polyhedron promoter, followed by generation of recombinant bacmid-GiPDV 1.1 by site-specific transposition. The ability of each insect cell line to support recombinant PDV gene expression was estimated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Each insect cell line infected with recombinant bacmid-GiPDV 1.1 and tested in this study was capable of supporting and producing recombinant protein. Time course expression analysis showed that 72-96 h after transfection to be the optimal time for harvest of recombinant protein for each insect cell line.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term persistence of polydnavirus (PDV) DNA in infected lepidopteran cell cultures has suggested that at least some of the virus sequences become integrated permanently into the cell genome. In the current study, we provide supportive evidence of this event. Cloned libraries were prepared from two different Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) cell lines that had been maintained in continuous culture for more than five years after infection with Glyptapanteles indiensis PDV (GiPDV). Junction clones containing both insect chromosomal and polydnaviral sequences were isolated. Precise integration junction sites were identified by sequence comparison of linear (integrated) and circular forms of the GiPDV genome segment F, from which viral sequences originated. Host chromosomal sequences at the site of integration varied between the two L. dispar cell lines but virus sequence junctions were identical and contained a 4-base pair CATG palindromic repeat. The GiPDV segment F does not encode any self-replication or self-insertion proteins, suggesting a host-derived mechanism is responsible for its in vitro integration. The chromosomal site of one junction clone contained sequences indicative of a new L. dispar retrotransposon, including a putative reverse transcriptase and integrase located upstream of the site of viral integration. A potential mechanism is proposed for the integration of PDV DNA in vitro. It remains to be seen if integration of the virus also occurs in the lepidopteran host in vivo.
Journal of Insect Physiology 06/2003; 49(5):453-62. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of insect cell culture is demonstrated by reports of over 500 established cell lines. While established procedures that can be used for developing new cell lines exist, these usually require some fine-tuning for various tissue sources. This paper attempts to depict some of the variations that can be applied.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three insect cell lines were tested for susceptibility to baculovirus infection by use of a typical endpoint assay procedure. Cell lines from Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-Sf21AE), Lymantria dispar (IPLB-LdEIta), and Heliothis virescens (IPLB-HvE6s) in 96-well tissue culture plates were each infected with dilutions of extra cellular virus suspensions of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). In addition, the L. dispar and H. virescens cells were also infected with L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Helicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus, respectively. Each cell/virus combination was incubated at three temperatures: 22, 27 and 32 degrees C and wells were scored for positive infection (presence of occlusion bodies in cell nuclei) at 2 to 4 day intervals for up to 4 weeks. The resulting data were analyzed by the Spearman-Kärber method, providing virus titers for each combination of virus, cell line, and temperature. The results were categorized by accuracy (assuming the highest titer achieved was the most accurate) and by rapidity of maximum titer. AcMNPV reached the highest titer in each line at 22 degrees C although equivalent titers were reached with both AcMNPV and HzSNPV in the HvE6a line at all three temperatures. This line actually reported about 100-fold less AcMNPV than the other two lines with the same virus sample. Alternatively, the Sf21AE and LdEIta lines reached 10-fold higher titers at the lowest temperature as compared with the higher temperatures, although also at a slower rate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two insect cell lines that had been maintained in both serum-free (SFM) and serum-containing (SCM) media for over 5 years were each tested for their ability to replicate baculovirus. The gypsy moth cell line, IPLB-LdEIta (Ld), produced similar (not statistically different) amounts of gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) occlusion bodies (OBs) in the two media (serum-free Ex-Cell 400 and TC-100 with 9% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, SCM(1)) but produced more of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) OBs in SFM than in SCM(1). When Ld cells normally grown in SCM(1) were switched to SFM, production of OBs from both viruses improved and, after three passages, reached higher levels of AcMNPV production than in cells normally maintained in that medium. Alternatively, cells switched from SFM to SCM(1) initially produced as much (in the case of LdMNPV) or higher (in the case of AcMNPV) levels of virus OBs than cells normally maintained in SCM(1) but productivity dropped off over subsequent passages such that after five passages in SCM(1), cells produced substantially fewer OBs of both viruses. A fall armyworm cell line (IPLB-SF21AE; Sf) showed slightly different effects from long- and short-term passage in SFM (Ex-Cell 400) or SCM(2) (TMN-FH). Cells maintained in SFM produced about 20 times more AcMNPV OBs than cells maintained long-term in SCM. Sf cells switched from SFM to SCM maintained the level of production of that seen in SFM at the first passage, but quickly dropped off OB production levels to that normally seen in SCM. Alternatively, SCM-maintained Sf cells produced higher levels at the first passage in SFM and, within five passages in SFM, reached levels found in cells maintained for long term in this medium. Under the conditions in which these two cell lines were infected, the highest levels of AcMNPV OB production in Ld cells were about five times that of Sf cells. In a separate series of experiments, cells normally grown in SFM were passaged over five times in Ex-Cell 400 to which serum was added; both cell lines produced as much virus as that in SFM. These results suggest that it is not the serum per se but rather some other components which differ between the SFM and the SCM formulations that are responsible for the varied virus production obtained in these studies. The results of these studies suggest that a maintenance and virus production protocol can be developed with Ld cells which could improve overall efficiency of virus production. These studies also suggest that long-term maintenance of cells in SFM was not detrimental to their ability to produce baculoviruses.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 11/2000; 76(3):164-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gonad-specific virus (GSV) is a DNA virus infecting the reproductive tracts of adults of both sexes of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, causing severe tissue deformities leading to sterility. Atypical occlusion bodies containing large concentrations of virions embedded in a granular matrix were seen in the lumen of the oviduct and the bursa copulatrix of infected females. The virus, transmitted by both sexes, was successfully propagated in vivo and in tissue culture. The GSV genome is about 225 kb in size, with no apparent similarity to the nucleopolyhedrovirus type species, AcMNPV, genomic DNA, as determined by Southern hybridization. PCR amplification of GSV genomic DNA with primers derived from the highly conserved polyhedra gene of several baculoviruses indicated no similarity. GSV at 10(-2) female equivalents (based on virus obtained from the bursa copulatrix and oviducts of one infected female) injected into a newly emerged female and mated to a normal male resulted in >95% agonadal progeny. However, at lower doses, some of the adult progeny looked normal but apparently carried a low level of the virus that could be responsible for sustenance of infection in a given colony, as well as in nature.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 08/2000; 76(1):6-12. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lepidopteran cell lines derived from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, have not been widely used in protein expression studies or systems because they are weakly adherent, have specific growth requirements and characteristics, and are generally difficult to transfect. Using lipid-mediated transfection of a reporter plasmid, we modify the standard method for transfection of L. dispar-derived embryonic cell lines IPLB-LdEp and -LdEIta, obtaining transfection efficiencies of 34% and 30%, respectively, as determined by image analysis assays. Using the standard lipid-mediated method, we obtain transfection efficiencies for L. dispar-derived cell line IPLB-Ld652Y of at least 40% with high mean expression levels, indicating the IPLB-Ld652Y cell line may be a superior choice for expression studies or systems requiring L. dispar-derived cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gypsy moth cell line, IPLB-LdEIta, maintained under various conditions was tested for susceptibility to and productivity of two baculoviruses, the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). The results suggest that cells maintained in serum-containing medium (modified TC100) were more susceptible (on the basis of titers in an endpoint assay) to LdMNPV than cells maintained in a serum-free medium (ExCell 400). Such a difference was not apparent with AcMNPV. Similarly, little difference existed in the proportion of cells containing occlusion bodies (OBs) a wk after inoculation with AcMNPV (i.e., the percent infected) in any LdEIta strains, although one combination of cells and medium (cells maintained in ExCell 400 but infected in TC100) showed a lower percent infection with LdMNPV. Even though the percentage of cells infected varied little, the number of OBs produced varied by 3 logs with AcMNPV and 11/2 logs with LdMNPV. In each case, cells normally grown in ExCell 400 and infected in the same medium produced the lowest number of OBs. However, productivity was improved when cells normally grown in ExCell 400 were infected in TC100. Even more interesting was that cells normally grown in TC100 produced more AcMNPV OBs when infected in ExCell 400 medium. This suggests that changing culture medium (regardless of the normal maintenance medium) can stimulate virus production. In addition to examining virus productivity in LdEIta cells in both serum-containing and serum-free media, I also tested a strain maintained at low temperature (17 degrees C) for over a yr. This maintenance protocol was not detrimental for LdMNPV productivity and was slightly stimulatory for production of AcMNPV.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently investigators showed that polydnavirus DNA from the parasitic wasp Glyptapanteles indiensis could transform gypsy moth L. dispar cell lines in vitro (McKelvey et al., 1996). Here we show GiPDV DNA is capable of transforming in vitro to varying degrees lepidopteran (IPLB-TN-R2, IPLB-SF-21, IAL-PID2, IPLB-HvT1) and coleopteran (IPLB-DU182E) insect cell lines derived from various somatic tissue types. An insect cell line derived from dipteran Aedes albopictus (C7/10) could not be transformed with G. indiensis polydnavirus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insect cells have been successfully cultured in vitro as continuous cell lines for over 35 years. The media, culture methodology and conditions have been well resolved such that, for many insects, new cells lines can be routinely developed. Factors that are considered important for developing insect cell cultures are described as well as some of the history that led to the success. One of the major rationales for developing insect cell lines was for the study of insect viruses. This was particularly true for species of Lepidoptera from which over 900 viruses have been reported. Since many species of Lepidoptera are serious agricultural and forestry pests, effects have been made to utilize some of these pathogens as biological pesticides. Cell cultures are important in this endeavor since viruses require a living cell to reproduce. Of the known insect viruses, the most intensely studied have been the baculoviruses. In addition to their potential for controlling insect pests, they also have been used as expression vectors for producing recombinant proteins. Details of some of these experiments are described. Finally, experiences with insect cells are considered in relation to efforts to develop prawn cell cultures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glyptapanteles indiensis, a species of braconid parasitic wasp, infects its host Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) with a polydnavirus (GiPDV) to suppress the host immune system during parasitization. Here it is shown that GiPDV can infect L. dispar cell lines and that a portion of the GiPDV genome is stably maintained in infected cells. Results of Southern hybridization analyses suggested that this portion of the GiPDV genome is integrated into the L. dispar cellular genome. This is the first report of an insect viral DNA molecule that can apparently integrate into lepidopteran insect cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1996; 225(3):764-70. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clonal isolates of the Abington strain of the Lymantria dispar multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) were selected by plaque purification. After an initial screening for productivity of 35 clones in a continuous gypsy moth cell line (IPLB-LdFB), 17 clones were selected for further evaluation in vivo and in vitro. An eighteenth clone, LdMNPV-Ab-a624, was also included in these experiments as our "type" isolate. Based on these tests, extensive variability can be seen in the Abington isolate of the gypsy moth virus. While relatively little in vitro productivity differences were observed between the clones, two clones showed no activity in a larval bioassay while the mean lethal concentration for 50% of the test insect (LC50's) for the other clones ranged from 2.2 × 104 to greater than 6.5 × 105 occlusion bodies per diet cup, with the a624 clone having a LC50 of 1.2 × 105. The LT50's (time for half the larvae to die) varied from 9.8 to 18.7 days in these clones with a624 having a LT50 of 13.5 days. While certain advantages exist for the use of clones in biopesticide production schemes, the results of this study indicate careful screening of isolates should be made to ensure an acceptable product.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 09/1993; 62(2):191–195. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An economical and time-efficient method for titering the Autographa californica multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) by the endpoint method is described. The method uses an electronic pipetting device to perform dilutions in the same 60-well microplate as is used for the assay, thus eliminating the need for test tubes or vials for making dilutions. Additionally, since small volumes are used for the dilutions, a substantial savings in medium is achieved. The effect of using three different lepidopteran cell lines in this assay for AcMNPV is also described. This test revealed that one line (the Trichoplusia ni IPLB-TN-R2 line) is at least 1.5 logs more sensitive to AcMNPV when using occlusion body formation as the measure of infection. The titer was about 6- to 12-fold higher in the IPLB-TN-R2 cell line than the other two lines when plaque assay procedures were used. The titer of a recombinant baculovirus with a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene was also measured in the three cell lines using X-gal as an indicator and showed the IPLB-TN-R2 line to be fourfold more sensitive to this virus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a computer program that is based on Karber's approximation of endpoint titers, written in GW-BASIC and provides an easy means for analyzing the results of dilution endpoint assays. The program provides estimates of standard error that are not possible from other statistical procedures for this type of data.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aberrant replication of the Autographa californica multiple-enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) in the Lymantria dispar cell line IPLB-Ld652Y was used as a model system for the investigation of factors regulating baculovirus host specificity. A previous study of this system indicates that viral gene expression in infected cells is extremely attenuated and subsequently all cellular and viral protein synthesis is inhibited. In the present study, infection of IPLB-Ld652Y cells with AcMNPV photochemically inactivated in situ resulted in a rapid reduction in cell mitotic indices and cell growth, as well as inducing a series of distinct morphological changes in these cells. At the molecular level, infection with inactivated virus, followed by pulse labelling with [3H]thymidine, resulted in a rapid [0 to 2 h post-infection (p.i.)] and permanent inhibition of host cellular DNA synthesis. Assays of cellular DNA polymerases in isolated IPLB-Ld652Y nuclei confirmed the reduction in cellular DNA synthesis observed in intact cells and indicated an initial (0 to 2 h p.i.) reduction in the activity of aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases. Activity of all cellular DNA polymerases was inhibited at later times p.i. Host cell protein synthesis was completely inhibited after 48 h p.i. Treatment of inactivated virus and virus-infected cells with various chemical and physical factors (i.e. pH and temperature) or lysosomotropic agents revealed that virus entry into cells and fusion of endocytic vesicles (containing virus) with lysosomes were essential for suppression of cellular macromolecular synthesis. The possible involvement of structural components of the AcMNPV virion in these effects is discussed.
Journal of General Virology 06/1991; 72 ( Pt 5):1021-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen different insect cell lines representing three different orders were infected with Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) whose genome had been inactivated in situ by photochemical means or by short wave UV irradiation. Changes in rates of cellular DNA synthesis, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell growth were subsequently measured at various times post infection. Seven cell lines exhibited a significant decline in [3H]thymidine incorporation (compared to control levels) during an initial 12 h period post infection, while three cell lines showed substantial declines in [3H]thymidine incorporation over a 4 day period post infection. All cell lines which showed a significant decline in [3H]thymidine over the duration of the experiment (4 days) also exhibited reduced cell growth rates. The role of a putative AcMNPV virion associated factor(s) in influencing these cellular events is discussed.
Archives of Virology 02/1991; 121(1-4):75-88. · 2.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the replication of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) nuclear polyhedrosis virus in two new cell lines, from embryos and fat body of L. dispar, and in a previously available ovarian cell line. Three virus isolates (the Hamden strain [LDP-67] used commercially as GYPCHEK, a plaque-purified clone of Hamden [5-7d], and an isolate from Abington, Mass. [Ab]) were each tested on the three cell lines. The fat-body-derived cell line proved best in terms of occlusion body production for all three virus strains, with the highest yield produced by the Abington strain. On the basis of these results, we conclude that a more efficient in vitro production of gypsy moth virus can be obtained by using the fat body cell line in conjunction with the Abington strain of the virus.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/1989; 55(5):1049-51. · 3.68 Impact Factor